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by: Chaim Rempel V


Chaim Rempel V
GPA 3.7


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chaim Rempel V on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 378 at Oregon State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/224413/ans-378-oregon-state-university in Animal Science at Oregon State University.




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Date Created: 10/19/15
Chapter 15 The Genetic Code and Translation COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS TrueFalse 1 All proteins are made up of some combination of 20 essential amino acids F 2 Like nucleic acids polypeptides have polarity T 3 The primary sequence of the protein determines the quaternary structure ofa protein F 4 During translation initiation the initiator tRNAmat binds to the P site ofa ribosome T 6 The codon for methionine appears only at the beginning ofthe mRNA for a protein not in the middle or in the end F 7 The rst three bases at the 539 end of an mRNA are the AUG at which translation begins F 8 Ribosomes move along an mRNA in the 539 to 339 direction T 9 A special tRNA that does not have an attached amino acid binds to stop codons to terminate translation F 10 UGG is an example ofa stop codon F 11 In eukaryotes the 539 cap and the 339 polyA tail are involved in translation initiation T 12 An mRNA can be translated by only one ribosome at a time F 13 Because there is no nucleus in a prokaryote the 539end ofan mRNA can be translated while the 339 end is still being transcribed T Hquot in the Blank Use this diagram for questions 1418 The Genetic Code and Translation Process 1 5 I I I I 3 Process2 339 5 A 14 Process 2 is translation 15 Ifthe bottom strand ofthe DNA sequence not shown is the template the RNA sequence left to right 539 to 339 is AGGGUCCAC 16 Ifthe bottom strand of the DNA is the template the protein amino acid sequence from the RNA is argvalhis 17 Ifthe bottom strand of the DNA is the template the tRNA anticodon sequence left to right 539 to 339 forthe rst RNA codon is CCU 18 During initiation the small subunit is the rst part ofthe ribosome to associate with the mRNA 19 During elongation an incoming charged tRNA enters at the A site of the ribosome 20 Codons that specify the same amino acid are said to be synonymous 21 The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is referred to as the primary sequence of the polypeptide 22 Chapter 15 There are i different codons which encode 20 amino acids and 3 stop codons Multiple Choice Use the following diagram for questions 2526 Solid circles represent amino add 23 S The next step in the translation of this mRNA will be the formation ofa peptide bond between which two amino acids l r 90m X 5109quot l 01 x 26 a b c d e ropes amino acid 2 and amino acid 3 amino acid 2 and amino acid 4 amino acid 1 and amino acid 3 amino acid 1 and amino acid 2 After the peptide bond forms what will happen tRNA A will be carrying the polypeptide and it will shift to the P site tRNA A will be carrying the polypeptide and it will shift to the A site tRNA B will be carrying the polypeptide and it will shift to the P site tRNA B will be carrying the polypeptide and it will shift to the A site What is the function of peptidyl transferase activity It charges tRNAs t acetylates the end of a protein after translation t cleaves the polypeptide from the last tRNA during termination It moves ribosomes along mRNA during translation It forms peptide bonds A tRNA anticodon is 539ICG339 What amino acid does it carry The Genetic Code and Translation 28 To translate a mRNA you require two other RNAs These are a tRNA and mRNA b tRNA and miRNA c tRNA and rRNA d rRNA and siRNA 29 The genetic code is said to be degenerate because there are more codons than amino acids there are more amino acids than codons different organisms use different codons to encode the same amino acid some codons specify more than one amino acid 3 5109quot A O The genetic code is universal except for prokaryotes which use a different genetic code than eukaryotes a few mitochondrial genes which substitute one sense codon for another viruses which use an entirely different genetic code archaebacteria which have their own genetic code 3 U 90 3 3 9065 The function of aminoacyltRNA synthetases is to transcribe tRNA genes match tRNA anticodons and mRNA codons at the ribosome attach amino acids to tRNAs form the peptide bond between amino acids at the ribosome 33 When codons that code forthe same amino acid differ in their a single tRNA might bind both ofthem through wobble base pairing a 539 base b middle base 0 339 base 34 An mRNA has the codon 539 UAC 339 What tRNA anticodon will bind to it a 539 AUG 339 b 339 AUG 539 c 539 ATC 339 d 339 ATC 539 35 An mRNA has the stop codon 539UAA339 What tRNA anticodon will bind to it a 539ATT339 b 539AUC3quot c 5quot ACU339 d none


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