New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Jewel Veum


Marketplace > Oregon State University > Soil Science > CSS 200 > CROP ECOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY
Jewel Veum
GPA 3.65

T. Chastain

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

T. Chastain
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Soil Science

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jewel Veum on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSS 200 at Oregon State University taught by T. Chastain in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/224516/css-200-oregon-state-university in Soil Science at Oregon State University.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/19/15
In uence of Orchard Floor Management and Compost Application Timing on Nitrogen Partitioning in Apple Trees n n wired r r t Signi cant growth quotI the P35 15 x butcd lo ndvonccmcnts to 0 9quot Em larch t v d practices concerns regarding synthetic Pcsm dcs and 39 39 39 u lion fertilizers Scdvl conventional prod 39c k I disruption for codling moth wah39u plum gnihcant challenges rctnaiu Dclntc cl all 2003 Among tln most signif icant challenge is nitrogen N supply c causu organic milizcrs are often bulky and expensive and release of N can ht slow and unpredictrtblc improving the tntlvrxlandinu 15 and increas o N cycling I organic systcn trig organi fcrtilllcrusu ct licicncy n Cnl lcal to c 39 39 C o v is currently the most common unlcrxlory management prac tice in organic or 39 n 3 o 392 E o cont nnrlimpalts soil quality and N twailnbility tCntnhnrdclln and Elliot l992 Gmnntstcin 2004 anchoz c 2 7 mutitcgmnndcovcrstmtcgrcs tltotrcducccons rovc mincmlimttnn rs arc nectcrl Pooriblc ch include organic mulchcs and Cquot S The use of organic mulcth such as wood chips shrc c paper or alfalfa have in crease amilttblliry may result from increased micro bial activity and N tumoxcr go ct at 2003 Yno ct at 2005 Forge or at 200 ported that use ofn high CN mtio mulch in in not N imm ilmttion or lower N Supply rtnd to t Ilra rcasnd N t cnil lZCI use ef ciency Neilscn cl nl 2003 observed increased apple tree vigor and yield with organic mulrlrcs In n comparison study of diffcrenl orchard tloor management systems Shribbs and Shroclt 986 ubscn cd that ripple Kroc under organic tnulchcs had larger d39 or n cr our years comprich with bare ground cultimtion or a legume OVCl39Cl39O Sanchez ct al 2003 and Hoaglanrl ct al 2003 reported lltttl lcgttminnus coxor vas 39n greater soil N availability and or and yield due to increased competition be tween trees nndcovcr crops lloaglantl ctalt 2008 Larsson ct 3 I997 Sanchez ct al 20on h is critical to ensure that N is supplied at the approp rink times to achieve adequate ln v 39 u take and n sto r bran res trunk and mo gromll cycles arc vital to apple lrw nutrition In late summcrnnd autumn trees more N from annual tissues to pcrcnninl lissucs Millard and Thompson 1989 Neilscn ct al2 l Sanchez et oh 992 Tosolli ct all 2000 For instance before lentquot nbscission 39 3910 ol leafN is mlocrttcd into perennial tissues as cscrve N Blnsing cl 3L W90 Munoz ct at 1993 Remobilizntion oftltesc reserves from woody tissues is the main river 0 early season fruit and leaf gromh and has been correlated with leaf canopy dcwlopmcnt 637 Cheng and Fuchigami 2002 Khemira et al 1998 Millard and Neilsen I989 Neilsen et al 2001a Titus and Kang 1982 Partitioning of inseasou N uptake is af fected by fertilizer tinting Early season N uptake is heavily partitioned into fruit and leaves Cheng and Fuchigami 2002 Kltemim ct al 1998 Munoz et al 1993 reported that N uptake in April was preferentially parti tioned into fruit whereas May N uptake was allocated into leaves of peach trees with vegetative growth being greatest front May to August Fertilizer N application during this period of vegetative growth cart result in higher fruit N concentrations having possible detrimental affects on fruit quality and storage Sanchez et al 1992 Toselli et al 2000 Previous mulching and cover cropping studies have focused on rec and soi re sponses but have not examined their effects on intental N cycling Conversely N parti tioning and uptake studies