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by: Sam Robel


Sam Robel
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Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sam Robel on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECE 323 at Oregon State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/224427/ece-323-oregon-state-university in Engineering Electrical & Compu at Oregon State University.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
aw Chapter 19 Performing Cell Characterization Most ASIC vendors use StarHspice to characterize their standard cell libraries and prepare data sheets by using the basic capabilities of the MEASURE statement Input sweep parameters and the resulting measure output parameters are stored in the measure output data les desiganO designsw0 and design acO Multiple sweep data is stored in this le and you can plot it by using AvanWaves This lends itself to generating fanout plots of delay versus load The slope and intercept of the loading curves can be used to calibrate VHDL Verilog Lsim TimeMill and Synopsys models This chapter covers I Determining Typical Data Sheet Parameters A series of typical data sheet examples show the exibility of the MEASURE statement I Performing Data Driven Analysis Automates cell characterization including timing simulator polynomial delay coef cient calculation There is no limit on the number of parameters simultaneously varied or the number of analyses to be performed Convenient ASCII le format for automated parameter input to Star Hspice I Using Digital File Input Stimuli You can use logic state transition tables to produce the input stimuli for the characterization The D2A model in StarHspice provides a 28state logic simulator interface for rapid guring of a cell characterization testbed StarHspice Manual Release 19982 191 Determining Typical Data Sheet Parameters Performing Cell Characterization Determining Typical Data Sheet Parameters This section describes how to determine typical data sheet parameters Rise Fall and Delay Calculations The following example rst calculates vmax using the MAX function over the time region of interest Then it calculates vmin using the MIN function Finally the measured parameters can be used in subsequent calculations for accurate 10 and 90 points in the determination of the rise and fall time Note that the RISE1 is relative to the time window formed by the delay TDval Finally the delay Tdelay is calculated using a xed value for the measure threshold Example MEAS TRAN vmax MAX Vout FROMTDval TOTstop MEAS TRAN vmin MIN Vout FROMTDval TOTstop MEAS TRAN Trise TRIG Vout val vmin0lvmax TDTDval RISE1 TARG Vout val 09vmax RISE1 MEAS TRAN Tfall TRIG Vout val 09vmax TDTDval FALL2 TARG Vout val vmin0lvmax FALL2 MEAS TRAN Tdelay TRIG Vin val25 TDTDval FALL1 TARG Vout val25 FALL2 volts Trise Tfall gt I Vout Tdela gt TDval Tstop time Figure 191 Rise Fall and Delay Time Demonstration 792 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Performing Cell Characterization Determining Typical Data Sheet Parameters Ripple Calculation This example performs the following Delimits the wave at the 50 of VCC points Finds the midpoint Tmid De nes a bounded region by finding the pedestal voltage sz39a and then finding the first time that the signal crossed this value Tfrom Measures the ripple in the defined region using the peaktopeak PP measure function from Tfrom to Tmid Example MEAS TRAN Th1 WHEN VOut 05vcc CROSS1 MEAS TRAN Th2 WHEN VOut 05vcc CROSS2 MEAS TRAN Tmid PARAM ThlTh22 MEAS TRAN Vmid FIND VOut AT Tmid MEAS TRAN Tfrom WHEN VOut Vmid RISE1 MEAS TRAN Ripple PP VOut FROM TfrOm TO Tmid V0u ripple de ned region 5 v VCC A vmid U J 25 v lt Th1 Tfrom Tmid Th2 time Figure 192 Waveform to Demonstrate Ripple Calculation StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Determining