New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Ervin Wiza


Ervin Wiza
GPA 3.81

E. Jensen

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

E. Jensen
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Natural Resource Ecology And Mgmt

This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ervin Wiza on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FOR 141 at Oregon State University taught by E. Jensen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/224466/for-141-oregon-state-university in Natural Resource Ecology And Mgmt at Oregon State University.

Popular in Natural Resource Ecology And Mgmt




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/19/15
Trees of North America The Gymnosperms Part 47140 ST AUTHOR Edward C Jensen Dendrologist Forest Resources Department OSU PRODUCER Forestry Media Center Oregon State University Corvallis OR 97331 June 19 1986 SLIDES 80 TIME 38 minutes OPERATING PROCEDURES Begin this program with slide quot1quot on the screen and the tape advanced through the clear leader The following slides are in vertical format and should be checked to see that they39re properly oriented in your tray 18 NOTE Genera within the following families are included in this slidetape PinePinaceae SLIDE 1 series title The intent ofthis slidetape series is to focus on important or distinctive genera of North America Individual species will be used to illustrate specific characteristics and to lend perspective to each genus but your attention should remain on characteristics ofthe genera Let39s begin with the gymnosperms those woody plants commonly referred to as conifers But before looking at individual genera let39s see where the gymnosperms fit into the larger scheme ofthings SLIDE 2 taxonomic chart Although scientists differ slightly on how plants should be classified and new information is uncovered almost daily most would agree that the plant kingdom can be divided into three major groups the algae and fungi the vascular plants and the bryophytes which contain the mosses liverworts and hornworts SLIDE 3 taxonomic chart Vascular plants the group we39re interested in in these slidetapes can be further divided into the ferns the horsetails the seed plants the club mosses and the psilotums SLIDE 4 taxonomic chart The seed plants can again be dividedinto the angiosperms which bear their seed inside ovaries and the gymnosperms which bear naked seeds SLIDE 5 taxonomic chart The gymnosperms the focus of this program can again be dividedinto cycads ginkgo gnetales conifers and yews It39s the latter two groups that we39ll be reviewing in this slidetape series Within the conifers are approximately 5 families 50 genera and 550 species while within the yews are 1 family 5 genera and 10 species In this series of slidetapes we39ll look only at the principal genera found in the United States and Canada To learn about other genera you39ll need an appropriate dendrology textbook SLIDE 6 family title The largest and most important conifer family is the Pine family Pinaceae It contains 9 genera and about 210 species stretching throughout the Northern Hemisphere from the Tropics to beyond the Arctic Circle North American representatives include the pines larches spruces Douglasfirs hemlocks and true firs The only major genus not native to North America is the true cedar genus Cedrus which occurs in the Middle East SLIDE 7 genus title Ofthe genera native to North America the first we39ll look at is pine Pinus 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University All rights reserved 2 Trees of North America The Part SLIDE 8 mapworldwide distribution of genus The pine genus is very large with 90100 species scattered throughout the forested regions ofthe Northern Hemisphere About 35 species occur in North America alone This genus comprises the largest and most diverse group of conifers in the world a fact that has given rise to the tendency of many people to refer to all conifersincorrectlyas quotpine treesquot Pines are also among the world39s most important trees for timber and pulp production SLIDE 9 needles in fascicles several species Perhaps the most distinguishing feature ofthe pines is that their needles are borne in tiny bundles called quotfasciclesquot Most species have a fixed number of needles per fascicle usually two three or five although one species has only one per fascicle and another has four Some species have fascicles containing different numbers of needles on the same tree usually two and three per fascicle SLIDE 10 split slidedifferent sized needlesartwork of needle Xsection The shape of pine needles is always acicular or needlelike but the length varies greatly from 1 to 18 inches Because each fascicle has developed from a single round needle it39s possible to predict the shape of needle crossections from the number of needles per fascicle If a tree has one needle per fascicle it will be round two will be hemispherical and three or more will be triangular The angles making up the triangular cross section will vary predictably depending on the number of needles per fascicle Knowing this simple fact can aid tremendously when trying to identify a pine from a single