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by: Miss Allan Kulas


Miss Allan Kulas
GPA 3.53

J. Sanders

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J. Sanders
Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Allan Kulas on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 316 at Oregon State University taught by J. Sanders in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/224523/comm-316-oregon-state-university in Communication at Oregon State University.




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Date Created: 10/19/15
Key Review Concepts for Exam 1 Know what these mean how they function in persuasion what the component parts are if relevant be able to give examples and apply concepts to analyze persuasion The exams contain truefalse multiple choice and essay questions Some questions are drawn from lecture and class activities while others are drawn directly from the reading 1 Equot Equot 5 How is persuasion an art and science Science Scientists often have to convince others that their research possesses scienti c merit and social value and that they ve properly designed and carried at their experiment and it s correct Must argue over other superior theories Must persuade other scientists Art Artist tend to express their opinions in and through their art To increase awareness change attitudes alter beliefs and shape opinions How pervasive is persuasion Persuasion s the central feature of human communication We can t avoid it It s also anindispensable ingredient in a number of professions What are the functions of studying persuasion a Become a more effective persuader yourself be all you can be Instrumental function h Enhance ones knowledge and awareness of a variety of persuasive processes Knowledge is power So we are aware of our actions too inquiring minds want to know Knowledge awareness function c Learning how persuasion works is vital in our view serves as a defensive function We are defenseless to persuasion at times Duck and Cover the defensive function d Serves as a debunking function useful when traditional wisdom isn t helpful no can ferret out true from false the debunking function debunking explore falseness of something What is persuasion How is persuasion similar to and different from manipulation coercion propaganda indoctrination P33 14 28 27 1213 121122 Persuasion is the art and science form verbally nonverbally contextually wherein the communicator is trying to convince the listener to a certain idea There are cases of pure persuasion which are clearcut cases 7 most people would agree that it is persuasion Ex you should do this because of this and there are borderline persuasion cases where not everyone would agree that it is intended to persuade Persuasion involves l or more persons who are engaged in the activity of creating reinforcing modifying or extinguishing beliefs attitudes intentions and or behaviors within the constraints of a given communication context It s a process Manipulation It can be an aspect ofpersuasion A persuader can decide to be unethical and wrong They can be the use of manipulative symbols Coercion Some argue that 1 39 is 39ve as it I J39 F but doesn t impose Coercion can also be good through the use of rewards incentives and attery Free will is the de ning part of coercion and whether or not you feel you have the right to still make your own decision Propaganda This is just a label that describes persuasive messages or positions with which people disagree It s all in the eye of the beholder 7 previously this was a label that meant a message that was more biased through use of lies and deception now the term means suggestion or in uence through manipulation of symbols and psychology of individuals The recipient comes to it voluntarily This form of persuasion is practices in organizational groups and involves mass persuasion Relies on ethically suspect methods of in uence Indoctrination Term used to describe persuasive messages or positions an asserted principle ideology opinions points of view that are taught with a narrowed view according to the source 7 EX The goal should be to teach politics rather than to indoctrinate students in a narrow set of political beliefs Women should stay at home men should make the money 5 How does the arenacontext in which persuasion occurs affect persuasion both process and effects p3l32 The context determines the nature of the communication process face to face advertising etc One factor is the number of communicators present and also includes how synchronous or asynchronous the communication is Synchronous simultaneous sending and receiving of messages 7 face to face Asynchronous the back and forth process that involves delay 7 email This also includes nonverbal and verbal comm the nature and the type of media sued in the persuasion commercial radio magazine Another is the goal of the participants selfpresentational rational and instrumental goals Then there are sociocultural factors people are from different cultures and may persuade or be persuaded in another way The context involves the totality of the relationships among all these factors See