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by: Justyn Schowalter


Marketplace > Ohio University > Sociology > SOC101 > INTROTOSOCIOLOGY
Justyn Schowalter
GPA 3.87


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Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justyn Schowalter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC101 at Ohio University taught by HowardWelser in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/224411/soc101-ohio-university in Sociology at Ohio University.




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Date Created: 10/19/15
Soc Review Sociological Imagination abiity to see things socially how they interact and influence each other Sociological imagination is the capacity to see connections answersthe question how doesthe social outcome emerge from 13 of the diagram and what is it that is driving the change SociologyScientific Study of patterns and processes of human social relationships Patterns and Processes of how why people do things and how they interconnect What society do you belong to How many societies are there What is the current trend How could we tell Structure and culture culture the meaning of stuff structure the distribution of stuff Culture Humor Language Meanings Symbols Music What things mean Structure How it is distributedMoney Income Skills EducationTraining Relationships Dr Represents a Social Role symbols and structure who they interact with like with interns patients etc the meaning of quotstuffquot the distribution of quotstuffquot Society self contained self sufficient population united by social relationships from other populations by geographic social barriers Socia structure a persistent pattern in the distribution of relationships attributes holdings in a population Hoding resource good held to varying degrees by indiviual actors money status etc degrees by indiviual actors money status etc Structure is an attribute of a social system Stratification unequal distribution of valued goods or holdings in a population cass status resources grades wealth positiona goods Why might stratification matter When might it not matter so much Networks pattern of relationships in a population of actors example strength of weka ties affect structure Why ou Strength of weak ties Affect Structure Learn about OU summerjobsinternships How might social structural variables matter Pattern of relationships size of hig sc oo income distribution at college Example concurrency relationships at the same time of social relationships SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONCEPTS This is Not a Pipe basically a painting of a pipe is not a physical pipejust an illustration of a pipe a symbol is not the thing itself Cultural Concepts Symbolunderstanding that social outcomes are shaped by social context actors and social actions Letters words images signs people etc Take on significance as symbols through interpretation Learned through studying interactions in society and interpreting them Hawking himself is a symbol of how our society has expanded to take advantage of the contributions of more people even people like him with rare medical disadvantages Meme A bounded cultural object Once created the presence of a meme or innovation is most likely due to transmission We used to not have manythings in commonto spread before the internet These memes shape our behavior and more quotnasty brutish and shortquot Thomas Hobbes philosopher Description of the life of mankind without government quotthe Matthew effectquotBible Robert K Merton the rich get richer and the poor get poorer people who already have an advantage is easier forthem to get more of an advantage and vise versa Cultural variable like a gene in genetics ex Hamster dance exJudit and Judit Culture Dimensions of society based on meaning ideas myths stories artifacts art architecture cuisine cra ts earned practices traditions All these examples vary from culture to culture ex differences in breakfast between different cultures while americans enjoy sugary goodness Europeans or other cultures may enjoy a sandwich or cresant A Culture Particular combination of symbols practices That are associated with some identifiable population Values General standards for defining things as good given an array of options values are the source of preferences These do not change day to day OCrosscultural variation Norms socially determined rules that govern behavior of some under certain conditions ie space Where do norms come from norms may come from or be determined by a persons peers whatever is socially accepted by the people around a person Are there different types of norms Proscriptive things you shouldn39t do your behavior creates cost for others Prescriptive things you should do Different causes Negative externalities your behavior creates cost for others desire to make good impression esteem self satisfaction Competition n compairison to others being known as the more exilerent having a desire to make a good impression on others ex track or rock climbing were it is a non group sport Roles coherent set of norms associated with a particular social position More complexthan list of rules Role schema the role of a father mother or grandparent Sub cultures cultures existing within a larger and more established culture Stra cation Social system characterized by the distribution of some valued good in levels or 39strata39 SoCIal class Each person has an income Each society has people at different levels of incomes etc Societies will vary in the range of system and proportion in each level Position in stratification system affects life chances G ra nd Canyon Layers People some groups have more resources than others oMarx s Concept of Class Owners and workers Pfunk quotYou39re either a pimp or a hoquot Ownership of means of production Concentration of control ndustrialization Some began to get richer while others became poorer Where do you live Class consciousness and conflict Awa reness of your position Common interests 