Week 1- Chapter 1,2,3 Overview
Week 1- Chapter 1,2,3 Overview OGL 300
Popular in Theory Practice of Leaership
Popular in Humanities and Social Sciences
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivy Bedard on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OGL 300 at Arizona State University taught by Wells in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see Theory Practice of Leaership in Humanities and Social Sciences at Arizona State University.
Reviews for Week 1- Chapter 1,2,3 Overview
I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/19/15
OG L 300 Theory Practice of Leadership 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Some researchers conceptualize leadership as a behaviorwhereas others view leadership from an information processing perspective or relational standpoint p 1 Leadership is studied in qualitative and quantitive methods A Leadership Defined There is no specific meaning of leadership It means something different to everyone B The Evolution of Leadership Definitions Rots 1991 found more than 200 different definitions on leadership between the 1900 s1990 19001929 ability to impress the will of the leader on those led and induce obedience respect loyalty and cooperation Moore 1927 p124 p2 193039S Traits became the focus of defining leadership p3 194039S group approach leadership by coercion 195039S 3 aspects Continuance of group theory leadership as a relationship that develops shared goals and effectiveness 1 9 6 0 39 Sleadership as behavior 197039S initiating and maintaining groups or organizations to accomplish group or organizational goals p3 198039S Themes Do as the leader wishes In uence Traits and Transformation 2 lst century approaches authentic leadership spiritual leadership servant leadership and adaptive leadership Because of growing global in uence and generational differences leadership will always carry a different meaning CWays of Conceptualizing Leadership focus of group process personality perspective act or behavior power relationship transformational process skills perspective D Definitions and Components central to the various descriptions of leadership Leadership is a process whereby an individual in uences a group of individual to achieve a common goal p6 Leadership involves in uence Leadership occurs in groups Leadership includes attention to common goals 11 Leadership Described A Trait Versus Process Leadership trait perspective of leadership is the idea that people have regarding people who were born to be leaders the trait viewpoint conceptualizes leadership as a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different peopleJago1982 p8 B Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership leadership that is based on occupying a position in an organization is assigned leadership p8 when others perceive an individual as the most in uential member of a group or an organization regardless of the individual s title the person is exhibiting emergent leadership p8 personality plays a role in leadership Social identity Theory C Six Bases of Power p10 Referent power Expert power Legitimate power Reward power Coercive power Information power D Leadership and Power in uence process Position power includes Legitimate Reward Coercive and Information Personal power includes Referent and Expert E Leadership and Coercion example of coercive leaders who manipulate people into doing things they wouldn t do otherwise are Adolf Hitler in Germany Taliban leaders in Afghanistan Jim Jones in Guyana and North Korea s Supreme Leader Kim J ongill p12 F Leadership and Management the study of leadership can be traced back to Aristotle the study go management merged around the 20th certify p 13 To be effective organizations need to nourish both competent management and skilled leadership p 13 G Functions do Management and Leadership Management Produces Order and Consistency Planning and Budgeting Organizing and Staffing and Controlling and Problem Solvingp 14 Leadership Produces Change and Movement Establishing Direction Aligning people and Motivating and Inspiring p14 To manage means to accomplish activities and master routines whereas or lead means to in uence others and create visions for change p14 Chapter 2 Trait Approach II Description born traits born to be a leader perception Stogdill came to the inclusion that you cannot become a leader based on traits p20 Stogdill s discovered traits associated with leadership p21 leaders were found to be strong in intelligence masculinity adjustment dominance extraversion and conservatism p21 Studies of Leadership Trait and Characteristics p22 Researchers Stogdill 1948 Mann1959 Stogdill 1974 Lord devoured and Alliger1986 Kirkpatrick and Locke1991 Zachary Kemp and Bader2004 p22 Major Leadership Traits Intelligence SelfConfidence Determination Integrity and Sociability p23 Intelligence strong verbal ability perceptual ability and reasoning example of this type of leader Steve Jobs SelfConfidence to be certain about your skills and abilities example Steve Jobs Determination the desire to get the job complete characteristics such as initiative persistence dominance and drive example of this leader Dr Pual Farmer Integrity quality of honesty and trustworthiness leaders with integrity inspire others because they can be trusted Character Counts program Sociability inclination to seek our pleasant social relationships leaders with this are usually friendly outgoing courteous tactful and diplomatic p26 example of this leader Michael Hughes a University President FiveFactor Personality Model and Leadership Big Five Personality Factors Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness and Conscientiousness p27 extraversion was the factor most strongly associated with leadership agreeableness found to be the weakest Emotional Intelligence emerged in the 1990s emotions affective domain and thinking cognitive domainp28 MSCEIT measures emotional intelligence How Does the Trait Approach Work more straightforward than other approaches what traits are exhibited and who possesses them used for personal awarness and development Strengths leaders are different and their differences make them great leaders century worth of research the trait approach highlights the leader component D Criticisms III IV certain traits make leaders successful and some do not it is difficult to pinpoint which leadership traits will make a successful leader based on the situation people s views on what makes a great leader are diverse this makes it hard to determine which traits would make the leader successful because what you may consider would be helpful to a leader could be different in someone else s eyes Application people can pinpoint their own strengths and weaknesses in leadership Case Studies Choosing the New Director of Research Sandra must make a decision on the new director of research Alexa hard working brought four new products lines and follows through with her projects Kelsey intelligent