have centered on inorganic fertilizer use and application tint ing Interactions between N partitioning organic Fertili M A 39 manage ment are not well understood The objectives oftltis study were to determine the effects of cultivation wood chip mulch and a legume cover crop on tree growth partitioning of compost N at different application timings and fertilizeruse ef ciency Materials and Methods Slttdy site This study was established in Spring 2005 at the Vcnatchee Valley Col lcgeAuvil Teaching and Demonstration Or chard in East Vcnatchcc WA Soil at the study site is a Poguc sandy loam coarse loamy over sandy or Sandyskeletal mixed supernctivc mesic Aridic Haploxerol aver aging 1 to 2 organic matter with a pH of 70 Annual rainfall at the orchard site aver ages 216 cm The study site was previous planted to sweet cherry a er stump removal and disking apple trees cv Pinata on 1v EMLA rootstock were planted at a spacing of 15 x 4 in l541 trees per hectare This study was part of a argcr eXpen39ment in vhich plots were arranged in a completely randomized block design with three repli cates Each plot consisted of a row of eight trees only the interior six stttdy trees were used for measurements Trees were irrigated as needed throughout the growing season with undertrec microsprinklers RlO rota torstelson Irrigation Walla Walla WA oor Iranmen amendments Three orchard oor manage Li Received for puhication 25 Nov 2009 Accepted for publication 14 Feb 2010 We would like to thank the reviewers for construe tive comments that added signi cant meaning to this article A special thanks to 39 39 pointing out and teaching us about to responses and for his elegant examples with our eta 39To whom reprint requests should be addressed cvmail dteravestwsucdu ment systems were selected for this study mechanical cultivation wood chip mulch and legume cover crop Each of these three treatments was applied to a 15 111 strip centered on the tree row A 25m drive alley planted to perennial grass was established between tree rows Mechanical cultivation CLT using Vond r We der Harris Manufacturing Burbank WA was done four times per season on the sides of the tree with rototilling between the trunks as needed for weed control disturbing only the upper 8 to 10 cm ofsoil Wood chip mulch WC plots received a 154 layer ofmixed conifer and deciduous wood eltips 13 X 25 cm maxir rnutn size applied every Spring In 2005 and 2006 weeds were hand pulled and in 2007 glyphosate 1 solution was spot sprayed as needed to control weeds Legume cover crop LC plots were established in May 2005 using a mix of Mt Barker subter ranean clover 77ifolittm sttblelmneum black medic Medicago Iupulina burr me i illedicngo polytnotphtt birdsfoot trefoil Lo and Colonial bentgrass Agrastt39s tennis The drive alley and legume over crop were mowed as needed with clippings le on the grounr In Spring 2005 pelleted chicken manure NtitriRich Stutmtan Farm Canby OR 4 N was broadcast in the tree rows at a rate of ll 1 kg totalN ha and incorporated before tree planting D 39 a n 0 animal waste Biolink Westbridge Ag Prod ucts Vista CA 14 N was injected below each tree at 36 kg total Nha in midJuly An additional 275 kg total Nha was applied at weekly intervals throughout the summer as a foliar application of sh emulsion and kelp Mennaids IFM Wenatchce WA Acadian Seaplants Damnouth Nova Scotia Canada In 2006 and 2007 101 kg ofavailable NI hayear 200 kg total Nhayear was applied in three split applications Apr 7 May 9 and June 7 2006 and Apr 24 May 25 and June 21 2007 of Nielsen s chicken manure com post Mossyrock WA 35 N 51available in a l4d anaerobic incubation Compost was spread in a band around the base ofeaeh tree 15 to 30 cm from the trunk At each compost N application date in 2006 and 2007 one tree in each plot was treated with 15N ammonium sulfateenriched compost Fortyeight hours before application Compost for each tree was spread on a plastic sheet sprayed with 5 g of oil101304 70 A IN 08 g 15N per tree dissolved in 50 mL of distilled water and incubated at room temperature until applica tion All of the N amendments used except the uNenriched ammonium sulfate were organ ically certi ed For this reason the organic