Typical Data Sheet Parameters Performing Cell Characterization Sigma Sweep versus Delay This le is set up to sweep sigma of the model parameter distribution while looking at the delay giving the designer the delay derating curve for the model worst cases This example is based on the demonstration le in installdirdemo hspiceccharsigmasp This technique of building a worst case sigma library is described in Performing Worst Case Analysis on page 1033 Example tran 20p 10n sweep sigma 3 3 5 meas mdelay trig v2 valvref falll targ v4 valvref falll param Xlnew polycd sigma model nch nmos level28 Xl 006u toxnew tox sigma10 Xlnew toxtoxnew rm 5 my 5 amp mini 5 5mm in 5 5mm us MEASURE ULHFUY HM 1W 5 m mm 73 W m 3 W M MSW WWW N v DEi1xii m iz i W p A re A n L x N i in ii in u i m Elli Sim tum Figure 193 Inverter Pair Transfer Curves and Sigma Sweep vs Delay 794 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Performing Cell Characterization Determining Typical Data Sheet Parameters Delay versus Fanout This example sweeps the subcircuit multiplier to quickly generate a family of ve load curves By buffering the input source with one stage more accurate results are obtained The example calculates the mean variance sigma and average deviance for each of the second sweep variables midelay and rmsiwwer This example is based on the demonstration le installdirdemo hspiceccharload1sp Input File Example tran 100p 20n sweep fanout l 10 2 param vref25 meas mdelay trig v2 valvref falll targ v3 valvref risel meas rmspcgtwer rms power X1 in 2 inv X2 2 3 inv X3 3 4 inv mfanout Output Statistical Results measvariable mdelay mean 2738560p varian 1968e 20 sigma 14027llp avgdev 1065685p measvariable rmspower mean 52544m varian 87044u sigma 29503m avgdev 22945m StarHspice Manual Release 79982 7 95 Determining Typical Data Sheet Parameters Performing Cell Characterization ltFDlt m uL gnznv m EDL Xnmnv m s m m r 44 4n 5 n s 10 FANuuT LIN Figure 194 Inverter Delay and Power versus Fanout Pin Capacitance Measurement This example shows the effect of dynamic capacitance at the switch point It sweeps the DC input voltage pdcin to the inverter and performs an AC analysis each 01 volt The measure parameter incap is calculated from the imaginary current through the voltage source at the 10 kilohertz point in the AC curve not shown The peak capacitance at the switch point occurs when the voltage at the output side is changing in the opposite direction from the input side of the Miller capacitor adding the Miller capacitance times the inverter gain to the total effective capacitance Example mp out in l 1 mp wlOu l3u mn out in O 0 mn w5u l3u Vin in 0 DC pdcin AC 1 0 ac lin 2 10k 100k sweep pdcin O 5 1 measure ac incap find par 1 iivinhertztwopi ATlOOOOhertZ 796 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Performing Cell Characterization Determining Typical Data Sheet Parameters TITLE 395 INvsP SWEEP HnerT Va SIGMA To 2 SIGMA usE MEASURE DUTFUT z r znmnv HI IuIIHLLIIJJHHIIHJINJJIUI IIH1LIHI I I I I an 3 n PDCIN LIN m Figure 195 Graph of Pin Capacitance versus Inverter Input Voltage Opamp Characterization of ALM124 This example analyzes opamps with MEASURE statements to present a very complete data sheet It references opamp circuit output node outO in the four MEASURE statements using output variable operators for decibels vdbout0 voltage magnitude vmout0 and phase vpout0 The example is taken from the demonstration le demoappsalm124sp Input File Example measure ac unitfreq trig atl targ vdbout0 val0 falll measure ac phasemargin find vpoutO when vdbout00 measure ac gaindb max vdbcgtut0 measure ac gainmag max vmcgtut0 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 7 97 Determining Typical Data Sheet Parameters Performing Cell Characterization Measure Results unitfreq 90786E05 targ 