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by: Savanah Leffler


Marketplace > Oregon State University > Engineering Environmental > FE 537 > HILLSLOPE AND WATERSHED HYDROLOGY
Savanah Leffler
GPA 3.8

J. Mc Donnell

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J. Mc Donnell
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savanah Leffler on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FE 537 at Oregon State University taught by J. Mc Donnell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/224437/fe-537-oregon-state-university in Engineering Environmental at Oregon State University.




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Date Created: 10/19/15
Dunne and Black Kick Buttor Flatulence Pays Off and now for my next trick does anyone have a match Tom Dunne s PhD research at Sleepers River in Vermont stands as one of the major benchmarks of our time Results from this work and the interpretationconceptualization of rtmoff generation has led many a researcher to call this Dunne or Dunnian flow This is of course the saturation overland ow for which Dunne received the Horton Award back in the late 1980s There was then and is still now confusion between Dunne s concept of saturation overland ow and Hewlett s Variable Source Area concept Many now view the two to be effectively the same Hewlett s theory that of a broad conceptual overview of the process at the catchment scale Dunne s work as the mechanistic description of the process and quantification of what occurs at the hillsloperiparian interface Dunne s publication list is extensive Good reading visavis Dunnian flow is his chapter in the 1978 Kirkby text and his very nice 1979 text Water in Environmental Planning written with Luna Leopold another luminary and Aldo s son Oh yes and legend has it that Black s contribution to this work was prolific atulence in the fieldperhaps for keeping the Vermont mosquitos away VOL UV NI HATER m390L Rc RESEARCH unm mo Au Exprriumnlul Imamligation If Rmm Production 39 Pm39meabh Sm s THoMAs DUNNE me Mummy anwl quoturuula mummy r BLACK quotarmV r39hmmuh 11mm er YUM rmnmh lh Ah Mm m hm unoan rumqu MM ann39whlt soils mm Inlhhh Muir cm x m Shhhr of mmmprmhhhm muhmmm mm hum nh pllns 39 A nu 1 M In rum 1mm and n nu mm of pvrvnu oznmv V q 1m mu mil mmvurn u Hrrmhh I ll 39 Al and mini 1I IH IH Thu d w led Ihu rainfall inansiLw dun mcurml and t rc 2 pl IH lnetlmm n dosulhod by H x di not um39nr A n urnvm Khoth C slorm nw hi mL 11m m r uh ui1 v mrl md t to ho cumincwe to sub runo urinc lyrmluud by HM Annmummy 41gt Inu small mo Lulu and Mn insonsiu F nunan mlcnsllv to Mth sigmhvnmly 1o lt40I m uw in 1h chaunvl at 9 r Wlum Qho vmpr lLhlr msn 0 Um surruxn of the grunndv however nvm39lunll ow was goutrated nu sumquot armr nf lln 39 d ru 39gni c mnunts x r nlv when nu owrlnnd mm Incurred w ul39 urm ow unlrilmtcd m nu 6 mm by h hump The rclurn puma ur stun1m um erva mum such m39 rlam 1h wm39e l39ulmd m I Very large Is39muuuuwux 39nro storm nw Winnray 1965 p 74 de ned subsurface smrm aw us unde g ndstonn1 r I 0quotme mv m hm ums m hilhmc dw r 0 m ml aw hm rearhes the stream rhnnnrl mth 7 ad Pmmm wkby mm 39hm39lvy 19 p 1 I used Vlw Tm39m In ltrHlun mpnm es of m arexml and pa quot1 r f39 1 39 i M0 1 quot if k 1313 ume Ms M Llw urea wucd the qu maximn W Cz nrquot quot t m 9 1 mme39 Heme M Ur measured minan inlmmlies Total yields of quotWW 9051 mrm runn no small Thu m39 39imum mm 51 39 W mm 039 mm an mg SWIM War New M snmr nmn we nmv regard such movement menu Vaterslwd m 010 mehcs 5 0quotquot J hmkm ng f 1 quot 393 h 5 V n 0 their cumcpl Abnw I e mmde sci parliulos and a resulting pulse in mnvr ux as the mmed 2mm 5 mprnnched39 1quot E 2 5 nn 4 n graphs however have Mn 15 thaw rmm othPr arms whch Harland ow is oh crvml The hm lhw amp goneml shape The nmgmbudc and timing nf subsurface new and respond qmrk h rnmfull Th4 shun HIbuUun m channel nmu a mm hr the mm mm or rolnuunzbms he mean rmnfaIL ruuo and mumhml cunnlnmn xlnrm uw are Irurlured are generally unknown as m I39omgnizcd in Imwn m mpem nvv In the mm m or mnv ceptcd Lhenrelh r0 h h sir AIMS OF THE PRESENT 3 my nv ullive ac overland ow m1 001 and lcmiltl in rnwtion on t e p In tlw absentp n Y Vilh lu l m nunland Hun cul characteristics f s to supplv storm hummhs mm