certi cation was removed from the study site Soil and grottndcover sampling and analysis Starting 1 month attcr application of ISN39CllfiClled compost samples of soil wood chip duff and cover crop residue were taken n15 cm from the base of each tree Samples were then taken monthly on May 9 June 7 July 13 and Sept 29 in 2006 and May 23 June 19 July 19 and Sept 23 in 2007 Soil samples were composites 01 three cores taken with a 2ein diameter probe to a depth of 10 cm Cover crop residue samples were com posites of all aboveground biomass from three x 10cm areas Wood chip duff samples were taken by clearing away intact wood chips and taking three samples ofmZO g of decoru posed wood chip litter Soil and wood chip les were sieved to pass through a 2mm sieve All samples were oven dried roller ground and analyzed for N enrichment using an isoto ratio mass spectrometer Themto Firutigan Genuany and total N and C using a dry combustion analyzer Costeclt CA to fruiting In 2007 fruit were hand thinned to ve fruit per cml trunk cross sectional area TCSA Fruit were harvested on 15 Sept 2007 from the center six trees of each plot Thirty fruit per tree were randomly selected and sliced radially into eight sections Two opposing ciglrllts per apple were ground into slurry using a food processor ovendried at 105 C for 72 h roller ground and analyzed for N and total N and C All six sample trees per plot were exca vated on 24 Sept 2007 Trees were stripped of leaves by hand and then pulled out with an excavator soil in the root zone was si ed using pitchforks to recover remaining roots Each tree was separated into roots below the graft union new growth 2007 shoots and frame trunk previous season branches Frame fresh weight was measured in the field alter which tree frames were ground in a wood chipper and 500 g of wood chips were subsamplcd ovendried and weighed to determine percentage of moisture Frame subsamples new growth roots and leaves were ovendried weighed ground With a Wiley mill rollerground and analyzed for 15N and total N and C Calculations and statistical analyses Calculations were done using the following equations Shoot root ratio W Ni mgcn accumulation dry weight g X N concentration Nitrogen derived from compost NDFC 2 soilortissue 5 We x 100 compostalom Nexcess Nitrogen utilization the proportion of available compost N present in the tree a Accumulation and partitioning of dry weight were analyzed using onefactor analysis of variance ANOVA Because it is possible that partitioning may vary witl tree sizc Righetti et a1 2007 we tested the main variables with a covariate model alter testing for homogeneity of slopes using a GLM model Systat 2004 version 110001 Systat Software lite Richmond CA Soil and tissue NDFC and N utilization were analyzed using twofactor ANOVA separately for each year with orchard oor treatment and an interaction was present Mean separation was considered signi cant at P S 005 using a protected LSD Results At excavation tree dry weight and N accumulation were signi cantly different among orchard tloor treatments Table 1 Trees with WC had the greatest dry weight and N accumulation followed by CLT then LC Frame new growth and leal39dry weight was greater in WC than in CLT or LC The shootroot ratio was signi cantly lower In CLT 63 and LC 6 trees than VC 96 Fruit dry weight was similar in CLT and WC which both produced more than twice as much fruit dry weight as LC Total N was greater in WC than in CLT or LC formats frame new growth and leaves Nitrogen Caneentration was greater in roots but lower in new growth of WC compared with CLT and LC Table 1 There were no signi c39am treatment differences in the N concentration 01 frame leaves or fruit eat N concentr tree originating from the April compost wit mi 390 luncrthan front the May and June applications There was statistical interaction between orchard oor management and application date for utilization ot39N from 2006 compost Signi cantly more compost N was recovered in WC trees than other orchard oor man agement treatments in April whereas in May d June more compost N was recovered under cultivation than legume cover Fig 2 In 2007 compost N recovered in WC and T Irces was greater