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by: Khalil Wilkinson


Khalil Wilkinson
GPA 3.81


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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Khalil Wilkinson on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST102 at Ohio University taught by DouglasBaxter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/224401/hist102-ohio-university in History at Ohio University.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
Lecture 3 French Absolutism ABSOLUTISM lConcentration of political decision making in hands of king amp his ministers El Ideology of DiVine rigl1t of kings El Few theoretical or institutional checks on his authority Bishop Bossuet amp Divine Right Ideology See Beik pp 168 70 lRoyal authority is sacred lRoyal authority is paternal amp good lRoyal authority is absolute lRoyal authority acts rationally Louis XIV s Inheritance Cardinals Richelieu amp Mazarin s Governmental Revolution angered the elites El Aggressive Foreign Policy amp Fiscal Needs of War Thirty Years War lIncreased Taxes I Venaity Sale of Of ce lBypassing of traditional scal amp judicial of cials by state of cers intendants of justice police and nance lIgnoring of AntiGov t Opposition great nobles and traditional of ceholders taX of cials amp judges lResult revolt El Gov t crushing Revolt of the FRONDE 16481652 last great revolt before French Rev Political Lesson of Fronde lFrance needed strong government from above EIStrong statement of royal authority EISubordination of all government agencies to the king s will EIYet danger in alienating elite EIStrong political skills to manage the elite EIPact between crown amp the elites Louis XIV s other Education El Me39tz39er du roi pride in kingcraft El Gloire accomplishment El Self control self El Order others EI Majesty royal presence dignity amp splendor Government in action lCentralization lRoyal chain of authority lNo prime minister lPlay off rival ministerial families lPermanent intendants in provinces lManagement of High Judicial Coults 1Parlements lCooperation with local authority Intendants Information gatherers Colbert s instructions of 1663 Beik pp 85 90 uIntendants to send maps of provinces uChurch info bishops parishes abbeys convents revenues uGovemors family ties residence conduct reputation uNobility principal families connections wealth behavior in army tenant farmers uParlements or other courts conduct during Regency chief members talents Revenues of crown lands taX gures for direct amp indirect taxes uSituation of province inhabitants skills agriculture trade manufacturing uInspection of navigable rivers amp canals bridges amp roads uHorse Breeding farms Intendants jurisdiction oAgriculture oManufacturing oRoads amp bridges oCommerce amp markets oSanitary conditions oPolice oPublic order oRecruitment of troops oArsenals amp supply depots oCity administration oLiaison with judicial courts Relationship with old elite sword aristocracy lroyal glorification of rank pecking order lpatronage gifts pensions careers I great nobles role as power brokers lSpecial courts for lawless nobles See Beik s Section on Grand Days of Auvergne pp 10820 Relationship to newer robe nobility 16 17 h century cooperate amp work with l Robe ennobled officeholders lDisadvantage Independenceivested interests of officers lAdvantages educated crown agents amp financial payback to crown lLouis s conservatism lLouis s solution statement of his authority but avoid extreme confrontation where possible work with officials Versailles lshowcase of monarchy lcourt ceremonial emphasis on rank nobles relationship to king laccess to the king lresidence at court for elite few lcourtiers struggle for favor EICrown source of patronage EIPower brokers role lHeavy cost for monarch personal amp nancial Representations of royal power OPower symbolism ORituals amp ceremonies to glorify monarch OCourt spectaculars balls reworks theater feasts Political Purpose OTo add to king s glory reputation OTo add to his power impress OAudience oElites oForeigners oPosterity Reception by public oForeigners oVisits to Versailles oDiplomatic reports oImitation by other princes oFrench public oDistribution of medals oErecting Statues oState Visits oVersailles oEntertainment at royal events Victories marriages births Managing the Royal Image lSubsidization of artists to promote royal image lFounding of royal societies of art architecture lTriumph of French cultural style in the arts Royal media themes oInVincible oGodlike qualities oPerfect prince oHero oconquering manly enlightened generous just pious triumphant and wise Economic Management lJean Baptiste Colbert economic minister MERCANTILISM active gov t involvement in economy to gain wealth favorable balance of trade amp bullion lhigh protective tariffs to favor local industry lcolonies for raw materials lpowerful French navy lencouragement of new industries amp export of goods lgov t regulation lrelation to crisis mentality Religion The French Catholic Church lRich organized amp privileged body lNo separation between church amp state EIRoyal control of appointments Elbishops served king lBut also powerful church hierarchy Religious Uniformity lQuarrels with the pope over autonomy of French church lDoctrinal conformity Jansenism a sect of Catholicism lProblem of minority Protestants Huguenots Gallicanism vs papal power I Gallicanism EIFrench Church governed itself EIControl by the king EIPope had spiritual authority not political authority in France lBitter quarrels with pope over royal control of church money amp administration Jansenism lValues religious hardliners ElStressed sinfulness of humans ElDifficulty in gaining salvation ElNeed to live ascetic lifestyle ElNeed for God s grace lQuarrel with Jesuits one of most powerful groups in Church favored by Crown lMany Jansenists were Frondeurs Protestantism background 163911 Century Civil Religious wars 1559 1598 EIblOOdy war between Prot amp Catholics Elweakened gov t authority EIProtestants a distinct minority 5 lEdict of Nantes 1598 guaranteed Protestants right of limited public worship and protection of civil rights Huguenot problem lMaj ority of French population wanted to end heresy lHuguenots have few supporters at court lCrown first places more restrictions on Huguenots then persecution booted missionaries dragonnades by quartering troops lRevocation of Edict of Nantes 1688 outlawed Protestantism Revocation meant lNo exercise of the Protestant faith permitted lAll Protestant clergy to convert or leave France lIn future only Catholic baptisms marriages and burials Response of Huguenots lWent underground arrested if caught lFled abroad ight of valuable skills lGuerilla uprising in the Pyrenees lEuropean Protestant attack on Louis XIV s image