hydrnln phi v39n Inns pnFHIIMPd th nwlhumm of suhmk u mls and channels the nmnplm listed ahm39c czm be determined onlv I rmn uncnsivr cM 31nd Tn lh s end a small 78 ratrhmen Sleepers DanriUP study I Intnnsny Thr run nn mmrn a xmk mu hrn Tle39 w dmm Igt lur39 nun Chosul m u rt Inllsx m pm Ihmu l rmiwtllm 479 catchment in llL glaciated upland of lip Sleepers Rim Fxmimmmi i39mmsimi iicrir Dnni39ille Vomitinr as Sl lCK VCd for i dulnileil 81ml or runon pmdumnn m as arm Ur lm immm rainfall and highly permeable mils 39l liv following report will lail oiilv wnli dam on mninlmiions U siroum m from His pcrmer aim Soils oi the steep liillsluivrs during mum and Irh f39l l minsbomis THE A PEIUMENTAL AREA duclcd is 2 tinacre basin carved min larusirino Icrmrc ilizii lies against 1 lillsidc of ill 391 I EUUgt scliisl Within US al l a hC L a lllllFlllv as chosen im imame siurl Figure 11 The M m h ii southerly slope that mine from 30 n 100 and has n relief of 50 feet 2 surface ouilcc for the watershed drains hr ton of he slnpe The hillside receives no drain age i39om nhuve as ii is Separated by a narruw iluLmmwd divide from iin equally s on 115 northern si c IL has a relatively Simplt pmfile and consists of three sucLiUDs which dii fer in plan form To the west is a settinn whose The immrshcd iii lll l the study in coll 2 x Wer sites I an 2 cm huuszg m Illcs V cm boundcvy o Soul39mexsmr mm a mammalrs x mm c u swim Fig r Mall of llH39 liillrltlr39 wuliul rmiloiirs m mum mm H in ilu center a Human porinin plm 1 mi In m 31 39 mnumn m imigiu 11m 3D um um GnuHr mm Tl m39ll mm and mlmrs limo Miamiind iim mm b u m iunsliip belwvmi wil Ill ziilmav mi mpn Tupngmpliin ltlinulllv i 1 lie 1911mm in hl paucrn ul mumium sull moisriirv which is grnm39alli39 com o In H iimmr control of ninan pm IS 5 ri mam Iliictimi Giuilog in my Likv liml mgm v lllll lx luui m nili Ilm39nl mi mwmom inimrvil imp 501m 1 nmimi m riqmsnim l n l7 m 37 i auiilm ycr ol highly pcriiiealilr lul lt rldl ovr r lie owlr sill oaui le FOIlS 0f Illt Slaps irc wellrdmiiiml Brown lion Ll lunms on the xirziigln c rii sorlmn and Pllrflr lllr ll Bro ii PULI VIUI nuns on the cuiiunv ventral and coiiv 39 ei39ii portions The major difference bet I L i w 3 IS iim 1w Satllf l d condurln39ity hull E Ruin unqe 40 nun A Mm mm swank seam aw WW ND umck weighted mu s inns m m slIwmuar g Hungwl v39nm cnvlt39lm39r ml mmum m mm Ivr39neh39ilr 39xltl lmlll m c r l u 12 0 3n 39 m m 4 mmllml I39llauL39C ul39 SGll v m dollsily and 1 doc m nmmwm as depth mr39rvascs AL m mu m pasmm piln wonL I lvslrnde u rs ug 4 1 Huh x lu v Hmun l ulmlir mls igln i lttuclumnn gtUJ m gtallrllurl 0 sh wumuml appmnnmlulv m vs Interlaced with uld and structural c e mm mm worm holes a pmviK 3 mels that sucm t in rnndnmm vlmr nrv rnmlurn39r In sthnrfnrr Vlurml m ms munwwnuw ude i rm n my hills was thrN39plNl lw lllml in 540411710quot terlx H27 The lo nil uf Il m lrrtnrzll varmrl mm to 0 m lllpcndmg on the mm of the den llll sh quotI m Figure 2 TM inver mnt n dnulwl 1m vu svctions 3 25 foollong ummgm l hu er zone at an end m realmv we ems a lL 5l mllon svntiuu nl39 trench nlmimn llw leacm l39OuVC nml hm llonlrlmuz setlions Ilminmz 1ch ncuu slope and the 0174m w In earl section of lrnnch mno was 017 lw39lr d 1 mm levels the soil surface the busv and me mm of percnm cepago Figure 3T1e uw Tm 0mmquot W mr asurml m 35mm and of ill m mgr lumw mun scc ou Dlsdmrar was lmr rmmod from continuous rcrords gr stam uu culllu alcvl weir slots The numbering system 5911 lo relur to me various ow collect 39 shown m Table l A mnl a lmilv over 11m 3le unm av the e gm 2 i wlmn nr mu rurimmylxl m L lmnnni runan mm mm mnlimwml M Mr lurnnnns m Hu Guam umunlwd Mm mm m runoff pmrl m 39 0 far nmr who lllllsidw 7 plms O Figu Md nu 39CJ I luv I nnmlm immodlatcl lllzlou 1 mo ngm bank of nlw draining m hc remh nf chum xml JClWI rn mp wmrs lmrl nu mm 0139 only My square l39cm numl rr sxrrnm ho l l l k same tune rainfall 39ngt mmmred mm a Umch 344er weiglmm mm alga Dunn m39ti uiul Marv u mnrlum nmwnrk of rluny lymphd Dam we mnler 1 ms was used m measure rumfall Towl of CVCIHS mnmml 0139 mm were campmerl as Tlnossew ll Sum 39 2 argl W 123 3 an wet ml 7 gnzyemm 39 5 n hae s l M7 4 Nam Sand aim the N COHSI39IFI f d 4Tlle T Summersn BacHul Varved l Lake Deposit will be