handout from class on the wheel of persuasion Gass and Seiter 9 What do the following terms mean meta analysis Viral marketing branding pure persuasion borderline persuasion Metaanalysis A statistical technique that allows a researcher to combine the results of many separate investigations and determine them as if they were one big super study Capable of revealing trends across a number of studies and resolving apparent inconsistencies among studies 7 P p t Viral marketing A strategy that consumers will see products being used and talked about by other and then will follow suit It s all about relying on social proof and word of mouth Branding The human characteristics and qualities with which consumers identify in messages Starbucks Some serve as vehicles for self expression developed in m personality scale measures brand traits based on dimensions sincerity excitement I 1 39 39 quot quot 1 J Aspirational Brands represent our ideals authenticity emphasizes genuineness and integrity ecofriendly A product s image or personalities created through advertising and construction s key to success Must leverage associations adding to product values pure persuasion we know that its intended to persuade it s not accidental intentional Some unconscious pure persuasions occur borderline persuasion lies closer to boundary or periphery of what we normally think of as persuasion either unintentional or some would not consider as persuasion at all What does it mean to see persuasion as a process rather than a product Persuasion s better understood as an activity in which people engage By approaching persuasion as a process scholars and researchers are more likely to gain insights on how it functions what makes it tick as they are focusing on what s going on and not only how it turns out What is interpersonal versus intrapersonal persuasion nteppersonal selfpersuasion going on a diet studying etc Intrapersonal two or more people we try to convince another person or group What is the linear View of persuasion What are its limits The linear view of persuasion is an effects criterion that embodies it from source to receiver Both parties may be simultaneously engage in persuasion 2040 of ads are effective the rest are ineffective Pure persuasion maymay not be evaluated with intent criterion but with borderline persuasion we don t always transmit the desired messages Both parties may be involved in simultaneous engagement in persuasion Limits social in uence unintended receiver effect criterion When de ning persuasion limits intentionally effects free choicefree will symbol action intrapersonal interpersonal What is the Gass and Seiter model of persuasion Describeexplain it See handout with the wheel of persuasion GassSeiter The inner circle represents pure persuasion the outer circle represents borderline persuasion In the outside circle are the five limiting criterion the inner circle represents the pure cases for criterion We tend to side with the view that persuasion is sometimes unintentional sometimes it has discernible effects and people are not always aware of it r FatwaFun Pomuaslon Nummr a Commummnm SynchronousQaynrmmgus Fumlc nauuuivmb Norwnm quotmum Modlalmn Goals 01 Fanlclvanls Sacmnumunl FnLIoM Mus Medl Peluuallon V 11 What are the contextual features of persuasion Context is what determines the nature of the process involved in a given perspective situation Number of communicators Synchronous vs asynchronous comm Ratio of verbal to nonverbal comm Nature and type ofmedia Goals ofparticipants Sociocultural factors 12 Explain Gass and Seiter s definition of persuasion ass and Seiter de ne persuasion as one or more persons who are engaged in the activity of creating reinforcing modifying or extinguishing beliefs attitudes intention motivations andor behaviors within the constraints of a given communication context PQ PU39 13 Explain the Elaboration Likelihood Model ofpersuasion ELM and these related concepts Created by Cassiopo states that there are two basic routes to persuasion the central route or the peripheral route and that both can be used but one tends to predominate central route or central processing re exive requires mental effort relies on cognitive elaboration Prerecs include motivationwillingness to process a message the ability to process understand a message It can be low ifit is an unknown subject or languagesometimes not aware more mental effort b peripheral route or peripheral processing more ofa re ex based on mental shortcuw credibility sincerity appearances quantity of argum ens Commonin advertisin c motivation to process a message d e f involvement need for cognition can be personality based ability to process a message 14 Explain the Heuristic Systematic Model of persuasion HSM and these related concepts very similar to ELM with the two separate routes of processing a 5quot 0 as Lquot moreu 11 I 1 I39I a r analytical and very much like central processing heuristic processing relies on mental shortcuts more re exive automatic analogous to peripheral processing it relies on decision rules Ex always tip 15 which are activated by speci c circumstances available accessible