Assessment of Louis XIV s absolutism lPowerful amp talented monarch with few institutional fetters on authority lImage must be obeyed lMore compleX reality ElCentralized administration ElWorked with elites ElCarefully maintained relationships with local authorities ElNoble dependence upon crown for patronage amp protection of interests elite privileges but also gave them access to power of state End of Presentation Lecture 2 English Constitutionalism Compariosn of 17th Cent Absolutism vs Constitutionalism oEngland oLong standing representative assembly Parliament oGov t shared by crown and Parliament oElites dominate Parliament House of Lords amp Commons oDecentralized administration oReligious diversity Protestants amp eventual toleration oLess capable kings olsolationism from European continent oFrance oNo national true representative assembly Estates General oGov t controlled by crown oYet complex set of relationship of crown with local authorities oNoble dependence upon crown for patronage amp protection of interests elite privileges oCentralized administration oReligious uniformity Catholicism amp persecution oSeries of able kings oAggressive foreign policy England Background to 1660 English Civil War 1642 1649 Issues oSupremacy of monarchy or Parliament oAlienation of elites ruling classes uTaxation who to have ultimate power uReligion Church of England or Puritan English Liberties rights of Englishmen Oliver Cromwell Parliament amp Puritans Victors in Civil War OLord Protector Oliver Cromwell 1649 1660 amp the Commonwealth republic oCromwell s abolishment of Parliament oHeavy taxation to support army amp aggressive foreign policy oNo established succession or system of gov t oElites fear of social revolution radicals oUnpopularity of Puritan rule disapproval of theater sports music King Charles II 166085 amp the Restoration Recurrent problems 1 Who ultimately controls government crown or parliament 2 The form of the English Church Rise of Two party system in Parliament Tories court party Whigs royal opposition Charles II s Goals royal independence religious toleration Charles II s solution Strong rule without calling Parliament Money from abroad James II 1685 1688 Brother of Charles II amp convert to Roman Catholicism Dual Policy oSupport of Roman Catholicism oStrengthen authority of king Alienation of Elite supporters Tories Anglican State Church James II s crises Unpopular Declaration of Indulgence suspending laws against Catholics amp Dissenters Resulting Seven Bishops Case in which bishops of state church oppose king Birth of a son a Roman Catholic heir Glorious Revolution of 1688 O Principle No Roman Catholic monarch 0 Bill of Rights guaranteeing Parliamentary Power amp English Liberties Bill Of Rights OMaking or suspending laws without Parliament s consent is illegal OLevying taxes without P s consent is illegal OFree elections to P free speech in P ORegular meetings of P OEnglish liberties jury trial due process of law right to petition gov t ONo standing army without P s consent Signi cance of Glorious Rev OSupremacy of Parliament law over king OVictory of John Locke s view of contractual theory of government over divine right OVictory of elites not democracy OBeginnings of toleration for Protestants dissenters from C of E John Locke 16321704 oAll humans possess common traits reason selfinterest oThus by nature all men humans are equal oall men possess natural rights Life uLiberty freedom to pursue self interest Prope1ty means to pursue self interest oMen band together in society to protect these rights oContractual theory of gov t gov ts can t take away these fundamental rights if so gov t can be changed Overview Evolution of Modern British Political System democracy OPrinciple of Parliamentary supremacy 1688 ORise of cabinet system in 18111 cent oHeaded by a prime minister OExpanded male suffrage 19th cent 1918 all males over 21 amp all females over 30 have right to vote 1928 extension of age 21 to females US l9Lh Amendment 1920 gives women right to vote End of Presentation Lecture 18 Napoleon 179918145 Napoleon s background petty Corsican nobility political opportunism in the Revolution talented military leader oGov t needed army to stay in power oNapoleon s political ambitions Military Coup of 18th Brumaire appeal to those who want to preserve Rev gains appeal to nationalist pride popular appeal of plebiscite amnesty for royalists amp revolutionaries Napoleon s military talent 0 18th century development oBayonet attached to intlock musket oMobile eld artillery oDrilled disciplined troops oFrench rev conscription large nos oNapoleon s genius destroy enemy in general battle oAttack not defense odo the unexpected Surprise oMassed artillery re Firepower o eXible infantry column for rapid movement Speed omassed assault The Consulate 17991804 OContinued state centralization OGov t appointed prefects run departments OE icient tax system ONational bank amp stable currency OConcordat of 1801 with the papacy amp reconciliation of Catholics OReligious toleration for Protestants amp Jewish people OPublic educational system OCode Napoleon new legal code Code Napoleon Protection of private property Protection of rights of employers Opposition to unions Paternalism in the Family oSuperiority of husbands over wives oSuperiority of parents over children Consulate continued State repression ocontrol of press oindoctrination of young opolice state secret police spies arbitrary arrests quick trials executions Trappings of Empire 18041814 coronation as emperor The Grand Empire enlarged France amp satellite kingdoms need for an heir amp Habsburg marriage alliance Exportation of revolutionary reforms abroad oconstitutional gov ts with representative assemblies Oequality before law Oending of special privileges for nobility amp church Ocareers open to talent Oabolition of serfdom Oreligious toleration Opublic education Oexportation of Code Napoleon Continental System Subordination of European economy to French needs Blockade of British goods from European ports to cripple British power Resistance to Napoleon Beginnings of Nationalism Spain guerilla war 1808 1814 Spanish ulcer Germany 0 German intellectuals arose new sense of German nationalism oLarger vision of Germany instead of collection of small states J G Herder oThe Volk natural community othe Volkesgeist its unique character oPluralism Each culture has its own value oYet patriotism against France oMade nationalism respectable Turnvater Jahn OGymnastics to build sound German bodies for the Vaterland and against Napoleon J G Fichte OBerlin UniV Prof O Addresses to the German Nation on Germany s glorious future G W F Hegel OGerman philosopher OPrussia the highest state of historical development perfect combination of order and freedom War of Liberation 181214 