needle SLIDE 11 cones variety The cones of pines are also distinctive from those of other genera but there39s great variety even among the pines As you can see they differ widely in size shape and other characteristics Some have thick scales others thin Some have sharp prickles others none Some open immediately at maturity others remain closed on the tree for years retaining viable seeds until conditions are right for germination Regardless oftheir characteristics most pine cones take two years to develop fully Seeds vary in size and shape almost as much as the cones and this greatly affects how and how far they39re dispersed from the mother plant SLIDE 12 art Because of the diversity in this genus there are a number of ways to group the pines into smaller more uniform units The method most commonly used for the pines of North America combines morphological characteristics or structure ofthe various parts with geographic distribution SLIDE 13 arthard pines vs soft pines The most common breakdown divides the genus into quothardquot and quotsoftquot pines Although these categories refer to the hardness of the tree39s wood they39re only partially accurate since the wood of some of the quothardquot pines is softer than that of several of the quotsoftquot pines A second common breakdown uses the colors yellow and white in place of hard and soft In this system the hard pines are referred to as yellow pines and the soft pines as white pinesto reflect the color ofthe freshly cut wood Let39s look first at the soft pines SLIDE 14 artsoft pine characteristics The soft pines usually bear their needles in fascicles of five although fascicles of one to four are also possible The papery sheath that surrounds each fascicle is deciduous that is it falls off at maturity The cone scales are thin at the apex and usually have no prickles so are said to be quotunarmedquot Theirwood is relatively soft with a gradual transition from early wood to late wood and the heartwood is white in color SLIDE 15 artsoft pine breakdown The soft pines can be further divided into the white pines stone pines pinyon or nut pines and foxtail pines each with distinctive characteristics Ofthese the white pines are farandaway the most important forest trees 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University rights reserved Trees of North America The Part 3 SLIDE 16 needlesconesP monticola The white pines of North America have needles 2 to 6 inches long and borne in fascicles of five Their cones typically have long stalks and thin unarmed scales Their seeds have terminal wings that are longer than the seedsas a result they39re good flyers aiding greatly in wind dispersal ofthe seeds from the parent tree SLIDE 17 mapdistribution of principal species in North America The most prominent white pines of North America are eastern white pine Pinus strobus common in New England and the Lake States western white pine Pinus monticoa which grows throughout the mountains of California and the Pacific Northwest and sugar pine Pinus lambertiana which grows throughout the Sierra and Cascades of California and Oregon SLIDE 18 tree P monticola All three ofthese white pines are large rapidly growing trees prized for their soft easily worked lumber When grown in stands they have tall straight trunks devoid of bottom branches This once made them a mainstay of the sailing industry for the construction of masts The red branch on the lower right side of this western white pine is the first sign of white pine blister rust a fungal infection responsible for dramatically decreasing the commercial importance of all white pines SLIDE 19 branchcones and seeds The next division within the soft pines consists of a minor group called the stone pines Like the white pines stone pines have five needles per fascicle but stone pine needles are generally less than 3 12quot long and are clustered on the ends of branches The cones have short stalks and thick unarmed scales The seeds are large making them a favorite of squirrels and they have small or no wings making them poor flyers Therefore most seedlings are found close to the parent tree unless the seeds are carried away by flood waters or animals SLIDE 20 tree P albicaulisword The two prominent North American stone pines are trees of the high mountains Iimber pine Pinus flexiis grows throughout the mountainous West while whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis is limited to the northern Rockies and Cascades Both are small trees not commercially important but highly valued for the beauty they give to high windswept slopes SLIDE 21 foliagecone split The next division ofthe soft pines is the pinyon or nut pine group Pinyon pines have needles that are generally less than 2quot long occur in fascicles of one to five and are clustered near the ends of twigs The cones have very short stalks thick twisted scales and large unwinged seeds that are a food source for humans as well as wildlife SLIDE 22 tree P edulisword split Four species of pinyons and several varieties and hybrids dominate vast areas of the arid southwestern United States and northern Mexico All are small trees that grow in scatteredtodense woodlands with a variety