applicable and motivation amp ability make differences decision rules these are activated under appropriate circumstances don t go shopping on payday The are available stored in your memory for potential use accessible activated from memory heuristic cues Package over content 7 buying a product because it s more pretty Simultaneous processing Heuristic and systematic messages travel two routes so the can process concurrently suf ciency principle people strive to know as much as they need to when they are making a decision no more and no less although they devote a lot of attention to issues that they deserve 15 Explain the definition and characteristics of an attitude Learned not innate and are predispositions to respond and represent favorable or unfavorable evaluations of things re ect likes or dislikes disagreements or agreements positive or negative feelings a b c d evaluative dimension a central feature of attitude express one s attitudes direction of attitude positively or negatively balanced degree of attitude intensity attitude object old attitudes about things or towards certain things 16 How are attitudes measured Standardized selfreport scales measuring attitudes via standardized scales based on self reports a 5quot c What are Likert scales Measures graduations in attitudes Equal appearing interval scales remain the gold standard for measuring attitudes today Easy to construct Eg You are a leader strongly agree agree neutral disagree and strongly disagree What are semantic differentials Scales as a means for measuring attitudes based on connotative meanings words have or people consists of bipolar adjective pairs or state opposites stupid 7 intelligent What are drawbacks to attitude scales 39 social desirability bias people may modify their actions and words to what s socially acceptable Lquot ii non attitudes people don t want to appear unintelligent so they might simply make one up because they are afraid of looking uninformed iii Acquiescence bias some respondents are inclined to agree with any statement contained in a survey or questionnaire They might want to have the sarne oplmon they thnk that another has iv Mindfulness sorne people are notmlndfulaware oftherr own attrtudes o survey won39tbe very useful TRA to thern a Intentlnns best gulde to behavror If sorneo behavlor follows 7 mtennons do not always predlct beh h attltneletnward the hehavlnr lntentrons are the result mn n quott ne has an rntentron rnost often a avlor of two addnonal pelformlng behavlor andthe evaluatron ofthe outeorne e 39 hnnt the nntenme ornponent1t39s a person39s pereeptron ofwhat v t n behavlor tn questron Thls ls how wt mg aperson ls to conform to soeral pressure by relevant others 7 llvlng up to expectations ofthe attrtudnal and normative eornponents EX Ted started dnnkmg aleohol when he earne to college Sub2 ve narmcampanent My fnends wantrne to stop and start belng myself agam Intenadn l39rn golng to stop dnnkmgquot Behavmr Ted goes to AA Bellman lnlemlun 18 Explain the Thenry nl39 Planned Behavinr TPB p t O N O TBD is an extension of the theory of reasoned action with the addition of perceived behavioral control What are its key elements Internal Factors Amount of knowledge and skills one has lack of knowledge could prevent someone from performing an intended action External Factors Resources one has limited resources of extenuating circumstances might also inhibit someone from carrying out an intended action a How is it similar to and different from the TRA It is an extension of TRA but adds perceived behavioral control an increases behavioral predictability the more we feel we have control over a situation the better TRA presumes that behavior s generally under a person s control while TPB acknowledges that behavior isn t always voluntary How does it explain persuasion To persuade one needs to bolster receiver s perceived behavioral control their con dence that they perform recommended action The best way is to address ways to overcoming obstacles Adding perceived behavioral control to equation did a much better job at explaining behavioral intent than TRA What explains the persistence of attitudes according to the ELM Attitudes formed Via the central route are more persistent and resistant to change than the ones formed Via the peripheral route While peripheral attitudes are more short lived control ones are more thoughtful and internalized To better persuade someone rst increase motivation which might alter attitude and finally adapting the message to receiver s levels of understanding will increase ability to engage in central processing What are the following self monitoring image oriented advertising narrowcasting vs broadcasting Selfmonitoring Traitlike quality found in people High self monitors HSMs are more likely to adapt and more aware of their and others behaviors Low self monitors do their own thing It is easier to persuade a HSM Imageoriented advertising Links products with favorable attitudes values and lifestyles It isn t necessarily true but instead an ideal version of life Narrowcasting vs broadcasting Narrowcasting aims a certain message to a specific segment of