Invasion of Russia and the Grand Army s retreat 1812 Battle of the Nations Leipzig Oct 1813 amp Exile to Elba The Hundred Days amp Waterloo MarchJune 1815 EXile to St Helena in South Atlantic End of Presentation Lecture 14 18th Century Society amp Economy 3 themes lTraditional Family Economy amp Malthusian Family Structure replaced by the Demographic Transition lAgricultural Revolution begins to replace subsistence agriculture lBeginning of Industrial Revolution The Traditional Family Economy lHousehold the basic unit of production lPredominance of the Nuclear family in W Europe lPresence of servants lMalthusian family structure adjustment to scarcity Thomas Malthus 1819Lh century demographer lPopulation increases geometrically 2 4 8 16 food supply arithmetically l 2 3 4 lNightmare world when population outstrips food supply Malthusian System lPopulation grows faster than food supply lPopulation if not purposely checked would outstrip resources lln early modern period preventive checks tried to maintain population within food supply Malthusian family structure adjusting to scarcity lOne did not marry until one had resources to set up separate household lEconomic considerations important role in determining who one lTendency toward late marriages of both men amp women amp many remained unmarried lHigh mortality rates esp infant mortality amp birthing mothers Eldeath the functional equivalent of modern divorce with remarriage common Dabsence of older generations llow illegitimacy rates l low fertility rates El late marriage U24 30 month birth intervals Elnumerous miscarriages amp stillbirths lOVerall 1520 unmarried by end of life lPosition of wives Partnership Marriage vs Patriarchal Power EIFemale subordination legal amp cultural EIBut reality of strong women amp partnership llmportance of Children in the Family Economy Change in the 18th century Dramatic Population growth begins the Great Demographic Transition Reasons for the dramatic population growth lDecline in mortality theory ElPlague decline ElPrimitive efforts at public health ElSmall pox vaccination ElQuinine amp new medicine for malaria amp dysentery lChange in fertility theory EIIncreased cottage industry putting out system Elgreater econ security lowered marriage by few years EIImproved nutrition of new husbandry lCombined change in mortality amp fertility theory Changes in the family beginning in 18Lh century lEarlier marriage on basis of available jobs lIncreased popularity of idea of romantic love lIncrease in illegitimacy lHousehold no longer major unit of production ElBeginning of gradual decline in domestic servants ElTwo spheres Men worked in public married women work at home lIncreased life expectancy amp decline in infant mortality Agricultural Revolution The New Husbandry Europe in 1700 Subsistence Agriculture lprimarily agricultural lpoverty bare subsistence level for majority of peasants llow productivity despite great amounts of energylabor lreliance upon cereals luncertainty of harvest crop failures lslow amp expensive transport retards development of regional markets Agricultural Revolution replaces Subsistence Agriculture lOld system Z Vicious Agricultural Cycle large amounts of fallow idle land limit agric Production lNew system New Husbandry EIInnovation in Holland amp England first EINew crops clover nitrogenfixing ufodder crops 7 turnips new foods potato EIMore animal husbandry manure for fertilizer EILivestock breeding EIImproved equipment deeper plows seed drills Enclosure Movement esp in England lPartitioning of commons land lForced poor cottagers off land lResult larger farms commercialization of agriculture lFewer people but increased agricultural production allowing greater population growth lReduced reliance upon cereal crops End of presentation Lecture 6 Russia under Peter the Great Russia s Isolation from the West Odistance Ononparticipation in Western Cultural movements RenRef Ounique Russian culture in uenced by Orthodox religion amp Mongol dominance Russian autocracy Autocracy term for Russian divine right absolutism 0 Absolute submission to tsar 7 modeled on Mongol conquest o Supporter of true faith Russian orthodoxy Result Sense of Russian uniqueness 1 Idea of Third Rome Russia as successor of the Roman Empire oResulting sense of divine destiny amp suspicion of subversive foreign in uence Peter s Education Olnformal at German Quarter foreign ghetto in Moscow OThe Military imperative oMilitary necessity forces backward states to modernize on a Western model or perish however distasteful this is to native culture 3 elements oModernization military economic and political efforts to build great power status oWesternization borrowing from the West after 17 century military technology economic systems mercantilism and political administration absolutism to achieve great power status oCultural change adopting Western culture ideas art literature music dress valuesifreedom separation of church amp state Military Necessity oMilitary defeat by the Turks Azov campaigns of 1695 amp 1696 oNeed to borrow Western tech esp military oSwedish King Charles XII amp Great Northern War 170121 omilitary defeat at Battle of Narva 1700 omilitary victory at Battle of Poltava 1709 Russian gains in Great Northern War OVital territory on Baltic Sea oAccess t0 the Baltic oModern Day Latvia amp Estonia Creation of Swedish Baltic Empire OControlling ports at mouths of rivers 0 Sweden oFinland oEstonia oLivonia Riga oBremen amp Verden oWestern Pomerania Stettin oGdanskDanzig OExclusion of Russia from Baltic Swedish strength rested upon weakness its neighbors OWeakened Denmark OPre Petrine Russia s backwardness OWeak monarchy of Poland Reckless brilliance of Charles XII oCourage omilitary leadership orisk taker otunnel vision oIgnored diplomacy Two battles 1700 vs 1709 O Narva 0 24000 Russians vs 11 000 Swedes 0 Swedish victory I Poltava 0 25000 Russians vs 20000 Swedes 0 Russian Victory Russian gains in Great Northern War 0 Vital territory on Baltic Sea 0 Access to the Baltic 0 Modern day Latvia amp Estonia Building the Autocratic absolutist state Olong tradition of monarchical power without representative assembly Ocrushing revolt of streltsy Moscow guard 1698 Onobles boyars forced into state service oelement of duress obligation oadoption of West dress amp manners oattempt to connect one s rank to state service Table of Ranks State domination of the church oPurpose oCrown to control Church not vice versa to prevent church from objecting to modernization religious conformity to prevent future religious divisions oHoly Synod with layman head replaces patriarch Peter s visit to Western Europe 1697 98 OInspecting Maritime powers oNavy amp shipyards oMilitary technology oManufacturing OPolitical culture political military amp econ leaders