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by: Marian Osinski


Marian Osinski
GPA 3.97


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marian Osinski on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS275 at Ohio University taught by StephenReilly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/224410/bios275-ohio-university in Biological Sciences at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
Ecology 1192009 123400 AM Community Ecology o Community All organisms inhabiting and interacting within a defined area o Broad Biome NarrowPond marsh woodlot o Ex Bird community lizard community etc The Niche o Position in community along abioticbiotic gradients o Biotic Gradients Prey food o Abiotic Gradients Temperature Location Salinity o Niche Hypervolume multidimensional space 0 Simplified in practice FundamentalIdeal Niche The practical niche Realized Niche The actualrealistic niche in an environment Quantifying Niches Quantify where the animals habitats are c Microhabitat Occurrence Place in environment reveals niche o Macarthur s Warblers Ecological Niche Environment molds morphology o Morphology reflects niche Guild Species grouped by way of making a living Community Properties o Species diversity of species o Official measurement of species diversity Relative Abundance of individuals per species o Get a bell shaped curve 0 Some Rare Lots of common Ecotones Borders along a habitat o ExAquatic9terrestrial Community developmentchange o Communities are generally stable until disturbed o Succession Sequence of changes initiated by disturbance o StagesSeres 0 Stable community climax community Succession depends on o 1 Locality o 2 Rate of invasion Speed of growth o 3 Facilitation seres help later stages Climax CommunityStable End Community o Inhibition it inhibits any other community from growing past it o Tolerance It is the only sere that can persist based on environmental conditions Secondary Succession Reoccupation after disturbance o Soil has developed o Old Field to Boreal Forest o Takes about 100300 years c Essentially all 97 of US National and State forests come from secondary succession Primary Succession Establishment on new soil o Lava Eroded Rock Deposits Sand Glaciation o Takes about 1000 years Natural Cycles of Succession o Fire Maintains grass Forest ecotone o Oakhickory like fire Maplebeech No Fire o Grazers Maintain savannah as grassland o Wind tundra dunes mountain top communities Biogeography Study of past and present distributions of species and communities o Alfred Wallace o Huge Regional communities o Endemism Species unique to an area o Figured out basis on distributions Verified by continental drift Island biogeography EO Wilson o Looked at species diversity vs 0 Island Area 0 Distance to next island 0 Sea Level history 4 Facts from Island Biogeography o 1 SpeciesArea Effect 0 More area habitat heterogeneity o More Immigration 0 Less Extinction o More Species o 2 SpeciesDistance Effect 0 Farther from the source Less reach island o 3 Corridors Connections are critical 0 Islands once or presently connected have more species o 4 Edge Effects Overlapping microclimate effects make ecotones Fuzzy 0 Ex Light Penetration temp soil nutrients species overlap 0 Edge Effects reduce core area Interior 0 Linear Shape Bad All Edge Biogeography and Conservation Conclusions o Larger is better more interior less edge o Corridors to other refuges are good o Round is better less edge o Design decisions depend on the situation Review Community Ecology o Guilds o Niche o Resource Use Microhabitat Occurrence Ecomorphology Climax Community Inhibition Tolerance Cycles Fire Wind Grazers Island Biogeography o Species Area Effect o Species distance effect c Species connection effect c Edge Effect Application to refuge design o Large Close connected round o Enforce design plan o Biosphere Reserve Design Core 2 buffers Landscape Ecology o GIS driven data overlay and interpretation Global Information System Biological Diversity Global Diversity Patterns o History is primary determinant Trees followed glaciers Pollen Studies Earliest large human civilization In middle of Sahara 800011000 years ago History of Ecological Adaptation o Convergence Independent evolution under similar conditions o Similar formsniches but unrelated o Ex Different birds in diff taxa having long beaks for nectar Importance of Diversity o Increase habitat complexity greater diversity more stability o Conservation goals have switched to saving ecosystems Rate of Extinction is increasing Wetland a swamp or a marsh especially a area preserved for wildlife o An area of low lying land submerged or inundated periodically by fresh or saltwater Ecological term lands characterized by at least periodic inundation or saturation of the soil creating anaerobic conditions allowing only those plants and animals specifically adapted to such conditions to colonize the area o Has indicator species o Hydrophitic plants Have significant value especially ecosystem functions Old Growth Forest o Virgin primevaluntouched by man Environmentalists o Decadent overmature senescent past the point of economic maturity Foresters o 4 level canopy Characteristics o Trees of great age o Uneven canopy structure o Downed logs snags gaps o Pit and mound topography big trees falling over take dirt with them leave pit o Old growth diversity Endemics Hawk Woods Dysart Woods Laboratory 14 million identified out of 1030 million Problems we Face in the Present 1Loss of Wetlands 60 gone o Of this 87 lost to agriculture o 9 to urban development Increasing Loss of Wetlands o Loss of ecosystem functionwetland geochemistry o Loss of biodiversity o Affects on aquatic and water resources 2 Groundwater depletionextracting from the groundglobal warming o Has changed global water cycle o Saltwater intrusion withdrawing so much groundwater that saltwater intrudes into ground o Surface disturbance More runoff less recharge 3 Global Habitat Change o Transformed the surface of the earth with agriculture development desertification o Fragmentation and loss of ecosystem functions o All biomes are endangered 4 Global Warming o C02 and Methane 1192009 123400 AM 1192009 123400 AM


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