90786E05 trig lOOOOEOO phasemargin 66403EOl gaindb 99663EOl at lOOOOEOO from lOOOOEO7 gainmag 96192E04 at lOOOOEOO from lOOOOEO7 lOOOOEOO to lOOOOEOO to xFILE ALMteH5F A ENT DPRMP ANALYSIS 1 ALnteAcn vnatouru A V n L T D E L i u39 I iIiIII I 39 u39un39mi 39 ii n39nul39 Ii iIiiIHI 39u39un39uui39 illIIIII 39 i il l l i 1IK 10 BK lni K 10X 10 HERTZ LUBE l l1X Figure 196 Magnitude Plot of OpAmp Gain 798 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Performing Cell Characterization Performing Data Driven Analysis Performing Data Driven Analysis Data driven analysis allows you to simultaneously modify any number of parameters then perform an operating point DC AC or transient analysisThe parameter value array is either included in the simulation input file directly or is stored as an external ASCII le The DATA statement associates the parameters with the value array and it replaces the PARAM statement Data driven analysis requires a DATA statement and an analysis statement that contains a DATAdataname keyword Note The DATA statement format is almost the same as the measure output format It does not require the sign to continue a line The syntax is DATA dataname pnamel pnameZ pnamen valll vallZ valln valml valm2 valmn ENDDATA or DATA dataname Merge fi 1e fi lename pnamel columnl pnameZ column2 ENDDATA The rst general form speci es n parameters with m iterations The number of parameters is not limited and this number determines the number of values taken per iteration There is no requirement that all parameter values be on the same physical line The DATA statement syntax is covered in greater detail in Chapter 4 Specifying Simulation Output StarHspioe Manual Release 79982 7 99 Performing Data Driven Analysis Performing Cell Characterization The syntax is Operating point DC DATAdataname DC sweep DC Vin l 5 25 SWEEP DATAdataname AC sweep AC dec 10 100 lOmeg SWEEP DATAdataname TRAN sweep TRAN 1n lOn SWEEP DATAdataname The MEASURE statement computes rise fall and propagation delay times For cell characterization many measurements are necessary because of changing specifications for load capacitance fanout temperature and so on This process can be very time consuming Use the AUTOSTOP option to stop the transient analysis when all the rise fall and delays speci ed in the MEASURE statements are calculated This option saves a great deal of CPU time Cell Characterization Example This section provides example input les that perform cell characterization of an inverter based on 3micron MOSFET technology The program finds the propagation delay and rise and fall times for the inverter for best worst and typical cases for different fanouts This data then can be used as library data for digitalbased simulators such as those found in the simulation of gate arrays and standard cells The example taken from the demonstration file installdirdemohspiceapps cellcharsp demonstrates the use of the MEASURE statement the DATA statement and the AUTOSTOP option in the characterization of a CMOS inverterFigure 197 and Figure 198 are identical except that their input signals are complementary The circuit in Figure 197 calculates the rise time and the lowtohigh propagation delay time The circuit in Figure 198 calculates the fall time and the hightolow propagation delay time When only one circuit is used CPU time increases because the analysis time increases to calculate both rise and fall times 7 97 0 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Performing Cell Characterization Performing Data Driven Analysis XOUTL VINH XINVH 9 Figure 197 Cell Characterization Circuit 1 XOUTH VINL XINVL W Figure 198 Cell Characterization Circuit 2 StarHspioe Manual Release 79982 7 97 7 Performing Data Driven Analysis Performing Cell Characterization The subcircuit XOUTL or XOUTH represents the fanout of the cell inverter