OUrging elite to learn languages amp travel to West Reorganization of govt modernization on Western Model oSenate advisory committee to act in tsar s absence council of state ofiscals gov t watchdogs o Colleges to head ministries after Swedish example Mercantilism gov t encourages manufacturing oNew iron works in Ural Mts oteXtiles for uniforms amp sails ofounding of Russian navy New capital St Petersburg window on the West oAll weather port on the Baltic oorients Russia to the West Cultural revolution oForcible modernization to adopt Western ways in dress and manners oOutward cultural signs not Western ideas philosophy but this would come later obitter resentment by many Russians including Peter s son Aleksei oGrowing alienation between elites amp masses End of presentation Lecture 19 Politics ofReaction 18151848 Congress of Vienna OGoal To restore political stability to Europe after Napoleonic disruption ODecisions made by 5 Great Powers oEngland oAustria oRussia oPrussia oFrance Ambitions of the Great Powers oEngland oPrimacy of colonial interests oMaintenance of balance of power to prevent French aggression oAustIia Prince Metternich oConservatism oAntiliberalism oAntinationalism ORussia Tsar Alexander I oMiXture of autocracyliberalism oAdvancement of Russian power OPrussia gain territory OFrance Talleyrand oFrench survival oBalance of power Accepted Principles OLegitimacy oCompensation to the victors OBalance of Power Olnsurance OConservatism Legitimacy ORestoration of monarchies OExceptions oSmall states in Germany oHoly Roman Empire replaced by German Confederation Compensation to the victors oEngland oMalta oCeylon Sri Lanka oCape Colony S Africa oRussia oFinland 0 Austria oNorthem Italy Balance of Power OPolish Question oRussia wants all of Poland oPrussia wants all of Saxony oCompromise oRussia gets Napoleonic Poland oPrussia gets 23 Saxony Insurance against France OCreation of Kingdom of Netherlands Holland amp Belgium NE of France OEnlarged Savoy to SE of France OPrussia Rhineland E of France Conservatism Common action by Great Powers to ensure peace amp stability OConceIt of Europe 5 Great Powers guarantee the peace settlement OCongress System Great Powers to meet regularly to face threats to established order oCongresses meet in 1818 1820 1821 1822 oTroops sent to handle revolution in Spain amp Italy Accomplishment of Congress of Vienna OEnsures peace among Great Powers 1815 1854 OFrance treated generously no desire for revenge OUltimately fails to forestall power of liberalism amp nationalism unleashed by French Rev amp Napoleon Threats to the conservative order ORomanticism OLiberalism ORadicalism ONationalism O Socialism Romanticism Reaction to Enlightenment s emphasis on reason oCompleX diverse movement of thinkers amp artists both conservative amp revolutionary oStressed importance of feeling emotion imagination oIdealism desire for faith belief a cause to give meaning to life osometimes a veneration of the past esp for Middle Ages conservative or folklore nationalism ostressed 39 quot 39 39 quot J 39 J ofthe 39 J39 39J 39 best seen in Romantic Hero who challenges the system alienated amp revolutionary Liberalism heirs of Enlightenment amp Fr Rev oa political movement advocating orepresentative gov t national assemblies oconstitutional gov t constitutions orule by law due process amp legal equality oindividual liberty freedoms of speech press religion obelief in modern efficient olaissezfaire economics little gov t control onot democratic fear rule by masses Bourgeoisie o The collective name for the people most associated with liberalism 0 Middle classes business people professionals Radicalism heir of Jacobins in Fr Rev oStressed rule by the people oDemocratic universal male suffrage oRepublican form of gov t oSocial equality oLed by students veterans intellectuals oWorker support Nationalism heir of the Fr Rev oAll people of same ethnic origin common language history culture amp traditions should form a nation state oopposed multinational states c0mp0site monarchies oresurrection of ethnic language oState is highest form of social organization oOften sense of superiority of one s own nation amp hostility disregard of other ethnic people one s neighbors amp minorities oSiX areas of national unrest in Europe Germany Austria Poland Ireland Italy alkans Utopian Socialism before Karl Marx oResponse to econ amp social costs of industrialization oDenounced econ system based upon competition amp profits as unjust ie laissez faire economics oFavored harmony not competition oFavored communal ownership instead of private of means of production oNeed to redistribute the wealth between haves amp havenots Conservative Response OValue of tradition timehonored customs values amp institutions shouldn t be casually overturned by the new OPrimacy of society over the individual OFrightened by revolutionary violence by fanatics with abstract ideas divorced from reality OGoals of society social and political stability OBest maintained oby rm political authority origid social distinctions ocooperation among monarchs OUnion of throne land altar monarchy aristocratic landowners amp church Conservatism in Practice OAustria ORussia OFrance OEngland Reaction in practice Austria amp Germany OMettemich s internal repression oResponse of threats of nationalism amp liberalism to monarchy OConservatism of German princes OPopular German demands for Freedom amp Unity oBurschenschaften student societies oWartburg Jena festival of 1817 Ideals of one Burschenschaft oPolitical economy and religious unity of Germany oOne German law oFreedom of speech amp press oGeneral military service for defense of Fatherland o ChristianGerman education to develop each student s physical and mental powers for general service to the Fatherland AustriaGermany continued OCarlsbad Decrees Austria amp German princes ogov t agents at universities odismissal of radical profs oabolition of burschenschaften opress censorship Russia oIncreasing Conservatism of Tsar Alexander I 18011825 oformation of secret rev societies oDecembrist Revolt 1825 of liberal army officers in Moscow Regiment slogan Constantine amp Constitution oNicholas I 18251855 amp open repression censorship secret police oPolicy of Orthodoxy Autocracy amp Russian Nationalism France amp Bourbon Restoration OKing Louis XVIII 18141824 moderate regime oCharter of 1814 conservative constitution amp representative assembly but equality before law rule by law freedom of religion of press othe Ultras ultraroyalists omurder of the heir Duke de Berri 1820 amp increasing conservatism censorship arrests French elections OOnly those over 30 and wealthy could vote OOnly those over 40 and wealthier could run for office OElectorate of 100000 out of 28 million Bourbons continued oCharles X 18241830 