ofjunipers Although not important commercially pinyons are extremely valuable for watershed protection and for the beauty they add to the harsh lands they inhabit They39re also a valuable source of food for wildlife and once formed a primary staple ofthe American Indians who inhabited these desert lands SLIDE 23 foliagecones both P aristata The final division of soft pines is another minor groupthe foxtail pines so named because of bushy foliage that39s retained on the twigs for many years The needles themselves are similar to those ofthe stone pinesgenerally less than 2quot long and arranged in fascicles of five but foxtail pines hold their needles much Iongerup to 17 years The cones are shortstalked and have thick twisted scales like the stone pines but foxtail cones are armed with prickles and their seeds have long wings 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University All rights reserved 4 Trees of North America The Part SLIDE 24 tree P aristataword split The foxtail pines are shrubby windswept trees of the highest elevations ofthe southwestern United States The two principal species are foxtail pine Pinus bafouriana and bristlecone pine Pinus aristata Although neither are commercially important they provide important watershed protection and add great beauty to a desolate landscape Additionally bristlecone pines are among the oldest living organisms on earth with a number of individuals over 4000 years old and at least one nearing 5000 years Because of the long history captured within their rings these trees are a valuable aid to scientists studying longterm climatic changes SLIDE 25 arthard pine characteristics Next let39s look at the hard pines of North America a group comprising roughly 23 of all the pines on the continent The hard pines generally bear their needles in fascicles of two or three or in a combination of two and three The papery sheath surrounding each fascicle generally persists for a number of years The cone scales are thickened at the tips and are often armed Their wood is generally hard with an abrupt transition from early to late wood and the heartwood is yellow in colora fact that results in this group often being called yellow pines SLIDE 26 arthard pine divisions The hard pines are the most commercially important of all North American pines as well as containing the most species and covering the widest range For ease of identification they39re often divided into three groups based on geography one for the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada one for the southeastern United States and one for the western United States and Canada Unfortunately these geographic divisions don39t always lead to the neat morphologic distinctions found among the soft pines SLIDE 27 mapdistribution of principal species in North America The two principal northeastern hard pines are red or Norway pine Pinus resinosa and jack pine Pinus banksiana Jack pine has the wider distribution ofthe two growing throughout the Lake States ofthe US and across Canada making it one ofthe most common and widely distributed of North American pines Red pine has a much smaller distribution occupying the Lake States New England and southeastern Canada Note that on this and many subsequent maps areas in which species overlap will be shown in brown SLIDE 28 P resinosaP banksiana Red pine shown on the left is a tall and stately treevalued for its timber jack pine is small and scraggly and finds its way into commercial markets primarily because of its abundance Both have two needles per fascicle but they39re easy to tell apart by needle length red pine needles are four to six inches long while jack pine needles are generally under two inches SLIDE 29 mapdistribution of principal species in North America Approximately ten hard pines are native to the southeastern United States Ofthese four are especially important commercially accounting for a high percentage ofthe lumber and pulpwood produced in North America each year Loblolly and shortleaf pine are the most common and occur farthest inland while Iongleaf and slash pines dominate the lowlying plains ofthe Atlantic and Gulf coasts Again the area in brown indicates where the ranges of all four overlap SLIDE 30 P taeda stand Ofthese four principal species Ioblolly pine Pinus taeda is the most important commercially As well as being one of the leading lumber producing trees in North America it39s also one ofthe leading pulpwood species SLIDE 31 P palustris needles Longleaf pine Pinus palustris is probably the most distinctive southern pine simply because of its needles which may reach 18 inches Longleaf pine is an important source of lumber and also a leading source of naval stores such as turpentine pitch and rosin 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University rights reserved Trees of North America The Part 5 SLIDE 32 mapdistribution of principal species in North America Although there are approximately a dozen hard pines scattered throughout western North America only threeJeffrey ponderosa and Iodgepoleare of commercial importance Jeffrey pine has the smallest range of the three for the most part confined to the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California