than LC trees when averaged across all application dates Com post N utilization was notably lower P S 01 for April applied compost compared with the June application Allocation of compost N to tree compo nents was much the same as total N in u enced by application timing as well as orchard oor management Table 3 Com post N was preferentially allocated into fruit Tabla 1 Dry Vt i l armmulatinn u lettcr are no significantly different P S 005 42 under CLT Whereas WC partitioned re com ost to cares and new growth together 38 and LC partitioned more compost N into roots 13 in 2007 trees received compost N from three applications April lay and June as well as reserve N from 2006 compost applications Reserve N was taken up by trees in 2006 and then partitioned into storage organs nvcr winter ecoming available for remobilization in early Spring 2007 or remained in soilcont post over winter and was then taken up by trees in 2007 Al excavation trees had mo bilizcd nearly equal portionsofrcscn39e N into fmit321cavcs ncw growth 32am1 roots frame 36 averaged across all trcatmcnts01 thc Apr 20039 com o a 39 cation 73 ofN was allocated to leaves and wit and 27 into ody tissues Conv verscly only 29 of June compost N was allocated to leaves and fruit with 71 being 5 2 Cr s partitioned into woody tissue Pinata lhn app to trees L we Roots Frame New Gromh Leaves Fruit Total reatment ry It39l g lrcc Cultivatton CLT 304 a N95 1 90 310 b 1717 a 3 11 b Wood chip mulch NC 371 a 2964 a 496 a 874 a 1930 3 its a chumc cover LC 230 b 1178 b 107 b 256 b 883 b 2654 c Nitrogen grtree Cultivation 307 b 725 b 115 b 733 b 52S a 341 11 Wood chip mulch 519 a 1383 a 583 a 1086 a 1467 a 593 a Legume cover 271 b 595 b 129 1 625 b 557 b 218 c Nitrogen cunrn 5393 39 0 a C ltwatton 103 l 049 a 130 a 35 a 09 Wuood chip mulch 135 a 048 a 115 b 240 a 073 a chumc cover 115 b 051 n 130 a 245 a 073 a Table 2 Percentage oftotal trce dry wcight and total N partitioned into trcclcomponcnls ancr thrcc signi cantly different P S 005 tion in each treatment nu a 9 than 22 for young frUit beating applc quot355 Stiles 1994 Trees under CLT partitioned a larger pro39 portion of dry weight and N into fruttothan WC or LC trees Table 2 More thanth 0f dry weight and N was allocated to fruit an at CLT whereas only 32 and 30 of d weight and 25 and 26 of N were allocated to fruit under LC and WC ICSpectwely T1165 nun in Sept he ti o of tree excavation t m derived from 8 a a lowquot lh n N originating from 2 applications Fig l Averaged across I39 quotquot90 application dates go each afar p centage of tree N derive rorn co greaterin CLT trees in 2006 and lessczgeXE in 2007 compared with other treo mnn There were no sign 7 application dates in 2006 whereas tn 200 Frame New Growth Lcax cs Fruit Roots Dry matter titrlitt mtinty 1396 139 atntcnt gt guititnlion CLT 78 a 378 b 23 c 123 c wood chip mulch we 56 b 437 a 7 a a 1 H h Legume cover LC 88 a 453 a 411 7 Nitrogen partitioning 1 Cultivation 91 b 217 b 31 c c wood chip mulch 83 b 223 b 90 n 3 a 3 116 a 271 a 5 b 236 b 43 h Legurue cover 3 2 8 Tm N dlrtwdtmm oomwllm a 21 3 my Fig 1 Percentage of total III a u 3 Mi N derived from compost from six application dates in 1006 and 2007 2007 Mean t SE n 639 The legume cover crop and decomposing wood chip layer representcd alternative sinks for compost N In May 2007 almost 100 of N in the cover crop was derived from April applicd compost Fig 3a Compost N consti tuted a significantly larger portion of legume cover crop N in 2007 than 2006 at similar dates In both years NDFC of the cover crop decreased over the course of the growing season Similarly NDFC of the wood chip layer was greatest both years at the Mn sampling Fig 3b but was less than the legume cover crop mnging from 5 to 40 The total N content of the decomposing wood chip layer was 16 to 18 an N ratio was 83 to 95 on all sampling dates data not shown lt 20 Immanu EWood diplrulch 100 atogmcm 8 N utltlmlon 54 838 There was signi cantlstatistical interac tion between orchard floor management and sampling date in the percentage ofsoil NDFC in 2006 and 2007 In 2006 NDFC in CLT soil was signi cantly higher than in soil under LC in May and higher than WC soils in