General Chemistry I
General Chemistry I CHEM 115
Pacific Lutheran University
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Royce Goodwin on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 115 at Pacific Lutheran University taught by Dean Waldow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/224575/chem-115-pacific-lutheran-university in Chemistry at Pacific Lutheran University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
CH 1 o What is the de nition ofa molecule and how is that different from an atom Be able to distinguish between and de ne pure substances elements compounds mixtures and solutions What is the law of constant composition and what does it mean What is a change of state and be able to name the six different changes of state solid to liquid liquid to solid solid to gas gas to solid liquid to gas and gas to liquid What is the difference between a chemical change and a physical change What is an intensive property What is an extensive property Be able to give examples of each What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory Know the SI units for length mass time temperature and moles Table 14 Also know the prefixes that are used in the Metric System Know how to convert between the Farenheit temperature scale into Celsius and then into Kelvin and vice versa What are some ofthe units of volume that are used in chemistry Know to convert the heightwidthlength of an object into mL and L o What is density What are the units of density lfyou have equal masses of two materials one with a low density and the other with a high density which material occupies a greater volume Sig Figure rules CH 2 Be able to understand the four parts of Dalton s atomic theory Compare the size ofa nucleus to the size of an atom How did Rutherford s experiment support this nuclear model ofthe atom What is the difference between an element s atomic number and mass number Which one of those two numbers is unique to each element Be able to distinguish between the atomic number and mass number next to an element s symbol What is the de nition of an atomic mass unit What is the abbreviation for atomic mass unit Why is this number such a small number What is an average atomic mass and how would you calculate the average atomic mass ofan element with more than one isotope Why are the elements in the periodic table stacked on top of each other like they are What are the horizontal rows in the periodic table called The vertical columns Be able to identify where the metals and nonmetals are generally located Also be able to de ne and identify metalloids What is a molecule What is the simplest kind of molecule think of oxygen molecules What is a molecular formula How is that different than an empirical formula What information does a molecular formula give you What information can you get from an empirical formula Molecules are not two dimensional What are three ways to draw them as 3D objects Which type of representation is closest to real life What are ions Cations Anions Which type do metal atoms tend to form What about nonmetals Be able to predict ionic charges forthe alkali metals alkali earth metals and the various nonmetals What is an ionic compound and what is it made of in general How do you write the formula for an ionic compound How do you name inorganic compounds Practice the name rules on pages 5963 How are acids named Practice the owchart on page 64 o How do you name polyatomic oxyanions What are their prefixes and suffixes Know how to name binary molecular compounds using Greek pre xes Know some basic organic nomenclature from the end of CH 2 Focus speci cally on knowing the prefixes for alkanes alcohols CH3 What is the de nition of the word stoichiometry What does the stoichiometry compare between the reactants and products Look at Figure 32 and understand when a chemical symbol will use a subscript and when it will use a coef cient Be able to define and correctly distinguish between a combination reaction a decomposition reaction and a combustion reaction What should the reactants and products look like in general for each type of reaction What is the difference between formula and molecular weights When should you use one and not the other What are the units of both How do you calculate both Be able to calculate the percent composition ofan element in a compound Be able to calculate the empirical formula ofa compound ifyou know the mass percentage ofthe compounds elements Likewise be able to convert empirical formula into molecular formula What is a limiting reactant How can you determine which compound is the limiting reactant in a reaction Be able to calculate which is the limiting reactant which is the reactant in excess and what the theoretical yield of the reaction has to be based on the limiting reactant CH 4 4146 Be able to identify and de ne electrolytes Table 43 strong weak and non solvents solutes Mastering Chemistry CH4 part 1 of2 HWK Electrolytes Solutions Electrolytic Properties and Molarity 41 43 45 437 Know how to use Table 41 to predict solubility Precipitation reactions Solution Stoichiometry 420 421 Know how to write molecular equations complete ionic equations and net ionic equations Net lonic Equations Aqueous