Ponderosa and lodgepole pines have extensive ranges that cover much ofthe mountainous West Ofthe two ponderosa extends farther south dropping well into Mexico lodgepole extends farther north occupying early successional sites from Mexico to Alaska SLIDE 33 P ponderosa stand Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine are nearly identical in appearance and growth Both have 5 to 10 inch long needles occurring primarily in fascicles ofthree Both grow in open parklike stands and have distinctive yellow or orange puzzlelike bark Ponderosa is the more widespread ofthe two occurring in commercial quantities in all states west of the Great Plains It furnishes more lumber than any other American pine and is second only to Douglasfir in total volume Jeffrey pine has a narrower range but is slightly better adapted to extreme temperatures and drought The stand pictured is ponderosa pine growing on the east flank of the Oregon Cascades SLIDE 34 P contorta stand Lodgepole pine is the other important western hard pine Its three varieties grow over a wide latitude and elevation range and have several distinctive growth forms Along the Pacific Coast lodgepole is a small tree often twisted and shrubby but farther inland it grows tall and straightin dense evenaged stands that are suitable for lumber production Ofthe western pines lodgepole is the easiest to reco n39ze because of its short needles occurring two per fascicle Ofthe other pines it most closely resemblesjack pine of Canada and the northeastern United States In fact the two species hybridize where their ranges meet in the northern Rockies SLIDE 35 artpine breakdown Taken as a group the pines are the most diverse and important set of conifers in the world Although it39s hard to tell them apart from such brief descriptions you39ll be surprised how easy it becomes when you see them on a daily basis SLIDE 36 genus title The next genus in the Pine family we39ll look at is larch Larix Notice that the common name tarmarack is sometimes used for the genus SLIDE 37 mapworldwide distribution of genus Larch is a small genus of about 10 species native to cool mountainous regions ofthe Northern Hemisphere Only three species are found in North America SLIDE 38 L occidentalis foliage Without doubt Iarch39s foliage is its most distinctive feature On new shoots soft yellowgreen needles are borne singly and spirally on older shoots they39re densely clustered in sets of from 12 to 40 on short woody spurs It39s interesting to note that these woody spurs are actually stunted branchlets that fail to elongate in the typical fashion The only other conifers to bear their needles in such fashion are the true cedars ofthe genus Cedrus native to the middle eastern part ofthe world SLIDE 39 L Iyallii autumn colors Perhaps most importantly all Iarches have deciduous foliage Although they aren39t the only deciduous conifers in North America they39re the most common and they39re the only ones with needles borne on spur shoots SLIDE 40 cones several Larix species Larch cones are also distinctive and are often the best way to separate different species Mature cones are small eggshaped and erect The scales are thin and in some species are separated by distinctive bracts like the cone on the longest twig in the slide 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University rights reserved 6 Trees of North America The Part SLIDE 41 tree L occidentalisIist In spite oftheir deciduous foliage and the harsh climates in which they often occur Iarches grow tall fast and straightand their wood is strong and durable These characteristics make larch a prized timber species especially for poles pilings and posts Their unique botanical characteristics also make them valued for landscaping and street plantings SLIDE 42 mapdistribution of principal species in North America Three species of larch are native to North America eastern larch or tamarack Larix laricina has farand away the largest range growing throughout the northeastern United States and across Canada especially on wet boggy sites Western larch Larix occidentais occupies the Inland Empire ofthe Rocky Mountains and the Cascades ofthe Pacific Northwest Subalpine larch Larix lyalii occupies a similar range but occurs only at the highest elevations SLIDE 43 genus title The next genus in the Pine family is spruce Picea SLIDE 44 mapworldwide distribution of genus The spruce genus contains 30 to 45 species almost half of which are found exclusively in China Spruces are confined mostly to cool or mountainous regions ofthe Northern Hemisphere and form a very important group economically SLIDE 45 sterigmata P sitchensis Perhaps the best identifying characteristic of the spruces is that their needles are always borne singly on distinct woody pegs called quotsterigmataquot Although not as easy to see as the woody spur shoots of Iarches or true cedars these sterigmata are quite apparent on close examination SLIDE 46 needles on twig P pungens Spruce leaves are single linear and spirally arranged Most are sharppointed and are four angled in cross section rather than flat Generally they39re about 1 inch long and most emit a pungent