public defined by values Preferences or demographics attribute rely on targeted audience Meanwhile broadcasting targets a message to a bigger larger audience What are consistency theories How does consistency work in persuasion What s dissonance How do we cope with inconsistency 0r dissonance Consistency theories are what people use to make decisions most often times People expect to be consistent balance harmony strive to maintain and preserve it among their beliefs attitudes and behaviors o Dissonance is an uncomfortable mental state caused by inconsistency which triggers a II39II39 L ALYJquot1I are motivated to restore cognitive consistency t A 39A 39A39 III 39 I Methods of 39 39 39 39 Denial denying or ignoring any inconsistency Bolstering Rationalizing or making excuses Differentiation Separating or distinguishing a attitudes that are in con ict Transcendence Focusing on a larger level No one s perfect after all Modifying one or both attitudes Altering the attitudes themselves to become more consistent o Communicating persuasion Trying to convince others to change or convince others one did the right thing To convince it s good to create inconsistency to make them change attitude N N What s Social Judgment Theory SJT looks at how people weight every now idea presented by comparing it with a present point of view It presents the following a person s likelihood to change hisher opinion the likely direction of hisher attitude one s tolerance of other positions and level of commitement of one s position a ego involvement Receiver and particularity relevant to a psychological characteristic Level of involvement and how important the issue s to our self identity It de ns who we are and addresses critical aspects of our selves As our ego gets lager more chances to reject and be convinced anchor point Having a more preferred position latitudes of acceptance rejection and noncommitment Finding a position as acceptable or not The latitude of acceptance is how accepting one is of something the latitude of non commitment contains positions about which a person feels neutral or ambivalent The latitude of rejection contains positions that a person would reject contrast and assimilation effects Assimilation occurs when a message that falls 95quot 3 1 within a person s latitude of acceptance is perceived to be closer to the anchor position than it really is acceptance Contrast Effect is when a message falls too far away from a person s anchor position so the person perceives the message to be further away from the anchor than it really is Persuasion occurs over time to best shift closer to anchor point 5 principles 1 We have categories of judgment by which we evaluate persuasive positions 2 When we receive persuasive information we locate it on our categories of judgment 3 Our level of egoinvolvemen affects the size of our latitudes 4 We tend to distort incoming info to t our categories of judgment 5 Small to moderate discrepancies between our anchor positions and the one advocated will cause us to change while large ones will do the complete opposite 23 What is audience analysis It is showing with demographics that some of the attitudes held by your receivers are incompatible which may motivate you to change theirs in the direction you want It is the process in which persuaders break down their audience into small observable units a Polling Use of statistic theory to assume some characteristics of a population based on a survey It is the degree in which an audience agrees or disagrees b Segmentation Divides the audience into smaller groups to more precisely infer attitudes usually in three genres demographics psychographics and geo demographics Demographics divide based on age seX race income level Political party affiliation and religion Psychographics use psychology to understand and predict personality which can predict actions age income education 24 What is ethos or source credibility What are the following Ethos is judgments made by a perceiver message recipient concerning the believability of a communicator a credibility as a receiver based construct Receiver based construct Credibility eXists in the eye of the beholder b credibility as a multidimensional construct Multidimensional construct Credibility represents a composite of several characteristics that receivers perceive in a source It s a combination of qualities ones believed to have c credibility as a situational or contextual phenomenon Situational or Contextual phenomenon the very qualities that are received in a communicator in a situation or context maybe reviled in another setting A persuaders credibility is subject to change as he moves she from one setting to another Or you maybe credible in a subject school work than another sports women d dynamic nature of credibility Dynamic nature of credibility Credibility can change over time it uctuates from audience to audience from situation to situation and time to time Can change during course of a single speech sales pitch or presentation 25 What do the factor analytic studies of credibility reveal Ingredients that induce audience to believe a thing apart from any proof