personable sociable two new product lines to the market Thomas been with company for 10 years helped establish vision honest and hold high integrity Three new product lines A Remarkable Turnaround Carol wants to run her late husbands company experience informal discussions with her husband about their business began to familiarize herself with the company her employees and the consumer demand developed long and short term goals for the company spent significant money in advertising sales and services hired 20 new people Carol was diagnosed with breast cancer but her company continued to be a success interviews revealed that Carol as a leader was caring towards others considerate and fair low employee turnover strength goodness and quality Recruiting For the Bank Pat Nelson must visit college campuses and interview graduating seniors for credit analyst positions Pat feels the pressure of finding potential new hires who will stay due to the 25 turnover rate Pat looks for various characteristics in his potential new hires Leadership Instrument standard trait measures Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MyersBriggs Type Indicator Leadership Trait Questionnaire p38 Chapter 3 Skills Approach Description can be learned and developed guru II III knowledge and abilities are needed for effective leadership p43 ThreeSkill Approach skills are what leaders can accomplish whereas traits are who leaders are p44 Technical Skill knowledge of proficiency in a specific type of work essential in production for companies Human Skill working with others effectively Leaders with human skills adapt their own ideas to those of others p45 Conceptual Skills the ability to work with ideas and concepts works easily with abstractions and hypothetical notions central to creating a vision and strategic plan for an organization Management Skills Necessary at Various Levels of an Organization p46 Summary of the ThreeSkill Approach technical human and conceptual skills Skills Model began in the early 1990s funded by the US Army and Department of Defense capability model The skills approach frames leadership as the capabilities that make effective leadership possible p47 group has five components competencies individual attributes leadership outcomes career experiences and environmental in uences Competencies Problem solving skills social judgement skills and knowledge Problem Solving Skills leaders need to understand their capabilities in order to be effective solutions SocialJudgment Skills work with others similar to Katz s1955 early work on the role of human skills in management perspective taking meaning understanding what your employees may be thinking or perceiving social intelligence social perceptiveness social performance Knowledge the application and implementation of problemsolving skills in organizations Schema experts knowledge about the company products and employees helps identify possible strategies and plans Individual Attributes General Cognitive Ability IV perceptual processing information processing general reasoning skills creative and divergent thinking capacities and memory skills Crystallized Cognitive Ability intellectual ability that is learned or acquired over time Motivation leader must be willing to fix complex organizational problems lead express dominance and must be committed to social good or organization Personality helps leaders cope with complex organizational situations Leadership Outcomes strongly in uences by leadership s competencies Effective Problem Solving capability model determined by the originality and the quality of expressed solutions to problems solutions that are logical effective and unique and that go beyond given information Performance how well they have done their job standard external criteria are used Career Experiences certain onthejob assignments could enhance a leader s motivation or intellectual abilityp54 development Environmental In uences internal and external Intemal environmental in uences can include technology facility expertise of subordinates and communiation p55 External environmental in uences including economic political and social issues as well as natural disasters can provide unique challenges to leaders p55 How does the Skills Approach work Katz threeskill approach the skills approach works as a map on how to reach effectiveness in leadership Strengths leadership centered model focuses on skills appealing allows for a larger picture of leadership with multiple components teaches with a traditional view used world wide that includes problem solving con ict resolution listening and team work B Criticisms Addresses more than just leadership weak in predictive value individual attributes component of the skills model is trait driven doesn t explain how skills lead effective leadership performance p59 was used for military so the question presents itself can it work in an organizational setting C Application VI VII hasn t been used in applied leadership settings helps us understand our strengths and weaknesses could be used in the future for extensive leadership development Case Studies A strained Research Teams Adam Wood investigator on a health education program for older populations Elder Care project the team had under budgeted the program members aren t devoting their time to the project team members feel they have spent more time than anticipated on the project and have received less pay than expected Adam finds more money to continue funding their research team members aren t thrilled because they believe he will take most of the credit A shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams Lt Col John Adams aeronautical engineer rose high in company moved him to travel and become an administrator officer responsible for personal issues food services recreation family support and medical services assigned chair of LaborManagement Committee as the base was closing he had to assure everyone would still be trying just as hard to accomplish its goals Adam had to cutback certain sections on the base federal government decided to take all requests for early retirement This left certain sections short on personnel base having a hard time meeting its mission Andy s Recipe Andy Garafallo owns an Italian restaurant thats sits in the middle of a cornfield near a large city restaurant celebrating 25th anniversary owner connects with its customers and offers quality food 3 managers Andy prepares his staff to be the best of the best in the business industry You get business by being what you should be Andy 30 profit yearly Andy isn t concerned on how to cut costs or make more money he focuses on the customer s experience and the connection he has with his employees and customer This makes him successful Leadership Instrument questionnaires he1ps us assess leadership Ski11s inventory how leadership skills are measured and What your own may consist of p67 Reference LeadershipTheory and Practice Seventh Edition by Peter G Northouse