odor when crushed SLIDE 47 several cones P abies P breweriana P pungens P sitchensis Spruce cones are distinctive of the genus Although they range in size they39re all woody and are composed of thin spirally arranged unarmed scales that may have smooth or feathered edges SLIDE 48 pendent cones on trees P abies In several species the cones hang heavily from the branches in dense terminal clusters contributing greatly to the quotweepingquot appearance often associated with spruces SLIDE 49 bark P engelmannii The bark ofthe spruces is also distinctive Generally it39s thin scaly or flaky and has a red or purple tinge when the outer bark is flaked off SLIDE 50 aphid gall P sitchensis Spruces are susceptible to a variety of damaging agents The spruce gall aphid whose infestations result in these conelike structures is one of the most apparent attackers but there are a number of others as well In addition spruces may be substantially damaged by fire and wind because oftheir thin bark and shallow root systems 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University rights reserved Trees of North America The Part 7 SLIDE 51 tree P pungensIist Spruces are prized for a number of purposes Although not often used for general construction lumber spruce wood is light strong and easily worked As a result it sees extensive use as sounding boards in pianos and stringed instruments In addition the largest airplane ever built was constructed of spruce and was aptly named the quotSpruce Goosequot Economically spruces are among the most important pulpwood species in the world They39re also widely planted for Christmas trees and for landscaping homes and streets SLIDE 52 mapdistribution of principal species in North America Six spruces are important in North America three in the East and three in the West although as you can see there39s a good deal of overlap In the East red spruce Picea rubens occupies high elevations along the Appalachian Mountain chain while black spruce Picea mariana and white spruce Picea glauca span the northeastern United States and Canada In the West Engelmann spruce Picea engernannii is the most widespread occupying high elevations throughout most of the Rockies Colorado blue spruce Picea pungens is limited to the central Rockies while Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis hugs the coast from northern California to Anchorage Alaska SLIDE 53 genus title The next member ofthe pine family is Douglasfir Pseudotsuga This genus has given botanists fits since its discovery in the late 170039s Since then it39s been classified as a true fir a spruce a pine and a hemlock Finally it39s been placed in its own genus but even that indicates contradiction for the scientific name means quotfalse hemlockquot and the common name implies it39s a fir SLIDE 54 mapworldwide distribution of genus The Douglasfir genus contains six species of trees scattered throughout western North America southwestern China Japan and Taiwan Two species are native to forests of western North America In spite of what seems like a small range when compared with other genera the Douglasfir genus is extremely important commercially Also keep in mind that this map and others in this series indicate only the native ranges ofthe trees being discussed Douglasfir now grows over a much broader range due to planting by humans SLIDE 55 cone P menziesii Without doubt Douglasfir cones are their most characteristic feature All members ofthe genus are easily identified by tridentshaped bracts protruding well beyond the thin rounded cone scales Douglas fir cones hang down from the branches and mature in one season SLIDE 56 buds P menziesii Douglasfir buds are also characteristic ofthe genus They39re long sharppointed and covered with mahoganycolored overlapping scales SLIDE 57 foliageleaf scar P menziesii The needles of Douglasfirs are single linear and spirally arranged Generally they39re green above with two rows of stomatal bloom on their undersides Most often they39re under 1 12quot long Their leaf scars are small and halfraised resembling tiny skijumps SLIDE 58 young barkold bark both P menziesii On young stems the bark is thin tight and smooth except for frequent resin blisters On mature trees the bark is thick and deeply furrowed 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University All rights reserved 8 Trees of North America The Part SLIDE 59 mapdistribution of principal species in North America The principal species of Douglasfir in North America is Pseudotsuga menziesii generally called Douglas fir but sometimes referred to as Oregon Douglasfir to distinguish it from other species in the genus This tree has one ofthe widest distributions of any in North America stretching from northern British Columbia through Mexico and from the Pacific Coast to the eastern slopes ofthe Rocky Mountains The other North American species is bigcone Douglasfir Pseudotsuga macrocarpa It grows in a limited range in southern California and is distinguished primarily by its large cones SLIDE 60 mature standold tree both P menziesii Douglasfir is the premier timber species in North America and one ofthe most important in the world Individual trees are