Popular in Lifespan Development: Child-Adult
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Physical and Cognitive Development in Emerging and Young Adu hoodCh13 Emerging Adulthood De ning adulthood Sexual maturity Cognitive maturity Legaadu hood Sociological de nition Psychological maturity For most people there are three criteria Accepting responsibility for oneself Making independent decisions Becoming nancially independent Achievement of these goals in industrialized countries is taking longer and following more varied routes than in the past Higher education lncrease in age at marriage and childbirth Emerging Adulthood late teens through mid to late twenties Proposed transitional period between adolescence and adulthood commonly found in industrialized countnes Young adults gure out who they are and try out new and different ways of living May be distressing but most young people have a positive view of their future and look forward to their adult lives Obesity Overweight Obesity is on the rise worldwide Average prevalence is 1015 In the US the average person is more than 24lbs heavier now than in the early 19605 but only about 1in taller About 34 of individuals 20 years and older were obese in 20072008 Combining overweight and obese individuals brings that percentage to roughly 68 of the United States population Obesity rates in women have not changed in the last 10 years Men s weight continues to rise Explanations for obesity Snacking Avaiability of inexpensive fast food Supersized portions Highfat diets a Laborsaving technologies including high processed foods Sedentary recreational pursuits tv and computers lnherited tendency towards obesity may interact with environmental and behavioral factors Average bagel has doubled in diameter since the 19805 Food portions in the US are usually at least 25 larger than those in Europe Obesity can lead to Depression reciprocal relationship High blood pressure Heart disease Stroke Diabetes Gallstones Arthritis and other muscular and skeletal disorders Some cancers Diminished quality and length of life How much food one eats is not always directly related to how hungry they are Superbowl partygoers ate 56 more calories when served chips in a large bowl Secretaries consumed 48 more Hershey s kisses when they were in a bowl on their desk rather than 6 feet away Changing habits Banning sugary drinks and candy bars from school vending machines Advocating for nutritious foods in school cafeterias Taxing food deemed to be unhealthy Cearly labeling calorie content at fast food restaurants and coffee shops Smoking Leading preventable cause of death among US adults Kiled 5 million people worldwide in 2000 Linked to Lung cancer lncreased risk of heart disease Stroke Chronic lung disease Secondhand smoke causes Circuatory problems lncreased risk of cardiovascular disease Possibe increased risk for cervical cancer More than 263 of men and 217 of women over age 12 in the US are current smokers Emerging adults are more likely to smoke More than 40 of 21 to 25year olds report using cigarettes Smoking is addictive Tendency to addiction may be genetic Beginning to smoke before age 16 was predictive of nicotine addiction Link between genetic susceptibility and likelihood of addiction was strongest for those who began smoking at an early age Quitting reduces the risks of heart disease cancer and stroke Aided by nicotine gum patches and nasal spraysinhalers as well as counseling Quitting is dif cult and many programs for quitting have low success rates Only about 47 of smokers manage to quit for good on any one attempt Many smokers require multiple attempts Alcohol Use United States is a drinking society Alcohol use peaks in emerging adulthood 57 of women and 65 of men aged 1825 drink alcohol College students tend to drink more frequently and more heavily than their noncollegiate peers In 2007 nearly 64 of fulltime students aged 1820 had used alcohol in the past month 172 drank heavily 436 engaged in binge drinking Light to moderate drinking seems to reduce the risk of fatal heart disease and stroke as well as dementia later in life Heavy drinking may lead to Cirrhosis of the liver Other gastrointestinal disorders including ulcers Pancreatic disease Certain cancers Heart failure Stroke Damage to the nervous system Psychoses Other medical problems Associated with other risks Traffic accidents 15 of US drivers over the age of 18 reported driving under the in uence of alcohol in the past year 5 drove under the in uence of drugs Crime HIV infection lllicit drug use Tobacco use lncreased likelihood of committing sexual assault Risky Drinking Consuming more than 14 drinks a week or 4 drinks on any single day for men Consuming more than 7 drinks a week or 3 drinks on any single day for women Approximately 3 out of 10 people are risky drinkers At risk for alcoholism and liver disease as well as physical mental and social problems Sexual Behavior and Attitudes Almost all US adults have had sexual relations before marriage 75 have had premarital sex by age 20 95 by age 44 Among girls who turned 15 between 1964 and 1993 at least 91 had had premarital sex by age 30 Emerging adults have more sexual partners than older age groups but have sex less frequently People who become sexually active in emerging adulthood are at a lower risk for STls and unplanned pregnancies Condoms are the most commonly used contraceptives but their use is inconsistent Casua sex is fairly common Especialy on college campuses Sexua assaults on women are a problem in emerging adukhood Casua sex and sexual assaults are both often associated with nonsexual rislq behaviors like drinking and drug use Colege students in particular are becoming less judgmental and more openminded about sexual activity Double standard still exists By emerging adulthood most lesbian gay bisexual and transgendered persons are clear about their sexual identity Many come out during this time More recent generations in the US are coming out earlier Men are more likely to come out at an earlier age 2 years earlier on average than women Ethnic minority youth are equally likely to be open about their sexual orientation to their friends but are more likely to keep it secret from their parents Sexually Transmitted Infections STls By far the highest rates of STls in the United States are among emerging adults ages 18 to 25 Especialy among those using illicit drugs andor alcohol An estimated 1 in 4 persons who have been sexually active are in this age group but they account for nearly half of new STI cases Many do not get a medical diagnosis or care Risk may be higher among certain ethnic groups Eevated rates for African