July while WC soil had the highest proportion of N derived from compost in June Fig 4a In May NDFC represented a signi cantly greater proportion of soil N than in July followed by September In 2007 soil N crived from compost did not change signi cantly throughout the season and com post N made up a morc signi cant portion of soil N in CLT soil than WC and LC plots in May July and September Fig 4b There were no signi cant differences between I NDFC of groundcoverssoils and I5N corti post application datc within sampling dates therefore Figs 3 and 4 represent mean NDFC values for all three compost applica tion dates Orchard oor management did not signi cantly affect soil N concentration but there was a signi cant increase in soi N n Sept 2007 compared with other sampling dates Fig 5 Discussion The use of WC increased vegetative growth in apple trees considerably over CLT ant trees Decrease ootzroot ratios in CLT and LC indicate that trees were under moisture or nutrient stress Forshey and Elving I989 compared with WC trees Despite less vegetative growth in CL l trees fruit yield was similar to WC showing an increased fniitzvegctativc growth ef ciency in CLT Preferential partitioning of dry weight and N into fruit in CLT may have been caused by reduced N uptake due to root damage or decreased N supply Marsh et al 1996 Sanchez ct al 2007 Yao ct al 2005 In low N conditions trees may reduce the number ofcompcting sinks for N cg reduce vegetative gromh Neilsen ct al 2006 Conversely partitioning of dry weight and N into the fruit of WC and LC trees was similar suggesting that N availability was not My hm AM M m the main Cause of growth and yield differ Fig Immenmgc ofquot quot39 39 J 39 t ences between these treatments Instead excavation in Sept 2007 Mean isle n 3 lower root growth and increased rootzshoot ratio as seen in the LC trees can signify Tam 1 moisture stress Forshey and Elving 1989 r 39 r 39 A 39I MW and 39 r nmhin i pOICIItially reducing the photosynthetic ca UM wavy q J a Roots Frame New Gromlt Loaves Fruit mmquot 1 I n M HM Regen e N 106 a 249 b 57 ab 266 b 321 Mb Apr 2007 62 i 163 c 47 b 3 a 413 3 Increased mass ofpercnnml tissues roots May 2007 043 3l5b 56b 2L9c 306b MW and quotCW growth in VC quot685 in39 June 2007 114 a 518 a 78 a 127 d 151 c creased their capacity to store N in autumn Ma ngc em for the subsequent growing season Also Cultivation CLT 84 b 280 a 32 b 185 c 419 a stiperior leaf growth increased the pool of N ood chip mulch WC 79 b 320 a 98 a 280 a 224 b available for relocation into N reserch bc Leg lme cover LC 2396 a 33 s a 5 0 b 23quot h 253 b fore leafsenesccnce In this experiment trees were excavated just after harvest partition 120 A 13 to N reserves at excavation was the result i Am fN Uptake and not translocation of N from 1 quot 2007 lcaves Therefore the greater N concentra 80 tron In WC roots suggests that trees may store q so a larger percentage ol late season N uptake in i 40 f the roots than in CLT or LC trees a Fruit and leaves acted as strong sinks for E 20 COmWstN early in thc season for reserve E D and AI lll alilplied compost N As the season 3 50 B PIOEYCSscfl It larger percentage of N was g 40 K allocated into perennial tissues as vegetative 7 w growl or reserve N These results are consis g tent wuh studies conducted using inorganic N 20 Q sources Munoz at al 1993 Khemira et al 10 5 I a 1993 Cheng and Fuehigami 2002 o I I I 1 1 By the time of tree excavation in Sept 0 20 40 so so 1 00 120 no 180 180 2007 NDFC and utilization of compost N Fig 3 N derived from compost 16 in 2006 and 2007 in A legume cover crop cuttings and B decomposing wood chip layer starting from Apr 20 Day 0 Samples taken May 9 June 7 July 13 and Sept 29 in 2006 and May 23 June l9 July 19 and Sept 23 m 2007 Mean 2k SE n 3 applied in 2006 were low This could be the resultof lotver N uptake substantial loss of asstmilated 2006 compost N andor dilutiorl 0f y subsequent additions of non ennched compost Modes of loss of 2006 9 Soil N derived from compost quota u a n c e m harm rover l Samples pg A an Meanis 3M 2500 E20430 x z 1500 21000 500 l 4060 o 8 FIquot l o 39 I tion b orchard iloor management treatment over 1 5 rm 50 N mean n y L