of it are good sense good moral character and goodwill a primary dimensions of credibility Primary dimension expertise competence or quali cation trustworthiness character safety or personal integrity and goodwill b secondary dimensions of credibility Secondary dimensionHow energetic animated or enthusiastic source appears It makes up extroversiontimid Composure posed and sociability honest c What is the most important dimension of credibility 26 What does it mean to say credibility as a peripheral cue Motivation to pay attention to a message is lower so take the peripheral route Credibility doesn t matter as much if receiver s involvement s already high so credibility s highly important when receiver involvement is low 27 How is credibility related to involvement Pg 81 The ELM acknowledges that in most persuasive situations receivers tend to favor one route over another Which route they favor depends among other things on their involvement in the issue When receivers have a stake in the outcome their motivation to pay attention to a message is higher They thus tend to favor the central route When receivers have little at stake their motivation to pay attention to a message is lower They therefore tend to favor the peripheral route Source Credibility exerts more in uence on receivers who are no highly involved Credibility matters less if the receiver is already heavily involved 28 What are the effects of ctitious spokespersons Pg 76 A spokesperson needs to be a good fit in order to be persuasive Fictitious spokespersons can be effective in a few situations but are limited by their credibility The issue with a fictitious spokesperson is that because they are fictitious so are all of the things that make them credible A fictitious spokesperson will be lacking in the primary dimensions expertise trustworthiness goodwill but may excel in the secondary dimensions Extroversion Composure Sociability One situation where a fictitious spokesperson might maintain some credibility is with children ex Tony the tiger would be more persuasive to children than someone at the FDA however this would be the opposite for an adult Of institutional credibility Institutions on the other hand may have abundance of expertise and in some cases trustworthiness and goodwill but the institution itself is faceless and therefore would be lacking in the secondary dimensions 29 What are effective strategies for increasing credibility 1 Be prepared 2 Cite Evidence for your position and identify the sources of your evidence M N 3 Cite your own or your sources quali cations and expertise on the topic issue up front 4 Attempt to build trust by demonstrating to your listener that you are honest and sincere 5 Display goodwill toward your audience 6 Improve your likeability or Lfactor 7 Adopt a language and delivery style appropriate to the listeners topic and setting 8 Avoid a powerless style of communication Use an assertive style of communication instead 9 Emphasizing your similarity to another may indirectly enhance your credibility 10 If you think you are perceived as having low credibility try to increase receiver involvement and emphasize the central route to persuasion 11 Have another source who is already perceived as highly credible introduce or endorse you How do demographic variables such as age gender ethnicity intelligence affect persuasion Pg 95 Stereotypes cause men to be perceived as more competent females Females are seen as warmer and more nurturing than males Females in professional rolls politicians doctors etc have issues with aversive strategies Cultural variability affects how in uence attempts are fashioned and how people respond to them Commonly discussed is Collectivism vs Individualism Direct strategies are more commonly associated with individualistic cultures Less intelligent people are easier to persuade Complex persuasive messages require a more intelligent audience What are traits versus states Pg 98 A trait is a characteristic of a person presumed to be relatively stable across all situations A state varies from situation to situation Someone who has anxiety as a trait has anxiety across all situations where as anxiety as a state is something that is present only in certain situations What are the following and how do they affect persuasion self esteem self monitoring dogmatism authoritarianism cognitive complexity need for cognition argumentativeness verbal aggressiveness pg 98106 Self esteem Those are less likely to with high selfesteem are good receivers but yield less where those with low selfesteem are more likely to yield but are poor receivers Anxiety Anxiety is similar to low selfesteem Anxious people are more likely to yield to a message but less likely to be receptive M 5 High self monitors More sensitive to social cues More likely to be persuaded if they though a social reward would be the result More likely to be in uenced by image based advertising Low self monitors Individualistic Less sensitive to social cues More interested in product quality advertising or strong arguments Authoritarianism authoritarian people respect leadership and often follow their leaders blindly