dism V0 39rrml39 I null and sun39um dnun In W 39cnt mm our TI 4 W m x the hilludc mum nrnrmpummn Fig 3 Cum Mm of NW immmpw mm 1 Hm Dr W m lFK lO 1m 1 hr claw han 400 mm39li u Rullu Prelimhum 431 weighth averages of the unicr Caught in lhcsc c an A mlr39h r tlvirlll plwrlic 1lt L ll to measure SUtl mm W 39l39 r mm 1111 ca Vlanp were p 1 d in each plrll Figure 1 1i11e11 thr base nl39 tho slope 011v llilll1y up the slope and HIV tllmvrqnllrltl39s of tllr w 3 up the slo1gt R ulinlzs weru when l39cehll Lllrnllgllulll UH mr illiih tlul nlquot srrrmmch before and after nalural rainstorm 11nd svu rfll and after nru r39 l mrnslhnn W 11 h to lhhln clclJLions wcm 1r1 Limrs during Him mule m Armrh pipes 11 the l39J lnmlmns sllmul in Figure I limvlm quot 39 0 throughout Ilh car r l rw minim 1011 quot 39mil in Mil l39ml r re rm mm mrh llnmeto prcmmmers the h IIIIH lm n in Figure 1 A SH 0 our piezcmclc hr Llrpl l cl m s id 4 feet was lnt ated lt each stmlnn T tlrrltilr let1p plezonm cre also installed at locations am 2 I icznmctric readings were milde l the same tune as llle waler tablc mmsul39cments 7 EVE 51111151 Dam em mllnclurl 111 the iallowmg Lips or Events Summer storms 2 Largo hirtuml nutumh storms uh nnusw wet ant cerl ni A nndi ions Simulated millslurm ul lllgll rchmi Ivor Natural rhinsloxms that occurred so soon after the simulmed stnrms that thvy could lie considered as a part 0f the same event 11 ms Summer Storms Thirty ve slmrm39 mi lug in amount up Lt 109 India wt re rccordcd during the corirsc of the stIlLlV Thr maximum 5minute and so h tc 5 arms ver 12 11x inches per hour respectively The return periods of the alarms were less than Live 3 s A larger more intense storm occurred rirrcr one of the arti cial rainstorllls hm ills ill be discussed separately lgui mnt Search runoff h s produccd on the lllllsidP in these storms hoitllcr overland ow nor flaw irom llic 1139 c of l E 3 a i 3 i a E mm zone TABLE 1 Numlmving System Used in Referring m xhe whimis wow Colleclms m the lntr rmplnr Tn vh l lm Level hf x mm ve Stmiphl Collcrmr 1 2 3 Surface 171 31 a 1 13151 nr rout 7mw 11 92 Zone oi perennial seepage 14 WP mmmrerl Flaw mm the lowquot tiles ur mmcrl tllrouzllnlll lllr ltItlll r lJUL lid 11111 llqmll r nnvl to inllulllunl millstnmis Imunlluatcl tilsvlmrgr r tn respond zllglltly after 1 pcriml al39 mm m timurh out ow rate lining rhc 1 rm 111 7 w s on 3 00000 clm per fool ol channel equivalva to 131 clm fur a drainage lensin n1 eight Inilcs per square mile 39 39 e for the SullWZItEl39FllOle of the Sleepers River 1 15 1 a F 39 E rhrs paper nlno 39 vohmics are ex39pi39esmd in our hic feet and much mm are exprexied in ruhic mmute lefm 110 rentals fur the lurk if rlmul39l39 were tlw high m llrsimn caphcm and cm age c1 acm hi 5 0n the llll H3 2 3 r 1 P The in ltratiun our many of these soils was measured to be greater nan 315 inches per hour me June 1 19 to October 1 1967 the slung 39 P d 0 capacity 05 these 1 new aw days Throughout the summer mom 5 lhc water table stood 4 Ln 5 feet below lie cen ter of 101 2 It appears therefore that summer smrms having a recurrpnce interval of lac than two vcm39s ln not 2 39 Cd ho soil moisture de cit and rcplcclch llie Witter mhle during 1hc course or 1 smrm Nat dots rainfall occur with su icient intensity and duration to form a perched water table within tlu moi zone Yet strellmflow in ha buxxb mm 1mm rm1lsul39rullallmguu nuh plot are inx39ludul fur x uxnpnrlsnn The rlnm dmnanmnu rhnt ulnn w mlm39wlv m w uuus39mc i Jmunuall huh lmmv mm rwiuw a nrzllmhle mmum Vho mlvr lxml r spnndx umLi u Mm m ever ur lhlw stmxns Rumw lulmm SlH39I m n liw mr39 mu uf Oclubcr 11m mu M u gulvsurfurc smrm muulT and that this 111117 n 39 mllr u 39 39 m39rmnfnll me ormnr gs Ihc begm Dunne 7 Ja Lherewrc more prulun by Lhu dntzn m 39I w m mmfnll muhl displavn 5m 39aler n l nr HF rulm VIN gtm ml 1 Hurlm mu Humims 1905 caus unl WC Similar resul s w r m Uhquot antr Hide and PUFFPV nthrr mnumn Sinnm Amnhur zlmruwrmic Hr II lmm un from L mduqu km nuk ucncr me the n 0 sum Ir 1 quot T nutw hm of r any ad bum m weirs VCI Lquot uhmmcd m n In v pnnw quvm al unlhm Hnrm mu L undmuus wn yc 39vr le for Hus mm by ms slope m n 1m m39 Amm39 u m m gt luv sin hit of Hm mm mm 4 m u upquot w 1 lt gtlrm md 1mm 1n pm n vln nl mmcmm cumh39mn u u