urtirtu from Ant 7mm 0 39 Midi f Al 7 In 1 taken May 91une 7 July 13 and Sept 29 in 2006 and May 23 June 19 July l9 and Sept 23 in 2007 E n 3 150 50 80100120140 0m the course of the 2007 Samples taken v 0 quotPL 23 May 23 June l9 July 19 and Sept 23 m 2007 Mean i 55 rt 3 contpostN from 39 r 39 tn the autumn of 2006 pruning and int thinning in 2007 and natural root turnover x J 2 WC and CLT treatments but increased N accumulation and lower tree NDFC indtcate that trees in WC received a signi cant amount ofN from noncompost sources in Comm trees ttnder CLT and LC were more r li t on compost as an N source epen dc Corn ost N in the LC combined With low total tree N suggests that N xation in 15 legume cover crop did not supply Signi cant N to the apple trees Nitrogen derived from compost applied ln39Apttl was lower than May and June consrstcnt wrth Munoz Ct at 1993 who observed peak N Uptake front June to August in pcaclt treesr RCmobilization of N from perennial tissu t mm fertilizer Also competition apple trees and legume cover crops or th deco tllosing woodeltip layer was greatest in me Sprin In t c legume cover crop up nrentt bentgrass roestablished qmckcrt pan the legume in 2007 data not shorm t ts factor combined with cool spring tempera o E r J u 1 crop competition for N Cultivation incorpo rated N into the soil increasing soil NDFC r quot quot VCandLClnthe WC treatment the addition of high CIN ratio mulch in April resulted in compost N immo bilization early in the season We observed roots growing into the wood chip layer and typothesizo that as the season progressed the decomposing wood chip layer sht cd from a sink to source of N resulting in lower N concentration and higher CzN ratio ol the WC ater in theseason data not shown Wate r n vcmenr diffusion root uptake and sort organisms helped move N out of the wood chips and compost and into the soil increas ing soil N in all treatments over the course of e rowin season m lgenilizegrs labeled with quotN are frequently used to track N uptake and movement tn fruit trees but the fertilizers used in previous studies have only been inorganic not or genie fertilizers Cheng and F39uclugamt 002 Khemim ct al 1998 Millard and Neilsen 1989 Millard and Thompson 1989 Munoz et al 1993 Neilscn39 et al 200la39 Neilsen ct al ZOOlb Tosclh ct alr 2000 Adding a Nennched NH4SO drench to pret onned compost likely in creased the amount of N in the labile pool These altered the pattcm of apparent compost N uptake and utilization by trees Studies using intrinsic labeling ofcmupost are needed to examine N release of more recalcitrant N in compost and other organic sources of N is study examines the affects ot orcltttrd loot management on newly planted apple trees which likely interact with orchard tlnor management treatments differently than older trees would Vigorous tree growth in the wood chip treatment allowed young apple trees to establish quicth and yield well in the rst harvest year As the orchard matures however i F vigorous tree growth continues it could increase orchard management costs through increased pruning and limb trttining It may be necessary then to co vegetative growth short term cultivation resulted in high fruit yields despite reduced vegetative growth Trccs under cultivation were more dependent on compost for N than trees under quality and the active soil microbial commu nity needed to minemlize organic N the longlttcnn effectiveness ofthis system needs further study The grasslcgumc mixture used in this study competed for moisture reduced tree growth fruit yield and l ertili rusu cili cicncy and absorbed signi cant amounts of compost N A legume that can uutcumpctc grasses and recslablislt early in the spring may reduce competition for compost N and increase N transfer to apple trees Le covers have microbi established et 8 However we conclude from this stu y that legume cover is unsuitable inrow groundcovcr for orchard establishment thcrature Cited Blasing 0 D Atkinson and lit ClaytonGreener l990 The contribution of rtth an reserves 39 rands Implications for the interpretation of anal1ierr data Act Man 745 9 Conthardella CA and ESL Elliot W92 l anictt late soil organicmatter changes across gutsy