39False consciousness39 Pizza parties at Big Lots Coege sports sacrifice for the team quotBring out the gimp Class follows from single criterion Ownership of means of production Trump on Casinos Other dimension don39t matter Too simplistic Weber 3 P5 of Stratification Property Class Control and Ownership Prestige status Position that accords merit and rewards Powers Party nfluence relations positions oLife chances control and ownership senior partner in law firm own duplex rent out half to pay the mortgage Ex Being a lawyer you are a partner you own your part of your business To get more money you work harder and win more cases and make more money you hold on to most of the money you make Status inconsistency Three dimensions High on one low on others Property Prestige Power Profs pro athletes olympic athletes hick millionaires senators IRS agents Social Mobility Achieved status Something you did Ascribed status Who you are Caste system Feudaism Advanced Industrial Democracies Meritocracies Prince Henry Prince Madonna Michael Jordan George Bush Paris Hilton Mobility Regimes Structural Mobility Negative or Positive Sum Great depression Baby boom and economic growth Rising tide Exchange mobility Zero Sum Ascription vrs Achievement FL MLB More or less mobility Your generation oCIassless society Eimination of ownership Utopia Nope Dahrendorf The state Michaels IIron Law of oligarchy39 Organization and political systems Are inescapable Yet Ebay Google Bargain pimps tech coordination Marx Dahrendorf Etc oConflict theories of stratification Exploitation Markets closure and dependence oWeber s dimensions of stratification 3 Ps of Stratification Property Class Control and ownership Prestige Status Position that accords merit and rewards Power Party nfluence relations position Racial and Ethnic Inequality and Conflict Examples Intergroup conflict Race and Ethnicity Perception Inequality Human rights Types of inequality Prejudice Contact theory Economic basis for ethnic discrimination Ethnic and racial mobility Examples Intergroup Conflict Aborigines Ancestry if you arent related you are an enemy Utes Ethnic markers associated with tribal groups Quebec Canada was colonised by many countries but mostly French and British Launguage Many speak French while most of Canada speaks English Culture Race and ethnicity Race Human group with some observable shared biological features In a given society Featuresthat are historically associated with an ethnic group Distinction of that ethnic group has been and remains relevant Ethnic Group Group with distinctive heritage and perpetuated cultural markers Ethnic groups exist due to Sentiments which bind individuals into solidarity groups on some cultural basis Continued membership Assimiation Accommodation A Short History on Tiger quotThe Cheetahquot Woo ds Father Earl Woods was a retired lieutenant colonel in the US Army He died on May 3 2006 age 74 Mother Kultida is a native of Thailand Ear was half black onequarter American Indian and onequarter Chinese Kultida is half Thai onequarter Chinese and onequarter Caucasian Tiger later went on to cheat on his wife with over 15 different women with successively lower levels of self esteem Racial and Ethnic Inequality Systematic disparity in rights opportunities access to goods based on race or ethnicity That disparity results in inequality of outcome on key dimensions of stratification that effect life chances Occupation 3 Ownership and control Political power Education and training Tradition of human and citizen rights quotAll human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit ofbretherheed kinshipquot UDHR 1948 Magna Carta 1215 British Bill of Rights 1689 US Constitution etc etc etc Amendments prohibited discrimination Ethnicity and Inequality Rights opportunity treatment outcome behavior vote attend school hiring pay rate play sports Chris Rock on Golf What do you notice How much people really don39t like golf How do these dimensions arise in this clip How do these dimensions relate to the definition of race Mechanismsthat Overcome Inequality Large sclae society Free education Medium group enclave mmigrant workforce and ownership Solidarity ndividua values Roe models and values Pitcher or a lawyer Gender and inequlaity Rights opportunity treatment outcome vote attend school hiring pay rate nequalities can be measrued in different ways When we study inequality we operationalize operationalize taking a concept and making it measurable Rights and opportunity 1925 Rights Suffrage vote College 23 Jobs 236 in labor force Clerical jobs school teachers nurses waitresses ages Severely underpaid large wagegap Women 25 cents per hour Men 40 cents to start 2010 Rights College Women represent 57 of enrollment at colleges in US Jobs 77 of women between 2554 Doctors lawyers mathematicians Paris Hilton Wages Gap not as large today Women make about 77 of what men make Human rights and higher education Rights Opportunity Shoulders of giants Struggles of previous generations to give you a better life Parents and grandparents Deviance norm violation Failure to conform with culturally reinforced norms Crime Law Breaking context specific Society culture Study of Criminalization not explaining Deviance Definition Gottfredson and Hirschi 1990 Act of force and fraud undertaken in the pursuit of self interest Moral Definition Crime yes or no Robbery Civil Disobedience Prostitution Embezzlement Gove age gender biology Testosterone size energy Why the drop Social Causes of variation in deviance Differentia Association Ties Values Interaction Control Theory Sanctions Dependence Labeing Theory Sef Reinforcing Michael Franti amp Spearhead Say Hey I Love You The video is an exploration into how absolutely amazingJamaica and it39s people are This video is an explaination to how a small thing can go a long way in a long way it means that you never know how far something may go or how influencial it will be until youjust do it Today we talk about technology and social change here is a