Reactions 423 415 47 492 424 Be able to identify and de ne Table 42 strong and weak acids and bases complete reactions if given the acidbase reactants write entire reactions iftold which acid and base are involved and balance AcidBase reactions AcidBase reactions Acids Bases and Salts 429 430 431 433 435 436 Be able to recognize ReductionOxidation reactions and to use the Activity Series to decide whether one species gets oxidized or reduced by another species Oxidation States OxidationReduction Reactions Reactions in Solution 445 446 447 450 452 497 Know how to express the concentration ofelectrolytes for compounds with more than one cation or anion pg 145 lon Concentration 469 470 know how to perform dilution calculations M1V1M2V2 pgs 146148 Concentration 473 474 4100 Tie together concepts about solubility concentration and titrations 4105 CH 5 5157 skipping 58 o What is kinetic energy and how can you calculate it Kinetic Energy 514 Know what the First Law of Thermodynamics is Law of Conservation of Energy Energy Heat and Work 526 Be able to tell which is system and surroundings Know how to tell if the internal energy heat and work ofa system is changing if these quantities owing into or out of the system and what the sign conventions are for these quantities Table 51 52 55 o What is a state function What is a path function Be able to identify these Problem 530 o What is the de nition of enthalpy What symbol is enthalpy given 535 542 Know how to do calorimetry calculations Coffee Cup Calorimetry Calorimetry 548 554 o What is Hess Law How can you use it to determine the change in enthalpy for an unknown reaction Procedure for Using Hess s Law Apply Hess s Law 560 564 o What is an enthalpy of formation What symbol do we write for this term When should you use enthalpies of formation for calculations Standard Enthalpy of Formation 572 578 CH 6 6166 Know the relationship between the speed of light wavelength and frequency Properties of waves Be able to calculate one of those if you know the other two quantities What is the relationship between frequency wavelength and the energy of a photon Be able to convert wavelength andor frequency into the energy of a photon 624 626 644 One ofthe quirks about Quantum Mechanics is that all matter has properties of particles and waves Understand what the de Broglie wavelength means and how to calculate it The de Broglie Relation and the Wavelength ofa Particle What is the Bohr model of the atom Is it a good model for Hydrogen For other atoms What are line spectra Calculate the energy absorbed or emitted when the energy ofa electron in a Hydrogen atom changes The Bohr Equation 635 636 o What is the meaning of Heisenberg s Uncertainty Principle Understand the mathematical representation of this principle What are atomic orbitals What is electron density and how is it related to the concept of atomic orbitals Be able to identify and assign the four types of quantum numbers to an electron in an atom What does each of the quantum numbers mean although they were not assigned 649 651 and 653 are related problems with answers listed in the back ofthe book CH 7 71 75 What are valence electrons Know how to write electronic configurations for atoms and ions What is shielding and how does it affect the effective nuclear charge that valence electrons experience Be able to calculate the effective nuclear charge for any electron in an atom What are the trends in effective nuclear charge going from left to right and bottom to top in the Periodic Table What is the trend of atomic radii in the periodic table Likewise what is the trend for ionic radii Be able to know the relative sizes of atoms and ions Which is larger a cation or its parent element Which larger an anion or its parent element What does isoelectronic mean What is an isoelectronic series What happens to atomicionic radii in an isoelectronic series that is written in order of increasing nuclear charge Why o What is ionization energy What is the trend of ionization energy in the Periodic Table What is the de nition of a rst ionization energy Second ionization energy Looking at Table 72 why might there be large jumps in the ionization energy for the elements When transition metals lose electrons do they lose electrons from sorbitals or d orbitals rst Be able to write the electronic con guration for transition metals and their ions What is the de nition of electron affinity What is the trend of electron af nities in the Periodic Table CH 8 8187 There are three types of chemical bonds What are they How are they different from each other What are the Lewis symbols for the elements see Table 81 o What is the octet rule Which atoms have to follow the octet rule What is lattice energy Why is ionic bonding exothermic What are the trends in lattice energy with regard to ionic radii the charge on ions and the distance that ions are apart What is covalent bonding Be able to draw Lewis structures for covalent molecules How many electrons are shared in a single bond Double Triple Why are the valence electrons in N2g so unreactive What is electronegativity and what is the trend for electronegativity in the Periodic Table What is bond polarity What are the three categories of bond polarity