oelaborate coronation at Rheims ocompensation for emigres oattempt to make gov t proaristocratic amp proclerical oRevolution of 1830 July 1830 oGrowing political dissatisfaction oMeetings amp demonstrations oGov t troops can t control capital oKing ees July Monarchy 18301848 OKing of the French Louis Philippe from Orleans branch of royal family ODrab monarch amp colorless regime Onarrow support notables rich bourgeoisie amp nobles Ofear of lower amp working classes Waves of revolution 1820s 1830s oLiberal revolutions of 1820 in Spain Italy oGreek Revolution of 1821 against Turks appeal of nationalism romanticism oNational revolutions of 1830 Belgium against Dutch Poland against Russia Revolutions of 1848 culmination of liberalism amp nationalism OPattern of Revolution oGrowing political dissatisfaction oMeetings amp demonstrations oGov t troops fire on crowds oBarricades amp rioting oLoose alliance of liberals amp radicals amp nationalists to overthrow gov t oDisunity amp conservative triumph Locations OFrance Second Republic amp then Napoleon III for stability amp glory Napoleonic Legend OAustria oAustrian uprising oHungarian uprising oCzech uprising oItalian revolt OGermany rev in Prussia amp other states Failure of Revs of 1848 oBasic disunity between liberals amp radicals oEmergence of idea of Class Struggle oMiddle Class fears Red Terror oWorkers turn to Marxian socialism oSplit between nationalism amp liberalism and alliance with conservatism Germany amp Italy oUniversal manhood suffrage is a conservative weapon England The exception Did not face revolution England ODual interrelated issues ohuman cost of industrialization orepresentation in Parliament House of Commons ODual approach ostruggle for unionization amp collective bargaining odrive for universal male suffrage Conservative repression oPeterloo Massacre opublic disturbance in St Peter s Field Manchester England Aug 16 1819 also called the Manchester massacre when police attacked a crowd of some 60000 oSix Acts amp English repression oForbade unauthorized public meetings oAllowed search of homes without warrants in disturbed areas Slow Change OReform Act of 1832 oDoubled electorate 478000 to 814000 or 1 out of every 5 adult males oAbolished rotten boroughs 56 old electoral districts replaced by 42 new OResult wider representation amp greater voice for reform OThe most famous quotRotten Boroughquot in British political history was Old Sarum which in 1832 returned 2 Members of Parliament on the votes of just ve electors Chartism of 1830s amp 1840s Oworking class petition movement OGoals 0 drive for annual parliaments 0 secret ballots 0 pay for members of Parliament 0 universal male suffrage OLack of success until 1870s80s Factory legislation oFactory Act of 1833 child labor oforbade child labor under 9 olimited labor to 9 hrs for ages 913 oLimited labor to 12 hrs for ages 1318 oNo night work for children under 13 oFactory Act of 1844 female labor olimits female employment under unsafe conditions oFactory Act of 1847 workday 10 hours workday 5 12 days a week Result Gradual reform OGradual British change oRespect for British law amp traditions oUpper class believed it had to accommodate to changing economic and social life oRepression would ultimately fail End of Course Thank you for listening Lecture 4 France as a World Power International Scene 1660 1715 OWar was normal amp shaped Western Europe Dynasties impact war oDynasties princely families determined international relations 0 Genetic lottery unpredictable oAbility of prince depended upon birth oDynasties survival depended upon fertility oAn absence of children led to succession disputes oGreat powers involved in succession disputes Lesson ofthe 17th century States need to build powerful armies amp centralized gov ts to survive Coalitions temporary alliances between states lead to Balance of Power preventing one state from dominating Europe France most powerful Western European state manpower Victor over Spain to be strongest European power Large amp well trained French army Thanks to absolutism better able to tap resources War of Devolution 16678 oLouis XIV s desire for Spanish Netherlands Belgium oDevolution right of female inheritance in Belgium oLouis XIV s wife eldest daughter of King of Spain oCoalition Against France Triple Alliance of Holland England Sweden oFrance checked but gains part of Belgium but how do you hold antiFrench coalition together Dutch War 167279 French antiDutch coalition Sweden England 0 Secret Treaty of Dover with Charles II of England adds English ally William III of Orange Dutch savior creates new antiFrench coalition Stalemate but French gain Franche Comte Uneasy Truce 167988 Olmportance of defensible linear frontiers O Vauban Fr military engineer amp his fortresses 0 Chambers of Reunion Special Fr courts to annex territory on eastern frontier 0 French gain Alsace 0 Turkish invasion of Central Europe Siege of Vienna 1683 helps French interests Decline of Ottoman Empire OUntil late Middle Ages Middle East was at the forefront of civilization and achievement oHighly developed economy controlled trade from Mediterranean to Asia oIslamic cultural importance oTurkish expansion in 16th amp 17th century uBalkans amp Hungary Eastern Mediterranean Yet Ignored Western intellectual amp technical challenge oRenaissance 0 New Science of l6l7th centuries OvereXtension of Ottoman Empire Threat of Persia on eastern frontier Could not match Western military technology Western canon and muskets Superior Western ships gained supremacy in Arabian amp Indian oceans Small European powers seize lucrative Asian trade Ottoman defeat Failure of Turkish Siege of Vienna 1688 Austrians reconquest of Hungary Turks forced to negotiate for first time with western states on basis of equal status Decision Year in European Balance of Power 1688 Austrian victory in Hungary 0 English crisis James II vs William amp Mary Nine Years War 16891697 Another name War of the League of Augsburg 0 French preventive war against Austria 0 Stalemate after much costbloodshed Aging amp realistic French king accepts limits to French power Spanish Succession Problem Carlos 11 last Habsburg king Heirs Philip V Louis XIV s grandson or Archduke Charles of Austria Habsburg Carlos H s will offer empire in entirety to France amp if not accepted to Austria French alternative efforts Find another heir Bavaria Partition treaties But Carlos s will changes everything olf French do not accept Austria gets everything amp France has few friends olf France accepts it will have Spain on its side amp better bargaining position War of Spanish Succession 170114 AntiFrench coalition Grand Alliance England Holland Austria Allied Generals John Churchill Duke of Marlborough amp Eugene of Savoy French disaster Peace of Utrecht 