tall straight and fast growing They39re also capable of reaching immense sizes and old ages commonly exceeding six feet in diameter and 750 years in age in old growth forests SLIDE 61 forest P menziesii In addition they grow in vast pure relatively evenaged stands suitable for economical management Historically many of these stands arose following largescale disturbances such as wildfire and wind storms Now the ability to grow in evenaged stands is taken advantage ofthrough clearcutting the most common means of harvesting Douglasfir SLIDE 62 stand P menziesiilist Douglasfir trees are used in almost every imaginable way The wood is used in all phases of construction from poles and pilings to plywood and veneer to dimensional lumber In addition Douglasfir is farand away the leading Christmas tree in North America and it39s planted extensively as a lawn and street tree SLIDE 63 genus title The next member ofthe Pine family is hemlock Tsuga SLIDE 64 mapworldwide distribution of genus Tsuga is a small genus of approximately 10 species located in cool temperate regions of North America China and Japan Four species are native to North America two in the East and two in the West SLIDE 65 tree T heterophylla The growth form of hemlocks is perhaps their most distinguishing characteristic The trees are broadly pyramidal with branches that are horizontal but drooping The terminal branch tips and the leader ofthe main stem itself often droop in a buggywhip fashion The main branches emerge irregularly from the trunk rather than in a whorled pattern like the spruces firs and pines SLIDE 66 leaves on twig T heterophylla T mertensiana leaf scars T heterophylla Hemlock leaves are single linear and spirally arranged but often appear 2ranked They vary in length but are always less than 1 inch and in most species alternate in a longshort pattern The leaf scars are also distinctive being small diagonally raised bumps SLIDE 67 cones T heterophylla Hemlock cones are small eggshaped to oblong and hang down from the twigs The cone scales are thin nearly round and have smooth margins They mature in one season SLIDE 68 mapdistribution of principal species in North America The principal hemlocks of North America are western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla which grows along the west coast of North America and in the Inland Empire ofthe Rocky Mountains and eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis which is widely distributed in the eastern United States Mountain hemlock Tsuga mertensiana is a wideranging timberline species from California to Alaska Although it39s of little economic importance it dominates vast areas of high elevation recreational land throughout the West 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University rights reserved Trees of North America The Part 9 SLIDE 69 trunks T heterophyllaIist Hemlocks that reach sufficient size are used for generalpurpose construction lumber and for making high quality paper Many species are used for landscaping and the bark has long provided an important source of tannin for tanning leather SLIDE 70 genus title The sixth and final member of the Pine family represented in North America is the fir genus Abies Note that members of Abies are often referred to as quottrue firsquot to distinguish them from several other genera that are incorrectly called firs such as Douglasfir or Chinese fir SLIDE 71 mapworldwide distribution of genus The genus Abies includes about 40 species of trees scattered widely throughout the cool temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere nine are found in North America SLIDE 72 cone A procera A concolor The cones oftrue firs are probably their most distinctive feature They39re generally Iargeoften 5 to 9 inches long and several inches in diameterand they39re borne upright near the tops of the trees The cone scales are thin but are often curved on the ends giving the appearance of shoulders In many species the bracts are longer than the scales and have distinctive shapes SLIDE 73 cone spike A procera Both the cone scales and bracts are deciduous at maturity leaving long pointed spikes on the trees that often persist through winter Having deciduous scales makes good sense considering the difficulty seeds would otherwise have falling from an upright cone SLIDE 74 leaves A procerastomatal bloom A Amabilis The leaves oftrue firs are single linear and spirally arranged although they may appear tworanked or be massed on the upper surface of the twig in some species Generally the needles are blunt at the tip although on conebearing branches they may be sharply pointed The location ofthe white stomatal bands on the needles is often a good clue for proper identification of species SLIDE 75 leaf scars Abies spp The leaf scars of all true firs are round and flat a distinctive characteristic ofthe genus SLIDE 76 young bark with blisters A amabilismature bark A procera The young bark on many species is thin and dotted with blisters full of sticky aromatic resin an important defense mechanism used to repel burrowing insects and to wall off disease and infections within the tree In addition different types of resin emit different odors