V thout considering the numerical electronegativity differences between the atoms be able to tell which bond is more polar than another How is ionic bonding different than polar covalent What is a nonpolar covalent bond not thinking in terms of numerical electronegativity differences but what physically happens to the bond Be able to identify ionic compounds from covalent compounds What is a dipole moment and how do you draw it Which way does the dipole arrow point and over which atom does the positive sign go o What happens to bond lengths as the bonds become more polar What are the steps you need to follow to draw Lewis Structures Be able to draw Lewis Structures for molecules and polyatomic ions What is formal charge How is it used Remember that formal charge is intended to give you some insight into what Lewis Structures or less likely than others Other information like bond length and bond reactivity are needed to truly know what type of bond a molecule really has At the very least know how to assign formal charges to elements in the Lewis Structures that you draw What is a resonance structure Know how to draw resonance structures of simple molecules What are some exceptions to the Octet Rule What happens if you have less than an octet More than an octet CH 9 91 99 Real molecules are not twodimensional What is the difference between an electron domain geometry and a molecular geometry Know all the electron domain geometries and molecular geometries in Tables 92 and 93 This information will not be provided on the exam Why do molecules assume the geometries that they do Think ofelectron repulsions What is the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory and how will you use it Do lone pair electrons and multiple bonds take up more or less space than single bonds What do lone pairs and multiple bonds do to the bond angles in molecules Consider resonance structures in molecules and how the resonance structures may blend together bond angles What is the difference between an axial and equatorial position in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry Where would electron lone pairs encounter the least repulsion in an axial position or in an equatorial position What are the bond angles in an octahedral structure What different structures would crop up as soon as you start replacing bonding domains in the octahedral electron domain geometry with nonbonding domains o What are bond angles in hydrocarbon molecules How does this relate to hybridization sp sp2 sp3 What types ofelectron domain geometries do sp3d and sp3d2 correspond to Be able to draw dipole moments for individual bonds and to identify the net dipole moment in any molecule What is an sphybridized carbon How is that different than sp2hybridized or spa What bond angles does each correspond to Which bond types does each correspond to o What happens if atoms get too close when they bond What about if they re too far away Is there a sweet spot distance that atoms like to have in a chemical bond How does potential energy play in this Be able to tell how many single sigma bonds there are in a molecule and to likewise know how many double pi bonds there are What is molecular orbital theory What do we mean when we talk about atomic orbitals How are atomic orbitals related to molecular orbitals How many electrons can fit into an atomic orbital How many electrons can fit into a molecular orbital Understand the molecular orbital diagram for simple molecules like H2 He2 Li2 What does 15 mean What does 15 mean What is the bond order for each of the examples above Define paramagnetic How is that different from diamagnetic How can you tell whether a molecular is paramagnetic or diamagnetic by looking at the molecular orbital diagram for a molecule Be able to draw and understand the molecular orbital diagram for O2 and to indicate whether 02 is paramagnetic or diamagnetic CH 10 o What is the de nition of pressure What terms is pressure related to What is the standard atmospheric pressure in units of atmospheres Torr Pascal Which of these is the SI unit of pressure Be able to calculate the pressure of gases by the sample exercises on page 397 Know the de nition of Boyle s Law What relationship is true according to Boyle s Law Know the de nition of Charles Law What relationship is true according to Charles Law Likewise with Avogadro s Law How do these concepts combine into one gas law What do we call this equation What is the equation for this equation How many ofthe terms are variables How many ofthe terms in the equation are constants lfyou re given three ofthe variables be able to calculate the fourth variable What is molar volume What are the units of molar volume Know the two reasons why real gases differ from the molar volume that is calculated for an ideal gas When the moles of gas and the temperature are held constant which equation can you use to calculate P or V When the moles of gas are the only constant which equation can you use to calculate P V or T o How might you calculate the density ofa gas if you know its Pressure Molar mass and temperature Know how to de ne partial pressure What is it What is the sum ofall partial pressures in a container Be able to calculate partial