171314 0 Bourbon rule in Spain 0 Austria compensated in Italy amp Belgium Austrian Netherlands 0 England gets colonies Gibraltar Newfoundland Nova Scotia 0 Signi cance Maintenance of Balance of Power 1 France reduced from super power to a great power 2 Austria amp England recognized as great powers Death of Louis XIV 1715 End of Presentation Lecture 15 Industrial Revolution IChronology EIEngland beginning in 1760s1780s to 1840s EIGermany Belgium France in 1820s1830s to 1870s Why England rst lCommercial expansion Elincrease in consumer demand Elcolonial wealth from Caribbean sugar amp plantation system Elcapital accumulation l Banking amp capital mobilization Bank of England I Good system of transportation Elisland position Elcanals Elroads amp tumpikes I abundance of raw materials coal amp iron I skilled labor due to protoindustrialization I technology I entrepreneurial spirit Cottage Domestic or Putting Out System Prom industrialization EIRural phenomenon EIMostly textile spinning thread amp weaving lCheap amp docile labor supply marginallandless families in household units lFamiliarity with low technology lHousehold employment IWorked at own pace but labor intensive EIMerchant entrepreneur supplied raw material paid piecemeal for nished product EIFree of all guild restrictions Successful until Itechnology required heavy machinery I eXpensive machinery Ineed for power source Ineed for greater control of labor force Ineed to train amp supervise workers Ineed to cluster steps in manufacture Characteristics of Industrial Revolution Inew energy sources coal steam Ichange from hand tools to power driven machinery lfactory organization of labor Elwork under one roof Elspecialization of labor one task Icapitalist ownership of tools of production lmass production of goods Icontinuous technological change I growing class difference between bosses entrepreneurs and workers proletariat Eighteenth century features of Early Industrialization lMass production of textiles especially cottons lmetallurgy coal amp iron lmanufacture by power driven machinery steam engines Growth of towns Rural migration to new cities seeking jobs lfirst migration singles amp young married couples El seeking economic opportunity lhigher wages than unskilled agric labor lhours no longer than countryside lsteady employment in good times lSlow amp painful extinction of cottage industry by 1830s in England Child Labor lDemand for child labor esp in textile amp mining industries EIChildren could do lesser tasks at lower wages permitting owner to save on more expensive labor EITradition of children working at early age in rural areas Single Women lsingle women go to mill towns to supplement family income amp save for marriage lGrowing independence from family Elj ob distant from home Ellearn about handling money Elimpersonal cities have less community control ElNew goal marriage in city not country Elinability to send much money home Less familycommunity control of courtshipmarriage lIn rural areas Elboy s reputation known Elrural courtship supervised Elrural courtship marriage oriented lIn urban areas Elimpersonal cities Elgreater opportunities for seduction Elsuitor desertion easier Elwomen become more vulnerable Summary resulting demographic features lEarlier marriage lHigher birth rates lRise in illegitimacy For some Demoralization lAlcohol the quickest way out of Manchester lProstitution amp sexual promiscuity lPetty gangsters lHomeless lMadness lSuicide Other Costs of Industrial Revolution lNew discipline Eltime amp regimentation Elpenalties docking wages lLong hours amp monotonous labor lChild labor lPoor safety conditions lNo workmen s insurance or compensation lrapid growth of new coketowns Elhousing scarcity Eltenements jerry built slipshod squalid housing Elovercrowding Elunsanitary conditions p0llutionwatersanitation End of Presentation Lecture 5 Absolutism in Central amp Eastern Europe Holy Roman Empire Austria Prussia Poland Central amp Eastern Europe oBasic characteristics oAgriculture predominant ofew towns ogreat noble landlords landed aristocracy oUnfree peasants serfs provide labor service o soft frontiers oLouis XIV S example Need for standing armies centralized absolutist princes if states to grow in power 1 Holy Roman Empire Modern day Germany Germany Holy Roman Empire after 1648 Owartime destruction amp slow recovery after 30 Years War Otriumph of German particularism self interest of particular princes over imperial power oeach German prince has sovereign powers oimpotence of of ce of emperor Habsburg dynasty in Germany but not in his own states Austria 11 Austrian Empire Austria Bohemia Hungary A new state in formation OHabsburgs build up Danubian state from Austrian domains Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom of Hungary 0 Composite monarchy different kingdoms amp different nationalities Success in Bohemia OResults of Thirty Years War oDestruction of power of provincial estates oReplacement of Protestant nobles by Catholic nobles oLand given to Catholic nobles for service oCrown made hereditary in the Habsburg line Characteristics of Habsburg absolutism oCultivation of Imperial image oGravitas serious digni ed demeanor oDistance from court ocreation of imperial aristocracy omultinational oserVice nobility ocreation of an imperial capital Vienna ocreation of imperial bureaucracy ocreation of imperial state church oreduction of powers of regional estates III Brandenburg Prussia Rise of Brandenburg Prussia OSeparated core territories oelectorate of Brandenburg oduchy of East Prussia oRhenish duchies OHohenzollern dynasty ounbroken succession oability of princes 0 Frederick William the Great Elector 1640 1688 oneed for standing army oneed for more taxes 0 Estates dominated by Junkers noble landowners o the Prussian Compromise oNobles accept monarchical power oNoble control over peasants oResult Twin Pillars of Prussian state oArmy out of proportion to state s size oEfficient bureaucracy Size of Prussian army OGreat Elector 30000 OKing Frederick William I 80000 OKing Frederick the Great 200000 OPrussia 13Lh in population of states of Europe with 3rd or 43911 size army French Huguenots in Brandenburg o 1688 Louis XIV abolishes Protestant religious right to worship oFlight of Huguenots abroad oPrussia accepted 20000 skilled artisans King Frederick I oKing Frederick I gains royal title in Prussia oSignifrcance for centralization unity Example of Louis XIV OEstablishment of court festivities Theater of Power like Louis XIV OFounded Berlin Academy of Science amp University of Halle 1694 OBeautifrcation of the capital Berlin King Frederick William I 17131740 amp the Sparta of the North Ounattractive vulgar barracks king Oreconstruction of machinery of state to centralize power General Directory Obuilt powerful