TREE AND SHRUB IDENTIFICATION
TREE AND SHRUB IDENTIFICATION FOR 141
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ervin Wiza on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FOR 141 at Oregon State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/224468/for-141-oregon-state-university in Natural Resource Ecology And Mgmt at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
FORESTS OF THE WORLD Ed Jensen College ofFurestry osu Forests of the World Outcomes De ne and describe factors tha fluence the distribution of forests List and describe major forest types of the world 7 Location 7 Principal environmental factors biotic and abiotic 7 Alternate names 7 Dominant life form and several principal genera 7 Principal strategies that plants use for survival Discuss trends and issues of importance in world forests What is a Tree How Do Trees Work Wnnily plant tstens lrranclres rnntsl Lnlllj livetl 1 39s 1 39s even L 1 39s nfyearsj s Branches s antlprntliiclinn Tru k e Wnntly e Mnstlyrlearl ue Annual anmterqrwnhlwnmly e StructureIranspnrlalinn plants have 3 rnerrsternsl stnrage nffnntl anrl hyr Ahililyln cnnrpartrnentalize l m IHE S prnhlens Roots Huwiiiaiiysie 7 a 7 Largewnntly structural 7 Perhaps r1 nnn 39 e F e taisnriintj e Depenrls niitle nilinniisetl s Ahsnrlnnlamlsimue How Do Trees Work What is a Forest Wood Finest is an ecnsystern e Sapwnnrl tcnnrluctrvel Mm m as mumsquot um 391 Types nffnre t e heartwnnr nan cnntliiclive strtrcttrrall olderxyl m s s lnrlustrial inrests lustrial inrests Vascular Cambium Parks anrlwrlrlerness e Prmltrces newwnntl anrl e A ses inner hark Wnnrllanrls raressmeretrees Eark e lnner hark tcnnrltrctlvel lnclu n 7 Outer lrarktprnte el Low n Droduclili y How Are Forests Classified Leanm Strategy Brnallleaverl vs Neerueleauerr rnarlleavell vs Crmirer nus vs Evergreen c ale 7 Temperature leg hnreal temperate subtropical tropical Mn39slurel r lnresl quotmisnan ares rylnreslsj Gengraphlcally e rmrll nsnulllenlelc r es cubic leevacreyearj Factors That Influence Forests Vegetation climate soil topograph hiota time disturha c Climate temperature amp moisture Extremes highest amp lowest 39 quot annual seasonal Form rain snow fog MDNTNS GF VENT Forests climate soil topography biota time disturbance Forests biotic ommunl es and abiotic environment 7 Eiotic co me plants animals microbial e Abiotic environments atmosphere soil mmuni Temperature Ave vs Seasonal u E Orographic Precipitation Factors That Influence Forests 39 7 gquot quot 39 r Forestsf o te soil topography hlota time disturbance Soil depth is or cal ne Weatherlng agents Microbial activity ime Plant and animal communities Factors That Influence Forests Forests climate soil topography biota time disturbance Topography microclimate and soil Slope steepness Aspect N S E W Unifor Elevation and Climate Elevation and latitude WASATCH Mmmmms m r mums Fm mcmnmm mm 7 m uvsn bk ss Microtopography Salt Flat 5 Factors That Influence Forests Forests fclimatesoiltopography iota ime disturbance laiota 7 Plant Communities erstory and understory 7 Animal Communiti s Factors That In uence Forests F climate soil biota orests topography tim e disturbance Disturbance 7 Type re wind insects sea ing glaciers ctiwty etc 7 Severity stand replacement vs stand altering 7 Frequency Slope aspect and soil Factors That In uence Forests Forests climate I topography time Trends 39 World Forests 2005 no Forests occupy 40 of the earth39s land area 4 billion ectares ral nted with nonnative species aryquot forests but these are being lost most rapidly half 55 of the world39s forests occur in developed c untries and half 45 in developing countries Almost evenly divided by area between tropicall f e subtropical orests and temp ratelboreal forests 10 countries hold 2n of the w forests Australia razil Canada China Democratic Republic of the Congo India Indonesia Peru Russian Federation US Trends in World Forests 2005 Fan Rate of deforestation From 19001990 netloss of1113 million hectareslyear From 19902000 net loss of9 mill39 hectareslyear From 20002005 net loss of15 million hectares per year forest area the she ofpmmmh eat Contribution of Forests 7 Rates seem to be slowing butare cunentlv increasing again Tradl anal values wood water wildlife recreation Major areas of deforestation aesme cysp39r39tua39 South America and Africa 4 million hectareslyear each Add to that medicine biodiversity and influence ceania and NonhICentral America 350000 hectareslyear each on climate pe and Asia are gaining as is US Forests and Global Climate Change i Many of the world39s medicines come from f ts Majorcauses of deforestation r Much ofthe world39s biological diversity exists in forests Subsistence agriculture in Africa and Asia to feed their own l Forests store 50 more carbon than there is In the earth s Large scale agriculture often for developed world Large economic development programs involving resettlement msphe39e W Wha We quot 939quot has a 9399 quotquot Pa agriculture and infrastructure in Latin America and Asia on global climate Wood for charcoal cooking and heating