mm llm hIUMIin 1w rmme m runn m mun MUinch smnn nfOxlu slxghl I uLuhtr L S 7 vu Imc l un mils um mlh 1 maximum umv uf srriuminus and In rams during hr 1 10hr Arm39urmuLc m 39 g m 39 a The wanFlume depth occurred hm m wlls 39 3 4nd F hoiarc the 10m were 1 3 1 fuck I 13f A h um 3937 net I39cspcctwdv In um at m wmmny 0r he 39 u m Is 1 urnulu m ullL m well 11 m the water I mm iwgm m wspnm dme he um hour of umumry M dun an awful inlem Mo Hummus and num rm q 0 hm Is 1007 Tins storm wow cumuon weL hm nu mm mm mmmvxul kcnsm m 2 1m ms pm 1 n aquot q x nux lulllc u wcll LI was only lyr lnw mp gman surface Tame 2 thws hp cumunb Mn Ln Lune f siuml u gc by Hur mian an such n hP 1110 TI k 1 1m ABLL Amounts of lisml ali and Emnnlhm and hr Tme Lug5 bvmcen llw Bcgmmn and lln II Iinl lke spnnsn rul39 Flnw m nah i let Tilvz Am the l39rcnrhcd Mupc during the l I mm n rmlwr IIFH 19437 of Rainfall inch Ram Smnm mw39 NnrmHrw39 39hmc lag L39uhw PM ywhvs mitme IunvN luleuh 1 I15 7 mm 39m s n mt H Li 1 U n72 Sn 1 3quot 0 007 51 u n UI I 193 39nm 245 I IJIJ H Strnigln hilh uln nnan 579 humI n l hnmu39l gt u n Pluumul 7 I um um 39mnn nw x Iv nul yum n xvi39uI1 nr Hr Un H luurhpnu KHHV WI wlmr It nu I hmlwr mm 1 mm Law um Tm u vhvrh 39vll 2 r x mm m dmwd 2 included that even normall39 the water 51 hour of of Rainfall Hush Rain er 10 In 0300 min17 I ralllrctlnn 453 mllii nll Discharge from tile LLB followed the in v ll v0 increli e Irlf l hiiinvl riinri hid derilllwl inrl l iiui shun lir quotLil39th sniismv rhli 39 7 rulnflll mailm dour unsiralcd b39 ill lhnr ruin neir 39 39miller nir rlnnd llmi rinr lmv from the base ul39 tlw mm zone acrllrred iii Illlgt sinrm Tho smrin piuzliiccd only 15 cubic feel of slurlnllmi39 out of no 15H Fllhliquot feel of rain that it39ll ml the vhrir pluis Lm qi39 A riiyirl39nl Rainxumm slinwed that leap slope anll illillltiiallv wet soil is mullll nov pl Inc 5 r i cnni amouan Vulrurillre nnll mi39 to Supply ll39le rcspnnr siw channel liydrugmph in thy vasi inajoriiy of slnrms ilm occur an this area ni rial storms were therefore produced on plms 2 and 3 In study lhe TH39GM SSPS thnl woulrl occur ill 1 water data are avail able Weather during that nuriilal however and conditions he rm can he rougth compared nith 39 l The reactions at p r i presentation of all ille dam on which the following description is based For further details the reader is referrer in a repnrt by Dunne 1969 On October 25 15167 3 L7quot inch smrm lasi ing lwn hauls delivered 002 cubic feel of wsicr lo the CODK39BYE plot 2 at the rate of 158 cfm The return period ol this rainfall in the study area is spinunmoer 25 years 0 5 Wm Bureau 1955 Because of heavy rains and irri gziiiuns in the previous mnnih the Soil was as we it 1 been during the snowmen period hich is the vnucsi Lime oi the year in this areal eloro llie sinrm depills m the waiur is hle 31 wells C 1 and E were 21 feel Hi feel 39rul r E l crrtnlllu elevations piezr ouieLric hem and snil lllDiSlurr Dmlmu lQGQl showed ihni inlhin hill an hour of the onset of o s i y i zooc 1m miw i awe mo w my Fig 4 Rainfall changes in Walerinble lion and rulon from Liln 273 l quotl l3939i during linil nilcr lhc DIGinch rainstorm of Lubcl39 IS 1967 rain 1 perched water I ile begun tn d 3939Ilp in p m 2 The water lable ruse lo the surface arrr the central dcpre s inn lleloii well E Ruiio lam prccntcd in Figure 5 show the marked difference in response iil smrlnllnw min the varinils horizons of the sollr Ailcr rain had JECH killing for 75 miiiule llrliv l39mm the lower tile 24 began 10 increast slowly from its initial mic of 0023 aim to 0319 i39l39m iwn hours after L r root zone tile 2 2 begun al the same lime as the initial respriiise nf tile 2 3 Discharge iris creasod ahru ly in a maximum of 077 aim at the end of rainfall and declined more slowly The ow from the real zone was associated wiih the rapid rise of Ilic water table into the p rmezihle smiin horizon at tho base of the DE A small trickle of water deposiied directly in Llii channel by the sprinklers owed from the surface channel 271 during the rs 65 mini ms of lllc sinrm There was lruwmr uu gamer quot ow 1lgt mm llw 1 11111 Il11 11 1 11 mg 11112 11111111 1111111 1111 5101111 of October 251157 11111011 111 1111111111111 391111111139 11 1 the slnpn Ainfall 