disciplined army of 80000 men while not engaging in war OResult highly disciplined industrious docile militaristic state Comparison of two contemporary German princes oAugustus the Strong duke of Saxony oArmy of 30000 oLavish expenditure on court amp palace oMountain of debt oFred Wm I of Prussia oArmy of 30000 raised to 81000 amp better trained amp equipped oSpartan court oTreasury 8 million thalers in hard cash IV Poland Constitutional not Absolutist state Poland oelective monarchy ono native dynasty Failure of John Sobieski in l7Lh century oIneffective Diet Sejm Polish veto of 55 diets 16521764 48 eXploded oNo prof standing army or bureaucratic state ouncurbed power of szlachta landowning Polish nobility oprey of its neighbors 3 partitions of Poland by Austria Prussia amp Russia in l8Lh century Lecture 17 The Two French Revolutions National Assembly National Convention The National Assembly June 1789 Sept 1792 The First Revolution Building a constitutional state with a limited monarchy ODeclaration of Rights of Man amp the Citizen 1789 oUniversal statement based upon Enlightenment concepts oHumans born free amp equal and equality before law oFreedom of ideas speech press religion oSovereignty rests in nation individuals exercise its authority Administrative Reforms ONew departments replace provinces OElected officials replace intendants ONewly elected courts end of Parlements Financial Solvency ORepaying national debt by oConfiscation of Church property oAssignats gov t notes paper money backed by confiscated property Civil Constitution of the Clergy 1790 oReorganization of Church adm oNew dioceses to match departments oElected bishops oState assumes church s role in education amp poor relief oClergy become paid employees of the state oClergy to take an oath supporting new Church reforms oJuring clergy swear oath oNon juring clergy refuse oath Emerging opposition to the Rev oEmigr s conservatives ee France oln Church non juring clergy almost all bishops 12 parish priests oRoyal Family oKing s own dislike of changes in the Church amp fears for his safety oRoyal ight to escape Flight to Varennes 21 June 1791 oBlow to monarchy but King remains monarch due to newly written constitution that has taken so long to produce 17891791 Under the new constitution of 1791 Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria amp Prussia OHope to rally France to revolution OHope to ush out France s enemies OBut military disaster aristocratic of cers desert amp armies crumble before enemy ORioting Storming of the Tuileries Palace 10 Aug 1792 and end of Constitutional Monarchy OEnd of rst moderate phase of Rev The Convention Sept 17 92 Oct 1795 The Second French Revolution Birth of the Republic 22 Sept 1792 ORevolutionary Crisis olnvading enemy oFear of Traitors within oBitter factionalism oGirondins moderate republicans oJacobins radical republicans oAcute economic crisis oCities amp provinces in revolt Triumph of the Jacobins oalliance of Jacobins in the Convention and the Sans culottes le peuple shopkeepers amp artisans of Paris opower in the streets popular support oJacobin dictatorship in gov t Sans Culottes values OEgalitarian for the little man ODemocratic all males should participate in polit process OSuspicion of the wealthy OMoral simplicity sees things in black amp white OWant econ protection for poor The Terror Gov t policy of intimidation of Republic s enemies OApparatus The Convention oIts Executive Committee Committee of Public Safety the 12 who ruled oPolice Committee to hunt down traitors oDeputies on mission from Convention oRevolutionary committees in cities oRevolutionary tribunals courts Rationale for the Terror Onational survival but height of terror when republic not in danger Orevolutionary zeal Oculture of violence Maximilien Robespierre Jacobin leader O The Incorruptible amp his vision of a moral state The Republic of Virtue odemocraticegalitarian opatriotic omoral vision puritanismasceticism oaccepted violence as legitimate amp necessary to create new society Purging France of the Unvirtuous Rev s opponents oPurging of Right Girondins oPurging of the Left Enrages oPurge of the Indulgents those opposed to the Terror oPurging of Immoral prostitutes wartime pro teers oRebel drownings of Nantes amp mass executions at Lyons 1793 oExecution of citizen Louis Capet Louis XVI 21 Jan 1793 and wife Citizeness Capet MarieAntoinette16 Oct 1793 Jacobins amp women OFollow the ideas of JeanJacques Rousseau OGender views women at home rearing future citizens Oabolition of female republican clubs oexecution of Olympe de Gouges author of Declaration of the Rights of Women who opposed Terror Accomplishments of Convention oSuppression of dissent and revolt oLeV e en Masse new army amp general mobilization for war effort oMilitary victory and export of revolution abroad oRapid promotion of talent careers open to talen koakening of nationalism oFiXing of wages amp prices to help the little guy OReligion oEffor ts at Dechristianization ocreation of Cult of the Supreme Being OCultural Revolution oCalendar oMetric system Fall of Robespierre O 9 Thermidor Year 11 27 July 1794 0 Fear of Robespierre s power 0 Denunciation amp arrest by Convention 0 Thermidorean Reaction 0 End of the Terror 0 Revolution becomes more moderate The Directory 17951799 The aftermath of the Revolution ODismantling of apparatus of Terror Opolitical instability othreats from right white terror othreats from left hungry urban mobs Gracchus Babeuf amp Conspiracy of Equals OCorruption amp rigged elections OMaintained power by support of the army Gracchus Babeuf 1760 97 oPolitical agitator in revolutionary France During the Revolution he helped organize a conspiracy aiming to destroy the Directory 1796 and establish an extreme democratic and communistic system When this was discovered he was guillotined Assessment of French Revolution oAdvanced 19th century political liberalism oAdvanced 19th century radical democratic movements oAdvanced secularism weakened power of religion oIncreased power of state amp state activity oUnleashed power of nationalism amp total war oEnormous cost in human suffering Our Inheritance oliberal representative assemblies obill of rightsdue process oflaw oequality before law ofreedom of ideas oradical democratic osovereignty of the people ouniversal male suffrage orepublican form of gov t opublic secular education opublic welfare otradition of violent revolution Lecture 16 Coming of the French Revolution Was the French Revolution essential a social revolution with political consequences or a political revolution with social consequences lClassic Marxist interpretation class struggle a triumphant bourgeoisie in a temporary alliance with working class and peasants topples feudal nobility in order to gain control of state to