Major causes of increase in forested land area 7 Reforestation of abandoned agricultural lands Forests of the World Northern Coniferous Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest PinyonJuniper Forest Broad Sclerophyll Forest Moist Temperate Coniferous Forest Montane Forest Tropical Deciduous Forest Tropical Evergreen Forest Tropical Scrub Forests PinyonJuniper Biome PinyonduniperWoodland P39nyon39Jun39Per Blame Pygmy ConiferWoodland western North America Been 39so rs near base I a I ted Generally 5000 700039 Long nger exrends along PinyunJunip Dominant Life Form Environmental Cond S mlarl Evergreen cunlfers Variation in preci tation Tem eramres affects c munities greatly mmquot quotquot Ws quotquot V Eordered below by desen e w Ier mlll lays very cull above by pondero a p39ne r 7 Law 11 72139 nnense slnnus will ash quotan 7 Variable wnhl and lnnween lransnnamn 0t er 7 Snlls n ell unn rncky and alkaline e Vuy wnnly Pinyonduniper Biome Pinyonduniper Biome Dominated bysmall pinyons junipers shrubby trees shon in suture wi n rounded crowns Spacing is wide exceptwhen re 13 is suppressed k systems overlap Growth is slow drought limited pine above Pinyon or nut pines 4 species Small and often shrubby 204 39 Needleslfascicles 14 Large nutlike is very importantr39ood for indigenous people Deep widespreading roots 4 spe te Par sing Less than junipersoccur at higher elevations 2 quotisn t Live oaks evergreen o n Ge graphically speci c Ma y species or auerc hrubs PinyonJuniper Understories Spiny aromatic volatile Common species rabbitbmsh sagebmsh many spp bitterbmsh serviceberry Junlpers 7 western species smart anrt Amen simmin iznel 39 neernes smlerllkeaml awttrke Gruw ml lmnr rtty snlls Velv lrnl jhl Inleram Jrnwl lznnelhan in us Zurnuns hluecnnes rert Lune snecres nneseell Ashe western alllljalnr utan Calllnnlla RnEky Mailman yattre lnslscrnss es mne Ilmhers nret wnml are Mountainmahoganies several species Pinyon Juniper Biome Understories Sparse with regularlire 1015 years cycle 7 Grasses dominate Dense without fire WEN ES S mm mm a W am am 1 W W EGID 0 SFOES FS a e m an 2 n eInrlhlgs g igkcawm I2 areas 1y 1 Ilrllese 39 39Q39aquot thJ39wa39 acmvucw39 ggmc re imherhawg urhaniminny ywinter Hr a dl aved Gleard fo ggnculture c Wars suburbanizatio 39 5 mm aaa mam To fuel39 e Jr i s fr igil 39evolution R9133 M13 7 A WWI I I IS aun 39 Tepete mm Moth nutrien s abundan anvheld in loosecycles a Replenished by lama a e g Sitable ores and agr39c lture mm Nort 5211am m Majo Amer a Rama mm Wm Northern 139 eglon s standln can 333 W r m st ighter more wood per ar ea 3 L eavin harv sted 1391005 8005 39 Vi all 0 s39ailing an ship buildinglndustry m Broadlea stands g ypically mixellspecies a nlten pnnrgrnwll mm s s mmmuwa in slum aqlmes m BtVERY aesthetically pleasmg a So e are very high vlue eg black She y at am lac t alnut Warming Appalae ian 439 masts lquot 1 a EW w WW Deeid ous F eresvts YF 7 s B WWW WWW ractices high mm a Dr nakrllnminlell Inns trans ilin n grasslands nak W m 55 eseribe lm 1 1 v 3 396 Integral i pine 9quot E ithoutut 9 d d wroaglesfecg i r eees empe ate Em hm u 5 Suthern N 1333333 Ony River valleys hnunmm nnudplains 2n pen n o helm Ins n Inn 5 39 harvested by N alive w Americans lnr saunas W v a WNanthmerica ChileSW NewZealaml miss a ma mum I FnrvsIMnist em39eale vergreenPrest h eperat Wtcanm highs Iyplcall ltsnr WWW nwxlairyluc Malian mmnn 23 ulueametmh n J wapnrllnn and trans iimim mm hlsrm ur inrs nm s urbance r catastro u plemlilllnrcnn rs Wellratlapled In taking am 7quot age mulmuj grnwim ilers laminate hmalllavel Imus 4 Ralin H mm W e m Exac nppnsllen lempe menacmunus Cm may Ragga dvantagesee ifers a Everg39ree V 39 Gan otosynthesize oun a m e Hve to gro during summer drought WE 11131131319 Tempe te W A vantages sapwood s e e pssus a prtos3 uthesis ever em Woes mm Wm 39 I o l amt s s s ructure akes for dense understorie es39depend n uc ure MW Mosses Rama ta t emereconiferous ts as ropical er p e E s ro 813 ore ram crests llama 00 ndo sly important n mal a eme to ant a dvil39 onities and to nutri n39tvc cling S amlimJJallen ml a In uence nnlsls m mus n39f yggrs MTI I39B s39umlim amtmus n wearswhsn ansquot 33 Wm Specins Age Diameter year inches 5mm spruce 800 Dnuglasm 75w rzdwnod 1000 w rcdmdar 1000 w hemlack NH Son us WM 939 Unique to NohA erica a levation to coast lt anj errilical envirnumenlal characteristic 97 ery smal area02 n or usrorests M Wm 511 a Mixed evergreen hardwoodiforests hl able annak c nkapln madrnI mcanymlivemak u Wnl Has a r Amnn n ree 5 largest in r c ively Inggegl W a edy39AN y pres Nrrow b anwr o OregonAlaska eleation an hugsthe coas fog amendent D e mixed with wester emlock wes em redcedar and Douglaszrir l 81 SpruceWestern W 39quot quotquot ir39 rquotquotquot m cnmlnlnns men 1 Incl ml 1 mm III naslal hresls O is w Mons m Imus m w v Douglasfir mwm zinin fai l tvfeyet e IDouglas or mixed em amt fD lhem 0c 0 393 Hardwoodsnot common except 0 di suresites and rlparlan zones 6939 Understories varia m WW quotIquot qwtm Mr 515 un nn
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