1rt1gtr1zxvdtvl no fV W l 11111 111r1111 11 1111111111 11111 111111 1 131 11 1111osrmm 1 1 1111 11 11111 1 c1 1 1111111111 111111 11111111111 111111111 1111111111111111 11 mbic Pot of water 1111111111 m 1111 s r 1 clmumL Ten minute 1113911r 11111 1th 11139 rnj1lnll1 11111 111111 begun 111 11111111111 11111 more 11111111y leu 3911 1111 r39 u Wum rumpled from 1111 111l 511111111 um 111151 of 1111 11111111 rlerwrniimn 111 l lm secpugo was particularly obVlnus I oaks 111 5111111 11111111 the 1111111 lmlnw sllnln 11 luum 11111111191 39l39lm wrunr um 1111 measured 1 11191111111 law was 4 numbinaduu 11139 rutum Eluw39 from 1111 11111101 lmnznn 131 1119 and r1f 11111 1111 Inul lullcn directly 1111111 1l111 samrnhul arm 1 11 1111111 nywzl 1111 1 9111111 porno 11139 11111 11111 111 1111 11111111 1111111 111 nt39 111 pl 11111m wnLIr lll llml mv lunl 1hr ground sunl 1 Au 11111111111 m dc 111 11 ml 11 1 r nlmvmu n mrlace nman rum llh 11u scum s 11112114 111 vs 5 1 1 Lu 1 1111111 1 3915 seen 1 11 1111 armmd 111m 111gt 11 1111 11111 of 1111 39 gt111 n 1 111111111 gt1111111 11w 111111111111 111 1111 11 11111 1 1111 11m 11 111111111111 11 111111 11111 111111111111 1 1 l The m n u39L r wluch wnln 111111 11139 11111 1 1111111111111 1111 11139 1111 11111 11 51mm 131111 m 111 111 11139 runoff 1111 1211111111 121 t Qumrng from 11 11111 112111111 1101111111 ur hf I a E rllllwulr 111 510 1111 1111 11111111111 nn n 1111311 1111111 1111 1111151111111 11139 1i111111111 11111111111 Lllu 1111111 11110 111111nsfr111111 mpnrulc cunl nhnlmns 1I111 are r Lhe lile 11139 similar c21l1v11l1liu115 11111110 or 111 111quot the 11111411111 srnnns 111111 produan overland nw rumble 111 SM Inter v1 Ilw lmur prnml of llu mi ciul 510ml vluL 3 ru39civcd 101 111111113 10511 111111 9211 1139 all of Lhis 11 11111111 111111111 111 11 111 R 1 luau l1 1l1391391l 1111 yvlol 21ml plrrcolxnnn and d1 l 1 11 1C 5 1 111m 111 1 11111 111 14111 11111 1111 11 11111 1111 111 1 1111111 11111 11111 111 11111 1111111111 11111 1111111111 c391rl391N 111 11111 1111111111111 111 1 A 111 11111117 1111 111111 111111 111 11111111 1111 11 11113 11111 11111 hours 111111 1111 in 11 14 1 1 1111 11ml 11139 l1 1111139111 Uvnrlmnl l1n11 from M uf the in39iguwl M 11111111111111 111111111111111 1111 11111m1 11f 1111an pm 11111111111 1111 11111 11 11 111111111 1111 1 11111 1117 1 1 10 1 1 11111111111 ltu1111 111 1111 11111 111111 1111151111111 1311111111 11ml IKL H39 lw 1ni1l19rl as 11 1rlln3939 armrdmg 11 Ill 1116111111111 111 1511411 11 11 1049 Um 11111 lll ll H r r lll l 1 1 1lm391y1r 1171 1l mn r39livs 11139 1 urfac c 1l d flu 1 lo l E 111 11111111gtr11111 51111141111 111l l 11111 11111l1l l1 Wu mumm4 1 1 Rulm Prodlml lml W lace stormfln The gimblishmcm of sllrlzicr runn on this and mllcr slupclt during other iul39zi m nl i Cr mnml ml lnf rP SO in thy drainage leusil 39ol l rally Tetlllf ell the llltlfllll39l39 wlmlv Alor llml t l 39l illrullqh lhc snil lwlnre il n39atlnd the 39 i ll39 subsurl ncn llmv art l ECU and lemmath as he who rlmzrlberl in tlli report l lc l 39 Tlmt wulor muse ervPl through the Snil us an important wulrul cf SLUHH runu prorlllctlon T39Ill39l lmrl been lnlll rmnl to L the 1C sunrum lllLlP Siol l nmut39l hwn prnrlur ll ml Ills ltlopr liven lllr Aillnrw llllmtell C hmll h compiler of rlmllunl runu prorlun 395 001cm Valcrsllcll Any iucre in lllc el l irlollry of the cmmmtmh of mm vmllrl chererom llznr a large elToct 0n runnfl prollur quotml r 1907 munch arti cial sturm lustng two hours with a return period of rhm years clrled iluilal39 results Figure 8 shows that overland uW dominated Ihe term hylrogrnplr Soil moisture pro l nd able ellvarious showed that the a sum as h Se observed on 0c 0 erenrrc in timing ml in peak a m lllll Ln explained m terms nl rllchrenrr s ll mt conditions and rainfall mtmsrly A 241 rmcll storm lasting two hours was produced on July 17 190 Although V of 11 srorm gramr than 100 years and anter cPdm39lt moisture conditions were relwr than normal for early summer very little sturm run tahle de 7 ch The slope seem t ave just a Lalned the threshold condition at which furlher rainfall would produce large amounts or runalr A nat uml storm orcurring immediately afrcr the mi guliun nun nnn this On October 5 1907 l 03inch starm lasted for one hour on soil Cour moo mm n my