pave way for capitalism lRevisionist historians Fr Rev was a political revolt by 1e public against hesitant bankrupt govt and a popular revolt by 1e peuple provoked by severe economic difficulties lFrench Rev caused by collapse of the gov t IA political struggle emerges among various factions to gain power De nition lBourgeoisie the nonnoble people of wealth lProletariat the working class amp peasants lLe Public the elite the well off nobles and urban moneyed commoners lLe Peuple small shopkeepers and artisans in towns and to a lesser extent the peasants in countryside Ancien Regime France before Rev l18Lh century French did not speak of a society divided by social class but by estates basic condition of humans amp their role in social order ElFirst estate clergy ElSecond estate nobles ElThird estate commoners lThese conditions based upon honor social standing rather than economic position French Population in 1789 lFirst Estate clergy 130000 lSecond Estate nobility 400000 lThird Estate commoners 26 million ElUrban 5 million ElPeasants 21 million Traditional peasant problems lsmall land holdings ldependence on good harvests lheavy financial burden Elrented landsharecropping Elchurch tithe 67 Elmanorial dues varied 10 Elheavy royal taxes lTypical peasant response periodic violent uprisingslocalized peasant revolts during times of hardship lBut peasants play limited role in rev Towns lFew large cities Paris the exception lSmall shops little large industry lWorkers suffered D18th century in ation Elcrisis years lHigh food prices lHigh unemployment Ellack of j ob protection lPeriodic unrest bread riots amp gov t rmness in putting down riots Society s elites le public well off noble amp commoner lNoble diversity wide range of wealth position amp econ interests lMost wealthy commoners nonindustrial were landowners businessmen and officials lFrance not yet in Industrial Rev few capitalists investing in industry lHighest social aspiration becoming noble lOpenness of noble ranks although some noble prejudice lAlthough Enlightenment criticism of gov t nonrevolutionary tone before 1789 Governmental Crisis lLack of royal leadership ElLouis XV 17151774 Loss ofnat l prestige ElLouis XVI 17741792 indecision lUnimaginative reform ministers ElKnow symptoms ElUnwillingnessinability to tackle hard problems lWorsening Fiscal situation ElGrowing gov t indebtedness ElHigh interest payments French Fiscal Situation Total national debt E1753 1360 million E1764 2350 million E1786 4500 million lBudget for 1786 EITotal Revenue 475000000 EITotal Expenditure 587000000 EIDeficit 112000000 Solutions lEconomize lMore borrowing lBankruptcy lIncrease taxes Crisis worsens 1786 lFinance minister s plan taX the privileged ElLet rural assemblies of elite agree to taxes ElAssembly of Notables fails to rubber stamp ElParlement of Paris refuses to approve new taxes demands calling of an Estates General Calling of Estates General lElections by estate lCahiers list of grievances to guide one s delegates EBrd Estate cahiers INO attack on aristocrats lCall for end of absolutism legal equality amp reform of variety of abuses Problem of Estates General lLast called in 1615 lDoubling of the delegates of 3rd Estate lVoting by head or estate undecided Election campaignin lOrganization of the Patriots liberal nobles amp members of 3rd Estate lAbb de Sieyes s pamphlet What is the Third Estate for Patriot cause Signi cance of Sieyes s pamphlet lPolitical strategy to call for a single national Assembly lBeginning of revolutionary ideology EIPower should rest with the all Frenchmen not dominated by church amp nobles The Revolution begins lStalemate over how to conduct business estate or common meeting lDeclaration of National Assembly 17 June 1789 amp beginning of Rev lTennis Court Oath 20 June 1789 Nat l Assembly will not dissolve until it writes a new constitution for France lGov t response hesitation The Food Shortage of 1789 Le peuple of Paris guarantee a revolution 178889 Subsistence crisis EICrOp failure EIHigh prices EIBread riots lPopular hopes for EG to bring relief lRumors of recall of frontier troops to restore order amp end EG lParisian search for arms for self protection lFall 0f Bastille 14 July 1789 Gov t loses control of capital Reaction to Fall of Bastille lGreat Fear sporadic panic in countryside that brigands foreign troops will attack paid for by nobles EIFear of noble retribution for revolutionary change EISome attacks on noble chateau amp destruction of manorial records Night ofAugust 4 1789 lResponse of Nat l Assembly The national Assembly abolishes the feudal regime in its entirety EIAbolition of social priVileges EIAbolition of manorial dues EIAbolition of the church title lEnd of the Ancien Regime old system October Days 1789 lParisian women march on Versailles demanding bread lKing escorted under duress to Paris by Parisian crowd prisoner of reV lNat l Assembly agrees to move to Paris allowing future pressure by crowds End of Presentation Lecture 1 Crisis of the 17th Century Crisis Characteristics OWar OPolitical Instability OSocial unrest OEconomic depression preindustrial oPopulation decline oProduction decline OCrisis of Faith Doubt of older values authority 17th Century Crisis 1 Frequency of international war oStates struggle for hegemony domination instead of religious goals oHigh cost of warfare oAdvantage to state most able to exploit its resources Why increased military expenditure Larger armies infantry Increased problems of supply Increased armament Expensive forti cations amp siege cra 11 Political Instability Power struggle between gov t and special interest groups oNobles oReligious Groups oEthnic Groups 111 Social Unrest response to economic demands of state oLocation On periphery of state power oSporadic unorganized oHarsh suppression The Example of Stenka Razin 1670 IV Economic Depression OUnderdeveloped agrarian economy OPopulation grows faster than food supply OShort term crisis famine amp epidemic disease OLong term malnutrition amp higher death rates V Crisis of Faith Doubt of older values authority Growing secularism instead of spiritual values Libertine erotic pleasureseeking Continuing interest in superstition as alternative to Church All Social classes Obsession with witchhunting Werewolves Philosophical Solution Secular Salvation The State Thomas Hobbes s Leviathan OPessimism about human nature OIn nature human life a life of misery OLaw and order provide stability amp security The Social Contract oEvery individual implicitly surrenders hisher rights and submits themselves to a sovereign power oThe sovereign authority is absolute and unlimited Strong rulers needed against chaos No resistance can be made against legitimate authority End of Presentation


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