but are far less susceptible to being persuaded by others or outsiders Dogmatism Dogmatism is a more general type of authoritarianism Where authoritarianism tends to include close minded conservatives dogmatism tends to include close minded liberals Cognitive Complexity Those who are more cognitively complex are more likely to be able to see from the perspective of the listener and are much more persuasive Need for Cognition Those with a high need for cognition enjoy effortful thinking more than those with a low need Verbal Aggressiveness It is a destructive for of aggression that involves persuasion through threats intimidation profanity and insults Argumentativeness is a constructive form of assertiveness and involves atendency to defend and refute positions on controversial issues College students perceive argumentative professors as having high credibility How do you analyze and adapt to audiences Pg 108 111 As the speaker you should know as much as you can about your audience so that you can create an audience centered and listener oriented argument Pay Attention to the situation Keep your audience s mind in mind Remember the importance of audience states and traits Don t forget about the audience demographics What is market segmentation Market segmentation is breaking down the market into manageable definable segments and then targeting just one or two Which people are easiest to persuade Which are most dif cult Younger people with average selfesteem who are highly involved and have a lower intelligence will be easy to persuade while Adults with high or low selfesteem anxiety have a higher intelligence and a higher need for cognition will be very difficult to persuade What are implicit and explicit norms How are they connected to persuasion Pg 117 Explicit norms are written or spoke openly while implicit norms are not so openly stated M M Arguments that con ict with social norms are going to be less persuasive than those that are consistent with social norms What are the following informational in uence normative in uence group initiation identi cation reference group gender culture personality and conformity peer pressure social proof buzz marketing deindividuation How are these connected to persuasion Pg 117 7 133 Informational in uence We conform to a group because of a desire to be right and because we believe the group to be correct Normative in uence We conform to a group because it presents certain social rewards or to avoid punishment Group Initiation Increases compliance identi cation with the group and involvement Identi cation Identi cation is central to Burke s conceptualization of rhetoric Occurs when people are united in substance shared attitudes activities ideas etc The more a person identi es with a group the more power they have to persuade Reference Group Is a group that has the power to persuade through the process of identi cation Gender Females are more likely to conform than males Culture There are four dimensions of values power distance uncertainty avoidance masculinityfemininity and individualismcollectivism Personality amp conformity Those with similar personality are more likely to conform than those with con icting personalities Peer pressure Most noticeable in teens teens often conform to groups based on social pressures as a way of seeking acceptance Social proof The tendency to see and action as more appropriate when others are doing it Buzz marketing aka Viral marketing relies on social proo ng or word of mouth to spread a message Deindividuation To get lost in the crowd When being in a group causes individuals to become less aware of themselves and less concerned with how others will evaluate them EX Riots How do the following cultural variables affect persuasion power distance uncertainty avoidance masculinity femininity individualism collectivism Pg 125 Power distance High power distance values hierarchy and obedience to authority while low power distance value equality Uncertainty avoidance Cultures with high uncertainty avoidance are uncomfortable with ambiguity and will be less likely to conform when ambiguity is present Masculine Feminine Masculine value competition strength assertiveness and achievement where feminine cultures value cooperation affection intuition and nurturance Masculine cultures conform less than feminine cultures Individualism Collectivism Individualistic cultures value personal goals and self autonomy where collectivist cultures emphasize group goals and harmony Conformity is much higher in collectivist cultures What are social loafmg risky shift phenomenon and group polarization How do these affect persuasion Pg 131136 Social Loa ng It is the reduced motivation and effort of individuals when working in groups collectively Happens when individual don t think they will get the credit they are due or that their effort will be instrumental in obtaining the desired outcome Risk Shift phenomenon Individuals will make riskier decisions When in groups Group Polarization Groups are more likely to become extreme in their decisions and may also become less accurate


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