pressure for gases and the total pressure ofa system containing more than one gas Be able to relate the partial pressure of gas to the total pressure insider a container using the mole fraction ofthe gas Be able to understand the statements behind the kineticmolecular theory of gases What makes one gas faster than another What do we mean by molecular speed distributions What is effusion Diffusion Do heavier or lighter gases travel faster What is rms speed What does Graham s Law of Effusion state Be able to determine which gas will effuse faster ifyou are given the molar masses of both gases What is mean free path Why do real gases deviate from ideal behavior Hint there are two reasons Be able to make an educated guess as to whether one compound or another will deviate more from being an ideal gas than another compound What is the van der Waals equation and what information does it give us about gases Why might we use the van der Waals equation instead ofthe ideal gas equation CH11 What is an intermolecular force lfa compound has a strong intermolecular force what will happen to properties like boiling point and viscosity What are the ve intermolecular forces discussed in this chapter Rank them in terms of increasing degrees of strength Be able to determine which forces are present in a pure compound or a mixture What is an iondipole force Give an example What is the de nition ofa dipoledipole force Give an example lfthe polarity ofa molecule increases what is likely to happen to its boiling point What is a London dispersion force Where do they originate from Do all compounds have them How strong are they What does polarizability have to do with Dispersion forces How is the size of a molecule related to the strength of Dispersion forces How is the shape of a molecule related to the strength of Dispersion forces How is molecular weight related to the strength of Dispersion forces What is hydrogen bonding Compounds with which three elements bonded to hydrogen can participate in hydrogen bonding Give examples of ionic bonding and try to think ofwhy table salt doesn t melt when you bake with it in the oven What is viscosity and how is viscosity related to intermolecular forces Should longer or shorter molecules be less viscous What are the names ofthe six types of phase changes Correlate these phase changes with the names of types of heat Be able to read and draw heating curves like the one in Fig 1119 Notice that temperature doesn t change in segments BC and DE Why Be able to calculate the change in enthalpy for a temperature and phase change Sample exercise 114 o What is the de nition of critical pressure and critical temperature What is a supercritical uid o What is vapor pressure What is the physical explanation ofwhat vapor pressure is lfa compound is volatile does it have a higher or lower vapor pressure Be able to look at data like that shown in Figure 1124 to determine the boiling point and volatility of compounds What is a normal boiling point Be able to read and draw phase diagrams like the one in Figure 1126 Be able to move through the phase diagram from one temperaturepressure to another and identify the phase ofthat product What is and where is the triple point in a phase diagram What is a unit cell Be able to distinguish between the unit cell types shown in Figures 1133 and 1134 Likewise be able to calculate the number of atoms present in each type of unit cell What is closepacking Cubic closepacking What is the crystal structure of diamond vs graphite CH 13 Define solvation and hydration Be able to draw Lewis structures of water molecules solvating cations and anions How can we determine the total enthalpy change of forming a solution When will they be exothermic When will they be endothermic What is entropy How does entropy related to the concept of order What is a spontaneous reaction Be able to tell which system has more entropy than another What is a saturated solution Unsaturated Supersaturated How do they form What are some factors than affect solubility What is miscible lmmiscible What does it mean for like to dissolve like Why does the solubility ofa gas increase in direct proportion to the partial pressure above the solution What is Henry s Law and how does it relate solubility ofa gas to its partial pressure o What happens to the solubility of a gas as the temperature of the solution increases Be able to understand the information that is presented in Figure 1317 What do ppm and ppb mean Be able to calculate both What is the mole fraction of a component in a solution Be able to calculate molarity with correct units What is the molality of a solution and what are the units of molality What are colligative properties and how do they affect freezing points and melting points of solvents Why do colligative properties lower the vapor pressure of a solvent Know how to use Raoult s Law to calculate the vapor pressure ofa solvent Why is a solvent s boiling point elevated by colligative properties Be able to calculate this change in boiling point Likewise explain freezing point depression and know how to do those calculations What are colloids What makes some hydrophilic and others hydrophobic
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