a fact that greatly helps in distinguishing different species varieties and forms oftrue firs Older bark varies by species but ranges from thin to thick and from blocky to deeply furrowed SLIDE 77 tree A magnifica var shastensisword Although the wood of true firs is soft and therefore not extremely valuable for lumber it is converted into lumber for many purposes It39s also important worldwide for pulpwood Many products are made from leaf oils and from resin obtained from the barkranging from medicines to varnish to photographic cement for use in camera lenses and microscope slides Because oftheir beautiful shapes and lush foliage true firs are also prized for landscaping and as Christmas trees 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University All rights reserved 10 Trees of North America The Part SLIDE 78 mapdistribution of principal species in North America Seven true firs are important in North America although several more may be found here As you can see many oftheir ranges overlap in addition many ofthe species hybridize where they meet making accurate identification a difficult proposition The most widespread ofthe firs are found on the map on the left The most important species native to the East is balsam fir Abies balsamea and it ranges all the way from the Atlantic to the Rockies Subalpine fir Abies lasiocarpa has the widest range in the West occupying high elevations throughout the Rockies Grand fir Abies grandis shown in blue grows throughout the Pacific Northwest and Inland Empire White fir Abies concoor shown in yellow occupies mountains of the arid Southwest The map on the right shows three true firs that occupy smaller ranges along the West Coast Pacific silver fir Abies amabiis ranges farthest north noble fir Abies procera is confined to Oregon and Washington and California red fir Abies magnifica spans the Sierra Nevada mountains of California SLIDE 79 Production Team Credit no narration Dendrologist Edward C Jensen Media Specialist Dale Conley Artist Don Poole SLIDE 80 FMC Credit no narration 1986 Forestry Media Center Oregon State University rights reserved WEE 0R s 5 33m mesh osu T39eperate quot5 Rams E Cm MW 2 39 i non hemispheebtntexcl si Ennlerell an the nnrlll y the hnreallnnrsl rasslam s sen39 l z39sns mulsu mnpi l ms 5 munw e mrmmw g3me linymJuangcl 1 Irnpnge arminm 39mms r an a n u 39lays v ralIy cnlll39lm at o uale JLtAmer IIIEIIIS39b39BI Highlyaltered 1 umans 396 past and presem Cleared for a agriculture Wars W wze w quotd suburban imion as N mapl agnuckyy lmi 5 9 c I m n 51 swam s a naksYshllllIefll Temperaie Iduo s oresis Mia mperate Declduus orests E graham WW 2 a a Soils ge eally deepv Ephemerqb and ich 394 a W V nd eld 39n e ooe h 139 fm Elam W a Occpme easern al of tquote us Win W manmmmm ra gammahem hareal quot m d39lmsrsnum snl erg it l39hrnaglgaved lrevs aralely Iyenvirnnmenlal r ae mm B rom a productivity standpoit conifers desired my 310 straightenan prod ce i nos1300s building Industry iggciigs Jl llllars En nllv39mmlsvas39lells is n 39ed 5 a mas notiominqted by a empera e Deciduous em erate WW hern Rgg W 39 D 39 I H k 5H5 39 n Eroad ea edstands 5Lns73f 39i2mi Many slamlsniixellIulspeci 1i a n e typically mixed species 2 en mnmnwiiiinnu a lllnjlvsl anllllIEi EEfE o 1 in run Equ o Someare ver hi i valu eg b ac vherry bi kwaim quot L 111 11B mm Appalac ian E E Coo moist valleys coves dominated 5 mm m p p eech imapleo sandye 7 i r loopla 9 Ines Um marsme 5 ue EPICNCQS 0 er time hig gradi g mw es 2 quotman y in uencet by I I Iu In cans a cam nl e n sn use nlwa er I nnwnnds nnzs Ickhernvsmaks e 7 v pnsilinn mllgennus enpl a ntegral to ine management Wixhqgix ines 39wou d I succeeded Whoaleved trees Ema Europe River valleys hnunmra n39as nmlplains zmlpenuanenls anlps a Oaks quotmam e rqp No hem ni c ally nr13n39 nneirlnw Inlensl ran Snnw is uncnm un a 4 e Sunmlerggn en Im Inssvs lrnm39wa suml Ier um dwwsm e pnraljnn and Ira39gs IIIrellnn lmughsn cum in s39nme f39n 39 ed ms a Ralin nunmn vnl a Mucl any and argerin er mam A 9 V WEB dvana es E39 03113133 Ca photos mhesize ea rou d 39 Broadleaved 012 grow 5 mmer39arougm whemmoskurgls limi ng mm mm sapwood e Allows treeto am and recirculat wa er Helps pho osn hesis ever erg soii mols ure is mm 13913933 unites pomquot tem perate coniferous mm tropical rainforesks emmaimm l 9 In uence mesisim 1 ntyearw i zl illg We e l1 s n e W a s when Species Diameter inches Sitka spruce Dnuglas 39 mdwnud w mdcudar w hemlnck gimme a Unique 9 oh mric 0 Low elevakiorvand close W 39 F H3 tefior Valles 39 x m a WW a mm 3W Tmperte Goniferus Wadi EVerg een 9 Mixed e ergreen conifer O Highlywariable so39 39B39ist Ate G on39lf ous Rama Spruce Na row band from o Alask a hygs the coast fog dependent a ferous RDKE 133 mlc M s39 tforestxgn erate Com ro gs N America mag Warm 39 k D39 f mperafe mm mm MOIst Temperate Coniferous Eorest Widlif lssu a lrimje am Inclinn s 1 ml urh n Mm Jlnrlimherprm n Timber harvest nu team a Man lnrlalesuccvs u Managing lnr sh and w a Recnvelylnllnwing re e under an 12mm es Increas m J v u sn and lr nlume cial prussur agmemalin 5 al and nlllrgmwlh lnresls aler qual y e m


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.