Mg 6 Cnmlvullzrl liydrngr pll of flows mm plm 2 huntave during the ani cilLl storm hi or lubor 25 1067 dulous lint were Welter than nonnal lor early autumn The amounts of slurm ow produced by th and the other arti cial storm lmnhed al t h able 3 Nulnrul Storms Fulluu illg Arti cial 51071le T n of the artl nl storm rlcst l39ilxml prr r iuusl were folluu r ll llllll ll llor l mm by largr mluml Iormlt 39l hosn mnu m m shaltu Llll39ampuun and higher mlt39nsity than the mrhml storms and thcy occurred nu amber dent comhuulh that rr mur ll water than quotIn o alt various levels in plotr 2 durin 0 ncll rain that uncul39red ltl liuurlt allor the arti liai storm or 0mm 25 1957 Ruuo m and watertable elevations u39ure rererlmg alter the mlllcjal sLonu but well l CnlegS sinned that rhe wtiler alle ruwe tn the surface over the central concavity before the main bursl or min verlzm ow again dominated Lhe hyllrogmph Table 4 Ouerhall hour after the cud of the 24lrlucll arll riul storm of July 17 1068 153 lucllcs of rain fell in two bursis one hum of R 15 niche per hour lasted for 21 minutes and ill second hllrst of 275 inches per ha ed for 1 quot0 ur lag minutes Figure 10 The return prriod of thi 486 mm AND ELAI39K m m g T mnulmwe ow for the NF producmg runo during ml n vr the rum uf Mnlwr 1967 m Hus tumbinml Lmegmrh of nmo from plui 2 durmg me 5mm of menu In 1961 TABLE Ammu u s mm mm 2 mnmn WM 3 Rainfall r 11mm mo 54 Tm 2 Tile Tum 39 UrmllJw IF Iv lu m hams at r m ml 15 mm my beginning I began ySoc 1Pnfuralnulh storm is xppmxxmnu s apprmimnie mu m funny I39m39m um 39I39ABLL Ammum r Slmm u in Cuhir Fm I uulurwl m le 2 ml W in m Jl Rnlnsmrm i lu39r a H mm m m muer Jul 139 Suvxh39w l39 I J V l im L39 kmn ln Mum H dh I39hauupI L l I 39xlr H H H h 4114 quoth nun A I H 39X xh r H 139 39 l l nlal l 39 Hmrm uw 1gt dahnm mm h u Hum mml uw mt m 1an 1 mm Mir 1 mu L I H s n 1 am an mm 110139 u n n u u u 3 u n m u rm lw wrwl rum Llw beginning of minqu um 1 sixhmlrm lvrIlwvniuf raunan unonlhvUCIabLl39lul39nw ll slurnxlluw perm fnr the h mm Mmquot llwluvuhn grfminfa uquot 39 nanlr Imnr ahIrHuumluh iumL whm a Man nnmml miwmm 1mg 4 Wu fur mummls nr mml39nll oqu J in indw Fmrm Ls mpruwmznply 50 wurs If me Imle lnumuuum was 525quot rrm Whilu mum mv mvl unmvm smuw H39r cn nwrl n on mew omnlmlrd ruun m hr rmu of Rum m m By lhr N n pnrmd far My ranan slum 5 11m cml nl lu ruwmd burst If rain 1ka vunlrx vur11 lnnvlhIJ curs N Irony W Kuwait hunml re rum rfm rm mm xreripu 7 1155 mmm1pm mndnions Wre shun mu md H rim mm ram HI n rnmnr m fur m inux L Iunmvr uxu Tix Inninn rum Iirm39L pr ipmmun ma cummHeJ mnunrm rvmfnrrwl Iv Pthrt nr Hm pnmliug by Hm iumnm m llm mm mu Iln arm of me ir Inm nu lh bum rum u 7 Tum m Ilm 1w Iuw unu mluxulml 1 wlu qrmmllnw hum Hm Inwrr par of Mr 1 vi rm md 39l Ihmughnm Iu mm 111quot humm 1 39 ubglicv T1 t x 39VLLIu1mvruhluh an39rquIHcmer 1411 m I orm so mt nm mno in n vizr grmnnl Furerr39 3an run qulvklydmm I A39ulluuuul Previuu inmmon hm hm inruzmwl mm in m nunm of me h mnr 2mm nlt fully saturated humanL lmzi runtrdmmm n ma hydmzmpll mm Hm a mug slmwn llml 1 m tl charge rut 01 HI map In 1mm quotMural sturms mnu I rmu plan 3 mrrrmhlv rlm nrmns Wan 5 390 llmn w l39erl In Us Mm rnuld he eVrleczPi from 39r 392 739 Sn rumH rum plm 392 renrhvd tlu Insz uvrdml during Uu39 sLudy iuuu mg 1 m the Imglmving of the mom tle 0nd u the rst imnnsc nulr er Fxg urc 101 After runoff illumith from 030 cfm II ME scram burs n mm nu was ugnin pruduced by a rank hnmuuu n rvlurn rm and dined preciplunun ml J lac wlnmtcd area of the ilkide Iapni I ma ullmwd A r nhlmnns rum lwnr penurl uI39 iEHEI39LSL39 I f rah 39 I I39I m mm ough c uI mm hsoun39r Av vuvj of 1m fr v min the l 1 nppnwim39nr mp rf mmn produce1 by 4mm 1 m hgxhln m rm INm um gmund surface and although 1 u 1m er rast lhf Hllcr mhr nurl pmmmtr sharply mwanla Mu 0nd uf mu h smrm liHIu suhsmfnur slnrm nw was monsnrml Th9 dam dmnun ed In cxlrrxnu dqu un 39mu39nlerl porrnlnuon in In gTUHIHI39A IIl39T h nut nrcur lmmusv t U the gmuml l39mv r39ulnr 39 0139 slorm uw mu and Hnw d m um r39 quwnly on mmm n m n rm3 onsv Iy 1 m m x rln m mmr hcd Imn um hm mu m r nmv a H r Hm 39I um An mm mmquot 58 nUNxE n nnr39rz h 17 19 failed to produm 5mman mm lu 1 emmhv lurlaxde On Ilw rmwaw plot lmnu 39 v v rwl he cumbinuuon 01 A