Americans and Latinoa young adults In the United States most HIV infections occur through Drug abusers sharing contaminated hypodermic needles Unprotected sex among gay or bisexual men who may then pass on the infection to female partners Commercial sex with prostitutes Due to antiviral therapies death rates have dropped dramatically and the average life span has increased to more than 35 years Leading cause of death in 1999 9th cause in 2003 Use of condoms is the most effective means of preventing STls Infertility lnfertiity lnabiity to conceive a child after 12 months of sexual intercourse without the use of birth control Experienced by an estimated 7 of US couples Women s fertility begins to decline in their late twenties Substantial decreases during their thirties By their 405 many women cannot get pregnant without the use of arti cial reproduction technologies ART Men s fertility is less affected by age Decines signi cantly after their thirties Associated with longterm psychological distress when it leads to permanent involuntary childlessness Most common cause of infertility in men is production of too few sperm May be due to Blocked ejaculatory duct Decreased sperm mobility Some cases of male infertility seem to be genetic Common causes of infertility in women Faiure to produce ova or to produce normal ova Mucus in the cervix can prevent sperm penetration Disease in the uterine lining may prevent implantation Deterioration of the quality of ova after 30 Blockage of the fallopian tubes Scar tissue from STls Physica disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome or primary ovarian insuf ciency Environmenta factors are also related to infertility Weight Smoking Psychologica stress high levels of caffeine and alcohol consumption and exposure to environmental pollutants Solutions Hormone treatment Drug therapy increases risk of multiple highrisk births Surgery Waiting if no cause is identi ed chances of success increase after 18 months to 2 years Alternatives to natural conception Beyond Piaget New Ways of Thinking in Adulthood Re ective Thinking John Dewey Type of logical thinking that becomes more prominent in adulthood lnvolves continuous active evaluation of information and beliefs in the light of evidence and implications Re ective thinkers continually question supposed facts draw inferences and make connections Capacity for this ability emerges between 20 and 25 Depends on cortical regions of the brain reaching maturity Although the capacity is there few adults attain optimal pro ciency in this skill Even fewer apply it consistently to various kinds of problems Colege education stimulates progress towards this ability Postformal Thought Mature type of thinking that relies on subjective experience and intuition as well as logic and allows room for ambiguity uncertainty inconsistency contradiction imperfection and compromise Generally begins in emerging adulthood often through exposure to higher education Thought is exible open adaptive and individualistic draws on intuition and emotion as well as logic to help people cope with a seemingly chaotic world Postformal Thought Relativistic allowing adults to transcend a single logical system and reconcile or choose among con icting ideas or demands No longer black and white but shades of gray Often develops in response to events and interactions that open up unaccustomed ways of looking at things and challenge a simple polarized view of the world Often operates in a social and emotional context Emotional Intelligence Emotiona Intelligence Peter Salovey and John Mayer Term for the ability to understand and regulate emotions An important component of effective intelligent behavior Related to four skills Perception of emotion Use of emotion Understanding of emotions Management or regulation of emotions our own and others Enabes a person to harness emotions to deal more effectively with the social environment Requires awareness of the type of behavior that is appropriate Affects the quality of personal relationships Those high in emotional intelligence are More likely to report positive relationships with parents and friends Less likely to engage in drug use and consumption of alcohol men More likely to have close friends who rate them as likely to provide emotional support in a time of need More likely to report happy relationships when both score high Affects effectiveness at work as well Those high in emotional intelligence were Rated higher by colleagues on sociability interpersonal sensitivity leadership potential and ability to handle stress and con ict More likely to have higher salaries and more promotions The College Transition lncreasingy important path to adulthood though not the only path Becoming a more common path Between 1972 and 2005 the proportion of US high school graduates going to college grew from less than half 49 to more than twothirds 69 58 of all 2529 year olds had completed at least some college classes College courses degrees and certi cate programs are now widely available through distance learning via mostly technological means Fall 2008 about 46 million students took at least one online course More than 1 in 4 students will take an online course some point in their college career Online enrollment is now growing faster than traditional higher education enrollment numbers Colleges are also experimenting with hybrid courses a mixture of online and in person classes Learning outcomes are similar for online hybrid and traditional students Gender Socioeconomic Status and Race Ethnicity US college enrollment has continued to increase each year Primariy driven by larger numbers of female students Women now make up a larger percentage of the student population In 2006 women made up 66 of undergraduate students In 2009 women represented 57 of those earning bachelor s degrees lncrease is partially due to a decline in gender discrimination and women s growing awareness of the need to support themselves US women are more likely than men to enroll in graduate school and earn master s degrees 59 and almost as likely to complete doctoral degrees Gender differences are still evident for the highest educational levels US women remain more likely than men to major in traditionally women s elds education nursing English literature and psychology Women have made gains in almost every eld More women now earn engineering degrees 80 still men Percentage of professional degrees law medicine dentistry etc has risen dramatically since 1970 In 1960 women earned only 10 of postgraduate degrees now they earn about 57 Socioeconomic status affects access to postsecondary educa on In 2005 81 of graduates from highincome