related story about cell phones in the developing world here is a relevant link http 39t 39 39 39 39 ycfmstorv quot 1 Stratification Socia system characterized by Distribution Vaued goods Leves Poverty Lowest position in economic stratification system that strongly undermines life chances Standard of living below minimum for adequate diet health and shelter Absolute Poverty rt When people don39t have the means to secure the basic necessities of life Food Starvation Sheter Freezing Healthcare Death Water No Supply Clothing Relative Poverty When people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living United States poverty Versus Third world poverty Examples Food Lacking Nutrition Sheter Unsafe Healthcare No Meds Water Toxins How does poverty matter ndividua Suffering if you cannot eat you are at risk of pain Risk of ruin probabilitythat you will lose a ton of money and you cannot regain what you have lost Society Disorder in impoverished areas there is alot of chaos Conflict people fight overjobs and resources Underproduction manufacturingjobs are dropping at high rates nefficient there are not alot ofjobs or technology in poor areas Measuring Poverty Poverty Line Arbitrary has no real value or meaning Officially Poor vs Those Who Sustain a Living Calculation based on inflation Probems Does not take into account healthcare and health insurance We spend a sixth of our income on food not a third like in 1950 Better Measures How much it actually costs to live in the US based on geography Theories of Poverty Deficiency Theories nnate Inferiority The poor are poor because they are unfit and not as intelligent as others Socia Darwinism Cultural Inferiority There are different cultural beliefs between the higher classes and the lower classes Poverty is passed on from generation to generation Structura Theories nstitutiona Discrimination Institutions in our society hold the poor down nstitutions are not funded as well in poor areas and therefore they cannot teach the children as well and then they cannot get ajob and become poor Poitica Economy of Society Who gets what is determined by profit not by need Employers do not care about their employees and so they work really hard for little pay Unemployment Statistics Bureau of Labor Statistics Distortions in Data You only have to work an hour in one week to be considered employed Leads to Poverty Conflict theory of Stratification Those in dominant positions will attempt to use powerto advance their own interests Moe inequality than necessary Exploitation NLTexal HoldEm Poker Ownership political positions Conflict theory poverty and debt ndividua and social costs of poverty Discussed earlier Groups that profit from poverty of others Economic Politica Status Examples of stratification and conflict OU budget cts Groups Administration S af39f Faculty Students Alumni nterests Credit Card debts ts a trap Eating steak on a Ramen budget Students carry less debt but pay more fees Planning and management auto pay Standards of taste become moral standards Conspicuous Consumption Taste money worth Hard to drop standards Hobos Tramps and Bums Hobos are poeple who move around looking for work tramps are poeple who move around but don39t look for work and bums are people who don39t move and don39t work I39ve been all three quotSeasick Steve Modernization and Globalization Definitions Agragarian to industrial 0 More varied exchange Models of how modernization happens 0 Internal state theory corruption 0 External world system relations of exploitations o Mechanisms of dependency Effects of globalization All one 0 Reduce geographic determinism Modernization Book Definition Processes by which agrarian societies ar transformed into industrial societies Alternative more varied Definition Processes of development that allow more varied systems of exchange Why do some countries modernize Internal dynamics Adoption of new technologies 0 Growth of new cultures 0 New social structures 0 Conflicts 0 Growth population organizations institutions Why do some countries fail to modernize Most of the countries in the world 0 People dying at 35 or younger Not making very much money Africa war Ale etc The Congo corrupt leader for many years North Korea vs South Korea vs Japan 0 South Korea and Japan improve while North Korea plummets State Theory of Modernization Internal Cause States modernize when the state has been tamed Democratic pluralism Multiple groups with power Compromise Untamed State Untamed state uses power as an instrument of economic extraction 0 Favorites of the state are rewarded The rest are exploited Kleptocracy 39rule bythieves Monutu Sese Seko Overextraction stifles economic development 0 Expanding league of favorites Diminished incentive for productivity 0 Capital flight Capriciousness Zaire Democratic Republic of Congo Aton of natural resources wealth Companies don39t want to invest there What about external influence Their relationship as a country to other countries around the world Vedanta own mining in Zambia Africa World System Theories of Modernization States fail to modernize when they get trapped in peripheral positions relational Nations have class positions Marx Core exploits periphery Uneven trade relations Core pimp country 9 Semiperiphery 9 Periphery aka 339d world less developed countries Mechanisms of Dependency Foreign investors dominate industries Raw materials and profits flow out Control of industry Market speculation Banana Republic Dole Shell Etc Globalization Transformation of structure of social interaction 0 From local to global systems Types of interaction 0 Exchange 0 Communication Migration Socialization Learning The diminishment of geographic proximity as the cause of constraints on interaction Spread of institutional forms organizations ideas memes Development of subcultures with global reach and which exist primarily independent of face to face interaction and geographic proximity are possible because of globalization


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