shallv ry mar Hv mm m muwlmg yor 1quot nlmx Hm mencr r lmn MI MN m urm uu mum irnmlmnx 39l llv rmme prmlmed lmwevrn m rvmurknlrlv mm39l39 fur 11 small umunitudo uul 1110 mayquotan mm m us nupnrlanr e to m m mrm nnw w 39I39 um runxtt mroducinu nicelhmlzm ulxich up gt AnnP mnn In mmmr 1 lsvn lquot mm uw on mull mm H pap mg m w T In xvmu r r 5 77 u lln39 m u w ml by 1 mqu mum r rnHHH Nov 39 1 wimp q rvvlrnmlinnnnlu1 yHurswr 1 v x mm 39 Unlvn lwn 39xlrrus relmsul 39lumplm vimr or unmnnmml mu nurn mrmiminu hv lm ukm hmugh In quot39 i an wuld u unmnhum m r hunnrJ 39 u n signi mnt me TM a 7 h xr n m un he rclnnvc mum a rd mrunrr n Lam mu surr k wrs on u ulqnm n39m39pk v 1963 msund wmurmp ILL J Klinqu um muu dnln rum pl l 391 for we GASinch nzuuml surm a U4 Iobcr 0 1047 390 m n unwlL mo mm ht ohmime hm been av prm lng um suhsurfmw slnrmllnw 5 I m mm mnjur vqu u ur m slrnm hydrogmphx mm in 1 1mm maria m the rowm lnvmlnru rm Ilhsurfxu39v IT pmduutlun in humul ers Subsurfacc 39m v lt IrlhwI IIV Hm rmrs quolrd m 7 pumm mnmlumr m o w mu y lmm 39I39AHHquot I mulnls r Smr mu m mm Fvw v m1 awnin SI IH Sm wnlmuns L Prvulmwl nu PM 39 39 39 ml Ix mvhrmx g nnrnlly nnmlma xIMI nr sur h 1 nwrhzuy quotquotquotquotquot r l m quot quot 39 7 thruugIHu I mu A smulur slvuly mm m umber JIS l39uly 17 mks m r urn was pm I nun n 7 7 mum won and in mmvhur hum m w W 39ll 1fll y TS 2023 n Amp area I39nn rmmi um mum n m the lvillsxtie drsrnhw in mi ruporl m1 Hr s39uxfm e sLun u nw pl udnclwl mummy no rum 2 during natural 5mm in 511m nf Hm fuCL 11m 391 in the autumn a lt7 mn mm mm was nnly um Ir wrn le lu lmv lllc zlmmd url 1101 k W 77 7 V 1 wu ulun In 37 3H l v 10 hr h as 1 II n rL mnsidemblc nlumr 39 pnrr 5pm umzahle u xmnun m 11 rur sum2 nx minfulL va wry Iiqu ml WMEr 7 mi Nor Jr was displace l mm the Su sm ann mm M 7 am 1 11 NH gmmuy mm m mm mm m n sul 7 Imhmtinn H mm mngniLudQ m an nus mum mum gm 5 n Aim 3 de ned 5 mm mm mm husr m winch In mnmbnm 0 mo mm mm M Ma gunmm Hun I39m 1 I mm mm mum ur mum mm or rm m mm hulm mm m m1 n mum m1 0 1 h Lquot I L 39quotg quot quotv m quot quot P urn Ln amuunls M mlulnH WWW m mrame H39euls surh as In AHth miniqu m mm gt 1 graphs m Runo Pmmimnn m minivan Channel 2i hm it Fig 10 IL iiiii39all mid runoff data fur plot 2 com cave in llll iialilml stnnn n July 17 1968 Kn by and liariii ngl il p all for example Claim that ii v Lidid sliuiiv that I i t miigiiiliiiiv is capable ni protlllcmg ninnri peaks in ii i liyili gl aplls A closer luck at Whipkey s dam and comparison With results from t i dy throw considerable doubt mi tho rolt or Siilisiiriate iii sides as stu reliiaiiling below i dawn hillsides to a stream contributes ouli small pm at the water supplying the nVcl hydrogmpi til it are available on the behavior of the stimiii at the base of the slope Whipkey studr icd Nor are any data available on runoff pru dmnd tm thr slope during nnfllrlhl storms No I llll39uLlul is gum in his paper of the r hient to which 1113 wel39 and dry39 antecedent condi ions nr the magnitude of his arti cial rainfalls rcpmsnnt coiiditiuns under which river liydror graphs are formed In tlmt region The area huwmc is not too ili cmiit min the present Oxperlmcnffil area in invalidate mniimisons T 1 had in the pn N lll ILtpL r proved to be man i lc m xiil iiiim sturiii iiii Lllilli the one like Slutlicd The ltlope used in the present study was much i and the impeding layer at lllti concave t was gt licm m it shallower iloptli AJ 6 3 the hill of the Stud the Slope hml lieeii mined by plnc Dori iml 39lO yours belong and the AIlnrizun ll the 0 him 5 3 E E ductility at W A on us atii by the me method li39liiiiliei merit iii name 133 inches per hourl than the o e lie calculntt il for rlln Ohm slope 113 inches The tot l amniml pvak rate of ow and r spansu39eness of subsurface sttlnnllo from the concave slope d srribed in the present study t curring on a soil pm le that had drained from satiimtiiiii only a ten days we 39iou did not begin to yield run li39 until onehalf hour lfl nr t ic leak ow rate from this storm was U lli rA39m per foot of hillside Total rlino in the 24 hours Iollm39 llli stuiin amounted to only 10 it Applied miiifall iii the concave plot used in the present stuti 1 I z 0 rev t e at 0015 ciiii per foot of hillside Tt il palrent of rainfall