Mitosis, Meiosis, Mendelian Genetics Notes
Mitosis, Meiosis, Mendelian Genetics Notes BSC197
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annabelle Shaffer on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Mitosis Meiosis Mendelian Genetics Weekly Notes BSC 197 Exam 3 Material Here are the lecture notes covering mitosis meiosis and mendelian genetics Next week s will include more modern genetics laboratory notes probability rules they were only brie y discussed this week so I will discuss them more in depth in next week s notes after laboratory Notes begin on following page Best of luck Also a study guide will be released by the Wednesday before Halloween The study guide will contain in depth notes of main topics discussed in class A second study guide will be released following the review session that will contain the topics discussed in the review session and questions asked and answered This week s notes will be released this weekend likely Saturday BSC 197 EXAM 3 MATERIAL 1 Mitosis and Cell Cycle Multicellular organisms must divide to grow and repair Fertilized egg cells also depend on cell division to grow Cell division typically results in the formation of two identical daughter cells however sex cells dividing produces nonidentical daughter cells Genome the DNA material in a cell Chromosome Vocabulary Metacentric centrosome is near center of chromosome Submetacentric centrosome is between center and end of the chromosome Acrocentric centrosome is near telomere of chromosome Telocentric centrosome is at telomere of chromosome Telomere end of a chromosome Centrosome the small pinched region of a chromosome typically shown metacentric in diagrams however that is not always the case Somatic cells most common nonreproductive 2 sets of chromosomes Gametes typically referred to as sex cells half as many chromosomes as somatic cells produced by meiosis EX sperm eggs Cell Cycle The majority of the cell cycle is completed in Interphase Interphase G1 phase acts as a rest break for the cell S phase DNA synthesis G2 phase acts as a rest break for the cell Mitotic M phase Mitosis 1 Prophase replicated chromosomes become thicker and shorten centrosomes begin to move outwards 2 Prometaphase spindles extend from centrosomes chromosomes continue to thicken spindles bind to the kinetochore of the centromere 3 Metaphase chromosomes line up along midline of the cell 4 Anaphase centromere splits spindles pull chromosomes apart to form sister chromatids 5 Telophase chromosomes are pulled to opposite sides of the cell BSC 197 EXAM 3 MATERIAL 2 Cytokinesis cell divides to form two identical daughter cells new cell membrane for each daughter cell forms During cytolltinesis in plant cells a cell plate would form Meiosis Vocabulary Genetics scientific study of heredity and variation Heredity the passing down of traits from generation to generation Variation the differences between offspring and their biological parents Genes small units of heredity constructed of DNA Locus a gene s specific location on a chromosome Asexual Reproduction one parent produces and identical offspring by mitosis Sexual Reproduction two parents produce offspring with a mix of trials from each parent Clone an offspring identical to its parent Sex chromosomes X and Y XX 2 female XY 2 male Autosomes chromosomes that do not determine gender 22 in total Diploid cell a cell with two sets of chromosomes Haploid cell a cell with one set of chromosomes Fertilization a sperm and an egg cell joining together Zygote a fertilized egg cell produces somatic cells to grow into a fully formed human Meiosis Process follows the replication of chromosomes in Interphase Meiosis I Prophase I chromosomes condense chromosomes pair up synapsis nonsister chromatids exchange DNA material crossing over groups of 4 chromatids form tetrads Metaphase I tetrads line up along metaphase plate microtubules from one pole attach themselves to a lltinetochore of one chromosome in each tetrad microtubules from the other pole attach themselves to the other chromosome of the tetrad Anaphase I homologous chromosome pairs separate BSC 197 EXAM 3 MATERIAL 3 one chromosome moves toward each pole Telophase I and Cytokinesis cell splits to form two daughter cells Meiosis II Prophase II spindle forms chromosomes move towards metaphase plate Metaphase II lltinetochores of sister chromatids attach to microtubules that extend from opposite poles Anaphase II sister chromatids separate Telophase II and Cytokinesis chromosomes arrive at opposite poles began moving in anaphase ll eventually results in 4 daughter cells that vary from their parents and siblings Genetic Variation results from independent assortment of chromosomes crossing over random fertilization mutations are the original source for genetic variation Mendelian Genetics Mendel was one of the first scientists to study genetics Past hypotheses including blending and particulate EXAMPLES of each using owers Blending red ower and white ower mate offspring is pink Particulate parents pass on a particular gene to the offspring Mendel studied seven characteristics of pea plants ower color ower position seed color seed shape pod shape pod color stem length Mendel discovered dominant and recessive traits If the dominant trait is present in an organism that is what we see For the recessive trait to be seen the genotype must be both recessive Phenotype the appearance of an organism caused by its genotype EX if red color is the dominant trait the ower loollts red red color dominant is the phenotype Genotype the genetic makeup causing the phenotype You can determine genotype and phenotype using a Punnett square shown below BSC 197 EXAM 3 MATERIAL 4 An example of how a Pannett square works Genotype 2 homozygous dominant 2 heterozygous Phenotype all red Vocabulary Homozygous an organism with two identical alleles for a speci c trait Heterozygous an organism with two different alleles for a speci c trait Mendelian genetics is not what is used today Mendel s ratios have yet to be replicated leading to suspicions about his work Dr Nichols said not focus on Mendel as much Next week s notes will include more modern genetics including notes from laboratory Hope this helps you Happy studying B80 197 EXAM 3 MATERIAL 5
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