INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS
INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS PS 204
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Simonis on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PS 204 at Oregon State University taught by H. Li in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/224473/ps-204-oregon-state-university in Political Science at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
PS 204 Comparative Politics 11112010 Chinese Politics People s Republic of China J Socialist Market Economy no longer preach communism a There are two china s People s Republic and Republic of China Taiwan 8 Hu Jintao Top Leader a Ccp party general secretary since 2002 b As pres of the PRC since 2003 c As the chair of the Central military Commission since 2004 i Not that power compared to Putin because it s more of a collective leadership 3 Wen Jiabao The Chinese Premier Grandpa Wen a Very popular b Similar to Prime Minister runs government bureaucracy c Two headed government 5 Geography a Two major rivers b Great Wall built 2000 years ago to fend off invasion from north c The heartland vs the Periphery i China has set up minority regions along the outer perimeter and they are tightly controlled 1 Tibet Inner Mongolia Xinjiang and Guangxi are them ii Some minorities 1 120 minorities 56 registered minorities Includes Chinese Muslims m b Tibetans Southwest of China very controversial region and people are deeply religious c Ethnic Mongolians in China nomads look differently dress differently d Uygurs in Xingjiang Turkish muslims connected to Central Asian countries culturally Tibet and this region want to succeed e Ethnic Zhuang largest population among ethnic groups in China f Ethnic Miao iii Majority 1 Han Chinese 5 Chinese Revolution a Major themes i Role played by the Comintern and Stalin ii Role played by the Japanese Invasion iii Role played by the US iv The Rise of Mao b CCP S Road to Power Six phases i 192123 Labor Movement ii 192427 United Front with the KMT 1 KMT party are the nationalists now residing in Taiwan 2 Stalin asked Communist party to work with KMT to topple existing gov t at time which was basically a warlord but KMT really didn t want to work with Communists iii 192834 Jiangxi Soviet Base Areas 1 Tried to mobilize peasants to have revolution but failed because the nationalists wanted to destroy all communists forces iv 193435 The Long March 1 Communists forced to leave base area to start one year long march to Northern China 2 Lost Major forces only 10 survived v 193645 The Yan an Period 1 Land was plagued little vegetation 2 Where the group went to regroup rebuild 3 They did regroup 4 Americans became interested in what was going on there vi Japanese infantry in Manchuria helped Communist Party 1 Gave Communist party a chance to rise up with Nationalists and fight Japanese 2 Japanese atrocities gave rise to nationalism 3 When war ended in 1945 the US and Soviet Union intervened and both leaders told Mao and other leader that they have to work together to form coalition government a General marshall mission to China came over to mitigate situation b Peace Talk Leader of nationalist party and Mao met but neither side really had intention of peace c Chinese Civil War 194649 a US decided not to get involved in civil war to China but did provide money for nationalists no troops Nationalists were corrupt so pocketed money b Soviet Russia did send some money to Communists but not as much as US c Communists won and Nationalists retreated to Taiwan with all the valuable things including the gold reserve i Best collection of Chinese art is in Taiwan 6 Post 1949 China Communist Party s rule starts i Endless Political Campaigns trying to reshape country economy education arts public thought etc 1 Land reform 194952 2 Suppression of Counterrevolutionaries 195052 3 Three anti and five anti 195152 4 Thought reform of intellectuals 195152 5 The hundred flowers campaign 1957 6 The anti rightist campaign 1957 7 The socialist education movement 196365 ii Mao Zedong 1 Picture still hangs in center of Tiammen Square 2 Born in 1893 to well to do peasant family 3 As a junior founding member of the CCP in 1921 only 56 people in beginning 4 In 1928 as a cofounding member of the Communist Red Army 5 In 1937 became the chairman of the military affair commission and he held that post until his death in 1976 a Military power is really important and he was able to move military 6 Mao began to consolidate his political power within the CCP in 1934 7 Won dominant position in 1938 with the support of Stalin 8 In 1945 he became the chairman of the CCP and he held that position until his death in 1976 a Had absolute power in Chinese Politician 9 Mao was a shrewed guerrilla warfare tactician 10 After 1949 Mao pursued a Stalinist approach to economic development in China forced Mao was very much in step with Stalin and his way of thinking 11Mao was responsible for two major manmade disasters in China a The Great Leap Forward 195860 b The Cultural Revolution 196676 12 GLF Mao s attempt to speed up China s modernization process by giving priority to industry especially heavy industry steel Steel is used for building a 30 of the national investment was diverted to industry b A large number of peasants were taken out of the field to do industrial work to make steel as a result agriculture was neglected c The GLF Backyard furnaces he wanted everybody to produce steel so in their backyard and fields furnaces were built to produce steel This produced useless stuff but forests were destroyed in order to keep furnaces burning d Natural disasters flood droughts occurred in different parts of China and then famine followed because agriculture had already lessened i Estimated 30 million people died because of famine 13Mao took responsibility and resigned as the President of the People s Republic of China PRC he retained the important positions because President position was mainly ceremonial 7 The Cultural Revolution 196676 i A form of political purge started by Mao ii Mao directly targeted those who disagreed with him with regard to how to govern China iii After the Great Big Forward Since the GLF a group of top leaders began to question the way China was going some leaders began to push for limited free market economy and material incentives even allowed peasants to contract land to produce for themselves iv Mao became very unhappy for he felt not only his position was threatened but also concluded that China was moving from the purse socialism that he had envisioned for China 1 He waited for his chance to counter attack 2 Mao relied upon radical intellectuals and his wife to do his attack and the loyal military to maintain his social order 3 In 1966 Mao appealed to young students to rebel against the top leaders whom as Mao argued were taking China toward Capitalism and the young people responded enthusiastically a The teenagers rebelled and formed the Red Guards not army that s military The Cultural Revolution was a revolution first and foremost against the communist leaders 5 and everything that was western traditional was attacked 1 Liu shaoqi was attacked by students supposed successor to Mao 2 man vi It was estimated that one million people were killed during the CR vii Temples artifacts were destroyed century old items and burning books viii Violence occurred everywhere ix The Mao Cult rose Mao was deified made like a God similar to Hitler x Mao died in 1976 and left a country that was exhausted by the CR deeply divided and disparate in need for change Mao s China was a totalitarian society like Stalin s soviet Union i A totalistic ideology ii A single ruling party led by a dictator iii A secret police that carries out political terror more military in China iv A monopoly of mass communications v A monopoly of political organizations vi A monopolistic state control of the economy
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