luit the hill 6 39 th thcu cr39 t1 following Lhe aid of atom the inset oi this flow was smaller than in the lrxanmlv given by Whipkcy The noiiipzii39isnu til results listed ltlJ0C shows that subsurface stoniiilciii on plot 392 in t is pres u 39 as I39 g a E a E the s dy described by Whip of this runoff with channel riinu 1mm t h d hoi er showed I it sullsur the hillside was 1 relatively small illl imam hydr graph acre waters 6 face ow from and rare cuntnliular D T mm thii H Plli lled lllllFldL during the all oi 1967 when t er table 5 onl39 13 feet below Lhr soil surl UL gg that even at the llzisc of a hillside when the water table is close to the surface remLion of WII m 531 w um mL 0 m lllt s39llnrzllml mlw slou ln ruulpnrlsml duspltr lnlldlllulls hullablv or its c lonequot ulll lllnl ul39 gtlrr39nm lm39 lquotllllw nmrl 39 dnn The impormn If 4 ar lnf Inllsidr 351 pm Illl urllumnn llmmlur r mrv 11mm ltlvitll lnm n lnm rulle m 39 Till llumr mm the 111 In Ixquot it Elllhljulitll cmuribuliuu w mnnn39 lhlrlllgz slnrms lur urnor cwxlflnu II In pollumll nnlms ul mmllm rr pm qnll inrm l IH lllhquot In mum limv and h l nu ulllu Ilr a J cnl39lll not nmnlrr Sllnl mm quot AI uu Ihn h 139 ll a lunll ul39 runu winch mhlbllcd l l n 0 W Hm uutcl lullll nucllud 1x 2 vim Mllmugll Um H H rn mm lull mo slam mm L llll u llml xvllmllnw bean ihf sull m 39l luv 1 anmmll39n lmm 1W ground cmlsm l lrlm u mrviulllrlu39 munpl or storm mnu u m 111w mulls llm mrp llukulg m us lb pmlnmnn murm I MVIHHIIHH 391 mm H 1139 1 ts Il knuulvlmvp39nf Hue mllll l m Irmer ulmm Inth m lull 4 Jill mm lmx lul Hm m 1 an lll lull Pillt llllllcd 39CHl39 391 nl sl 7 WWI439 139 1 lrfrlm llmv 39I lus lHuu39Id mnrr wmr lu mm m H WW Lu W l39rmu l lvI39 1m M in 1 mm lll IliH 39 L 39 E 39 L Helm H l mm W wulmlml numw H39mlnllll39 llml llul IIIP velumy er sulmlrrm J Mark H mm 15 pl ow T14 umll impurlnm mum of he rr l39umm I lml w Ilumn In llmnm in n lmmil mm mr l 1 us mm sensquot my 0 llucum PM mwmo Mun Hawn Uuveri 1 WWquot I mm M v Bulllmrlrr Llry m1 19539 H H 39 U 3 l 39 lCl39ml f flr hv HIP shnn llllanr or ow 39 aquot 39 m L m quot i hl r and la l mm or a mmlnlmn mgmn m th Illnuth lhv sull Only hell he must lable ul 0mm Mum J N lgII Mer ht sml surrm md Esmbllshed tundl I rn my 3n Ler39 or averlzunl u mld mm mm H wlu J D I I mum sf 1quot q ll mun no mo rhsnnel willlr m W H quotLi quotquot gt E pmupmumn m lulmld areas Pmc Inl n 1 e unmluw uf nlluu39 ft v of subsu m c 0 mm ponmqmia Sm 9 mm 1 flmr 3911 gnumu r dumrpro rmww m me W39 39 luumlmn 1mm lllf K39Huratcd arm us also E HSL llmluu J 11 HIM R H Illelm I Inu pnlh e luv u lluw um I mman mummy and F r n Irom quotw w rim Lu W um va V 1 Iowa 1 l 1 durumquot m lav lunn lln mu 1 raw 3 l non H l39 Lmuoueldt 0 men lull Vzlh r lmnrll mun llu AUTLII P and mm dmmngo buSmF Gull M innhm ul Lh i1 Illnu nnnulct and llll 8141756 275 370 lsllsl similar K Llw M l uml R I nlmrlr Owerlmlll ow 5 n llll39ngh uu uml Elwin IuL Amquot sli Ill41ml Bullquot mu fr39ll 1907 m R h 1le or l39ulmlT 3915 dr FHl39 HV rmlllNll punms was ubFu Vcd dulillg uni ch smrm a nr shallow poorly drained soils in Um 39 HINDU quot m V A A Kolller and J H L h 51quot 39UPXSIHKLIII umsullsmbwrnmcsmm mm M quotydmwmsg p MW vvlum 0w Hnw rulllrllllllml hmmn 1939 and 5 of lhr ll39ev39l rk19i9 mm 39 pm I39llnnrf ml while ucl leucipiL liuu ml Ru 1m 12 M Aquot wrulllvmzll invmligmiml of quotmullml l nlum Hnw mvh Mntrihuled Alllmsl 50 ufthv WW 9quot C v v ulnbulluns BLrun Symputinm lanrnllllrllml Avsolmliml ul39 Sviunce um Hyr wk mu m mm l l mllmm pammele rorrolnled a lavr39mwmxs Fm Fl Sm39 Amer J39mt SAX 39 4 7 v lt12 larl l llllu I llllr l JI39rlneu quotu I 1 I quotE 1 quotjj V I f 9 m U stlllllxrBlm lR1IIH lIU39lI lllnllx nr mm W Izrwmllll x m mm Area goncepl 0 WWW W for MM mm in we I 1 WI H m duvhnn IIWxm Sim Hagan mm Hmmim mum ml gtfquot3939 lmm Slulliluzlm 39lluuuuls ul sm ru o w ml Tm Pa 25 was 0 Y I39N39H only prmlurod ln snml areas nf hillside whm f 4 Ti i urhcg 511130 groin mtluv mum llll mun will l m the ul fucc Subsurfnm quot39 quot39 39 0quot V quot quot 39 7quot quotWquot quotW mnnllm manner In lame slm ms ml was Nil WWI gm 6 WW I In m 1quot numrhm39 mmnhulor lo mml storm mna H mm 2 15m 39 quotquotquotV quot ling mmi


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