StarHspice modi es fanout by specifying different multipliers m in the subcircuit calls StarHspice also provides local and global temperature speci cations This example characterizes the cell at global temperature 27 while devices M1 and M2 are at temperature 27DTEMP The DATA statement speci es the DTEMP value The example uses a transient parameterized sweep with the DATA and MEASURE statements to determine the timing of the inverter for best typical and worst cases The parameters varied include power supply input rise and fall time fanout MOSFET temperature nchannel and pchannel threshold and both the drawn width and length of the MOSFET Use the AUTOSTOP option to speed simulation time and work with the MEASURE statement Once the MEASURE statement determines the parameter to be measured the AUTOSTOP option terminates the transient sweep even though it has not completely swept the transient sweep range speci ed The MEASURE statement uses quoted string parameter variables to measure the rise and fall times as well as the propagation delays Rise time starts when the voltage at node 3 the output of the inverter is equal to 01 VDD that is V3 01VDD and ends when the voltage at node 3 is equal to 09 VDD that is V3 09VDD For more accurate results start the MEASURE calculation after atime delay a simulation cycle specifying delay time in the MEASURE statement or in the input pulse statement The following example features AUTOSTOP and MEASURE statements Mean variance sigma and avgdev calculations Circuit and element temperature I I I I Algebraic equation handling I PAR as output variable in the MEASURE statement I Subcircuit parameter passing and subcircuit multiplier I DATA statement 7972 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Performing Cell Characterization Performing Data Driven Analysis Example Input Files FILE CELLCHAR SP OPTIONS SPICE NOMOD AUTOSTOP PARAM TD10N PW50N TRR5N TRF5N VDD5 LDEL0 WDEL0 NVT08 PVT 08 DTEMP0 FANOUTl GLOBAL VDD global supply name TEMP 27 SUBCKTDe M on SUBCKT INV IN OUT Ml OUT IN VDD VDD P L3U W15U DTEMPDTEMP M2 OUT IN 0 0 N L3U W8U DTEMPDTEMP CL OUT 0 200E 15 001 CI IN 0 50E 15 001 ENDS SUBCKTCdB XINVH 2 3 INv INPUT START HIGH XOUTL 3 4 INv MFANOUT XINVL 2030 INv INPUT START LOW XOUTH 3o 40INv MFANOUT INPUT VOLTAGE SOURCES VDD VDD o VDD VINH 2 o PULSEVDDOTDTRRTRFPW200NS VINL 2o 0 PULSEOVDDTDTRRTRFPW200NS MEASURE STATEMENTS FOR RISE FALL AND PROPAGATION DELAYS MEAS RISETIME TRIG PAR V3 O1VDD TARG PAR V3 09VDD VAL0 RISEl MEAS FALLTIME TRIG PAR V30 09VDD VAL0 FALL1 TARG PAR V30 01VDD VAL0 FALL1 MEAS TPLH TRIG PAR V2 05VDD VAL0 FALL1 TARG PAR V3 05VDD VAL0 RISEl MEAS TPHL TRIG PAR V20 05VDD VAL0 RISEl TARG PAR V30 05VDD VAL0 FALL1 ANALYSIS SPECIFICATION TRAN lN 500N SWEEP DATADATNM DATA STATEMENT SPECIFICATION StarHspioe Manual Release 7 998 2 7 9 7 3 Performing Data Driven Analysis Performing Cell Characterization DATA DATNM VDD TRR TRF FANOUT DTEMP NVT PVT LDEL WDEL 50 2N 2N 2 0 08 08 0 0 TYPICAL 55 1N 1N 1 80 0 6 O6 02U 02U BEST 45 3N 3N 10 100 10 10 02U 02U WORST 50 2N 2N 2 0 1 0 O6 0 0 STRONG p WEAK N 50 2N 2N 2 0 06 10 0 0 WEAK p STRONG N 5 0 2N 2N 4 0 0 8 0 8 0 0 FANOUT4 50 2N 2N 8 0 0 8 0 8 0 0 FANOUT8 ENDDATA Modem MODEL N NMOS LEVEL2 LDELLDEL WDELWDEL VTONVT TOX 300 NSUB134E16 UO6OO LD04U WD O6U UCRIT4876E4 UEXP15 VMAX10E4 NEFF15 PHI71 PB7 RS10 RD 10 GAMMAO897 LAMBDA0004 DELTA231 NFS 61Ell CAPOP4 CJ377E 4 CJSW19E 10 MJ42 MJSW128 MODEL p PMOS LEVEL2 LDELLDEL WDELWDEL VTOPVT TOX3OO NSUBO965E15 UO250 LD05U WDO65U UCRIT465E4 UEXP25 VMAX1E5 NEFF10 PHI574 PB7 RS15 RD15 GAMMAO2 LAMBDA01 DELTA2486 NFS52E11 CAPOP4 CJl75E 4 CJSW23E 10 MJ42 MJSW128 END A sample of measure statements is printed MEASURE STATEMENT RESULTS FROM THE FIRST ITERATION TYPICAL RISETIME 33551E 09 TARG 15027E 08 TRIG ll672E 08 FALLTIME 28802E 09 TARG 14583E 08 TRIG ll702E 