families enrolled in college immediately after high school Only 535 of graduates from lowincome families did the same Between 19971998 and 20072008 tuition rose by approximately 30 Many students from modest backgrounds are likely to work while attending college Students from wealthier families are less likely to drop out before graduating RaceEthnicity can also be a factor Approximately 72 of bachelor s degrees are earned by white students Minority participation has risen at all levels Primariy due to increased numbers of Latinos Paci c Islanders and Asian Americans More than 50 of Hispanics and blacks who nished high school in 2005 went directly to coHege Adjusting to College Many freshmen feel overwhelmed Famiy support is a key factor to adjusting Students tend to adjust the best and get the most out of college when they Are adaptable Have high aptitude and good problem solving skills Become actively engaged in their studies and in the academic environment Enjoy close but autonomous relationships with their parents Cognitive Growth in College Colege can be a time of intellectual discovery and personal growth Especialy in verbal and quantitative skills critical thinking and moral reasoning Students change in response to The curriculum which offers new insights and new ways of thinking Other students who challenge longheld views and values The student culture which is different from the culture of society at large Facuty members who provide new role models Going to college is more important than which college a person attends The college experience may lead to a fundamental change in the way students think Undergraduates thinking progresses from rigidity to exibility and ultimately to freely chosen commitments A diverse student body can contribute to cognitive growth Those campuses with more diverse student bodies result in greater amounts of interracial friendships and intellectual and academic gains Completing College Although college entrance has become more common in the US nishing college has not Only 1 out of 4 young people who start college 1 out of 2 at 4year institutions have received a degree after 5 years A growing number of students especially men remain in college more than 5 years or switch from 2year to 4year institutions Competion of college depends on Motivation Academic aptitude and preparation Ability to work independently Social integration and social support Other important factors include Empoyment opportunities Financial support Suitability of living arrangements Quality of social and academic interactions Fit between what the college offers and what the student wants and needs Entering the World of Work By their midtwenties most emerging adults are either working pursuing advanced education or both Those who enter the workforce face a rapidly changing picture Nature of work is changing Work arrangements are becoming varied and less stable Whereas previous generations of employees often could expect to remain at a company from hire to retirement that pattern is becoming increasingly rare More and more adults are selfemployed working at home telecommuting on exible work schedules or acting as independent contractors Makes education and training more vital than ever before Higher education expands employment opportunities and earning power and enhances longterm quality of life for adults worldwide In the US adults with advanced degrees earn 4 times more than those with less than a high school diploma For adults without higher education unemployment rates are high May be dif cult to earn enough to establish an independent household Although income differentials between male and female workers exist at all levels of educational attainment these gaps have narrowed considerably In 1980 the average young man with a bachelor s degree earned 36 more than the average woman In 2002 the difference was 23 A report by the American Association of University Women found that the earnings gap increases during the 10 years after graduation Women earn only 69 of what their male counterparts do 14th of the pay gap is unexplained by hours occupations and parenthood gender discrimination Women still earn 78 cents to the man s dollar US Census2009 Combining Work and Schooling Pascarella Edison Nora Hagedorn amp Terenzini 1998 Longitudinal study following a random sample of incoming freshman through their rst 3 years of coHege During the rst 2 years on or offcampus work had little or no effect on reading comprehension mathematical reasoning or critical thinking skills By the 3ml year parttime work had a positive effect Empoyment forces students to organize their time ef ciently and learn better work habits Working more than 1520 hours a week tended to have a negative impact including failure to graduate Working during college may also affect the likelihood of attending graduate programs Many students must work to help support their educa onalaspua ons Such work cuts into the time they have available to engage in other activities Participation in research groups internships and volunteer work are optional but allow students a more competitive application into graduate school Cognitive Growth at Work People seem to grow in challenging jobs the kind that are becoming increasingly prevalent today Reciprocal relationship between the substantive complexity of work and a person s exibility in coping with cognitive demands Substantive Complexity Degree to which a person s work requires thought and independentjudgment Brain research casts light on how people deal with complex work Much of the development in the frontal lobes occurs in young adulthood Ful development in this area may better equip people to handle several tasks at the same time MRI scans show that the most frontward part of the frontal lobes has a special function in problem solving and planning Useful for work In conjunction with development in other areas helps explain why adults are less likely to take risks and are better able to control their behaviors Cognitive growth does not need to stop at the end of the work day Spillover Hypothesis Hypothesis that there is a carryover of cognitive gains from work to leisure that explains the positive relationship between activities in the quality of intellectual functioning Supported by research substantive complexity of work strongly in uences the intellectual level of leisure activities Smoothing the Transition to the Workplace Four key factors Competence in general and at work Persona characteristics lnitiative exibility purposefulness and sense of urgency Positive personal relationships Links between schooling and employment
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