land cultivation sequence Soil Sci Soc Amer 3 S 2 s c I 56 7 Cheng L and Lil Fuchigami 2003 Grouth or youngappletrees inrelation to reservenitmgcn and carbohydrates Tree Phsinl 221297 l303 Delate t It McKem n Tuntbull tr wantr Rr Volz A White V BusD Rogers L Cole gt4l N How 8 Guernsey and J Johnston 2008 Organic apple systems Constraints and oppor tunities for producers in local and global m Introduction to the colloquium llorIScicnce 43 r Forge TA E Hoguc G Neilsen and D Neilsen 200 Effects of organic mulches on soil nticrol auna in the root zone ofapple ltuplica tions for nutrient uxes and functional diversity ofthe soil food web ApplSoil Ecol 2213944 Forshcy CG and DC Elving 198 The relttltou ship between vegetative growth and fruiting in apple trees Hort Rev Amer Soc Hon Sci ll2297287 Granntstein D ZOOl Research directions for organictrcc fruit productioninNorthandSouth merica Acta Hort 638369474 llongland L l Cn nter Boggs D Grantustein M lazzoln J Smith F Peryea an Regunold 2008 0 management effects on nitrogen fertility and soil biological activity in a newly established nrgnnic apple orchard Biol Fenil Soils 451l l lS Khemira ll TL Righelli and AN Aznrcnko 1992 quot 39 39 N 39 by tinting and tree growth habit J Hort Sci Biotccltnol 73217 223 Lnrsson L B Stcnbergand L Torstcnsson 1997 Echcts of L39 rr39 microbial parameters in the organic growing 0 B ac Curmnt Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 28Ilampl29l3 925 Marsh KB MJ Daly and Tl McCarthy I996 The ufl ecl of understory management on soil fertility tree nutrition fruit production and apple fruit quality Biol Agr llon l316ll73 Millard P and CM Thompson 1989 The effect of the autumn senescence of leaves on the m m VWFRWWNW W internal cycling of nitrogen for the spring growth of39apple trees J Expt Bot 401285 l2 Millard P and Gil Neilscn 1989 The influence Z t r en t 1 Legal and E rimo Millo l993 Seasonal uptake of lSNnitrale and distribution ofabsorbcd nitrogen in peach trees Plant Soil 50263469 Neilscn D G H Nei sen L Herbert P Millard andSGuak2006Allocationut drymalterand N r t J to sink size and N availability Acta Hort 7213 40 Neilsen D P Millard GH Neilsen and EJ Hague 2001a Nitrogen uptake cm 39 tn 5 150 Neilsen D l Millard LC Herbert GH Neilscn EJ Ho u P Parchomchuk and BJ Zebnnh a n2 2001b Remobilization and uptake of N by newly planted apple Mala domestica trees in AUD N application Tree Physiol 251352l Neilsen GH EJ l guc T Forge 8 Neilsen 2003 Mulches and biosolids affect intt J n p t in density apple HortScience 3341 45 RighcttiTL DR Sandrock B Strik C Vasconcclos Y Moreno S OrtegaForks and P Bamdos 2007 Amlysis ofratio bt tscd rtsponscs J Amer Soc Hort Sci 1323 Sanchez EB A Giayctto L Cichon D Femandez MC Nani and M Curetti 2007 Covererops in uence soil r 39 pe cum 2 in an organic apple Malin domestic Barkli orchard in northem Patagonia Plant Soil 292 l93 203 Sanchez EE TL Righctti D Sugar and RB Lombard I992 Effects of timing of nitrogen application on nitrogen partitioning between vegetative rcpr uctic and stntctuml com pone ot maturc Comice pcarsJ llorl Sci 8 SanchezJ CE Edson 1W Bird ME Vhalon TC Villson RR llnm39ood K KizilknyaJE Nugent V Klein A Middleton TL London DR Mulch and l Scritngcr 2003 Orchard oor and nitrogen management in uences soil 1 39 39 yitldsJAmer Soc llort Sci 128977 284 Shribbs1Mand WASkroch I986 lnlluencc of 12 ground cover systems on young Smoollt 6 Golden Delicious apple trees I Grou1h J Amer Soc llort Sci lll525523 Stiles V I994 Nitrogen management in the o chard p 4l 50 ln Peterson ILD and Stevens eds Trcc fmil nutrition short course proceedings Good Fruit Grower Yak tma Titus LS and SM Kong I982 Nitrogen metab olism Imnslocaliun and recycling in apple trees Hort Rev Amer Soc llort Sci 4 2042 M LA Flore C Zarnlloni and B Marangoni 2000 Nitrogen partitioning in up ple trees as affected by application lime Honchhnology 10l36 l4 Yao 3 LA Mcrwin GV Bird LS Abawi and LE Thics 2005 Orchard floor ntanagcmenl practices that maintain vegetative or biomass groundcot39er stimulate soil microbial activity and alter soil microbial community composi tion Plant Soil 27l377 389 we W


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.