08 TPLH 18537E O9 TARG 12854E 08 TRIG llOOOE 08 TPHL 18137E O9 TARG 12814E 08 TRIG llOOOE 08 7 97 4 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Performing Cell Characterization Performing Data Driven Analysis MEASURE STATEMENT RESULTS FROM THE LAST ITERATION FANOUTM RISETIME 87909E O9 TARG 20947E 08 TRIG 12156E 08 FALLTIME 76526E 09 TARG 19810E 08 TRIG 12157E 08 TPLH 39922E 09 TARG 14992E 08 TRIG llOOOE 08 TPHL 37995E 09 TARG 14800E 08 TRIG llOOOE 08 MEASVARIABLE RISETIME MEAN 65425E 09 VARIAN 43017E l7 SIGMA 65588E 09 AVGDEV 46096E 09 MEASVARIABLE FALLTIME MEAN 57lOOE O9 VARIAN 34152E l7 SIGMA 5844OE 09 AVGDEV 40983E 09 MEASVARIABLE TPLH MEAN 31559E 09 VARIAN 82933E 18 SIGMA 28798E 09 AVGDEV 19913E O9 MEASVARIABLE TPHL MEAN 30382E 09 VARIAN 73llOE 18 SIGMA 27039E 09 AVGDEV 18651E 0 StarHspioe Manual Release 7 998 2 7 9 7 5 Performing Data Driven Analysis Performing Cell Characterization FILEi EELLEHHR sp arunvsa 172512 CELLCHHR TEE vm Figure 199 Plotting the Simulation Outputs 7 97 6 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Performing Cell Characterization Performing Data Driven Analysis zucunn ran Man 5 visa n a snunn Figure 1910 Verifying the Measure Statement Results by the Plots StarHspioe Manual Release 79982 7 97 7 Using Digital File Input Stimuli Performing Cell Characterization Using Digital File Input Stimuli The following twobit MOS adder uses the digital input le In the following plot nodes A0 Al B0 Bl and CARRYIN all come from a digital le input The example outputs a digital le IFILE HDSEBII SF HDDER 2 BIT ALLNANlllllllE BINHRV ADDER lSAFRSl 191243 DGTLTRll T Hill Ell V lll llL L 30 n 39l 20 llJ TDGTLTRll CM 1 Ar lt TDGTLJRnl EARRY39IN A FOUL EARRYDUTJ 977 lIHE LIN D lE N 2 llJN 360quot lllllN 600N Figure 1911 Digital Stimuli File Input The simulation above uses the digitaltoanalog interface model The example found in the demo directory installdirdemohspicecchartdgtlSp shows away of generating stimuli using an external stimuli le produced by a logic simulator in this case the Viewsim simulator Topdown design generally starts with a systemlevel hardware description language HDL description of the circuit This is decomposed to the logic cell level and cells are then synthesized into transistor level circuits Since simulation has been done at the logic level it is possible to capture all of the basic input stimuli to the cell With the integrated 28state logic interface Star Hspice enables you to reuse the logic output as circuit simulator stimuli input 7 97 8 StarHspice Manual Release 79982 Performing Cell Characterization Using Digital File Input Stimuli Replacing Sources With Digital Inputs Traditional voltage pulse sources become V1 carryein gnd PWLON81O 1N8hi 7 5N8hi 8 5N81o 15N8 10 R V2 A0 gnd PWL 0N8hi 1N81O 150N81O 160N8hi 30N8 hi A1 gnd PWL 0N8hi 1N81O 150N81O 160N8hi 30N8 hi V4 B0 gnd PWL 0N8hi 1N81O 300N81O 310N8hi 60N8 hi B1 gnd PWL 0N8hi 1N81O 300N81O 310N8hi 60N8 hi 9193 DZA drivers that get their input from ll UC carry7in VLDZA VHDZA DZA 81GNA 0 AlO VLDZA VHDZA DZA 81G 180 181 UAll All VLDZA VHDZA DZA 8 M 181 UBlO Bio VLDZA VHDZA DZA N E 181 UBll Bil VLDZA VHDZA DZA A g 181 Digital Stimuli file ltdesgnnamegtd2a 0 l 4 03 04 05 75 01 Si nalname list 150 11 12 1 3 g 5301 oo11o2o31415 Time In modeltlme units 375 01 450111213 StatechangeSIgnaIst 25 01 600 11 02 03 04 05 Figure 1912 Digital File Signal Correspondence StarHspice Manual Release 7 998 2 7 9 79 Using Digital File Input Stimuli Performing Cell Characterization Example model d2a u level5 timestep0lns sOnameO sOtswlns sOrlo 15 sOrhi 10k sZnameX 52t5w5ns sZrlo 1k 52rhi 1k s3namez s3tsw5ns s3rlo lmegs3rhi lmeg s4namel s4tswlns s4rlo 10k s4rhi 60 vld2a vld2a 0 do 10 vhd2a vhd2a 0 dc hi 7920 StarHspice Manual Release 79982


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