Week 2 lecture notes
Week 2 lecture notes ANTH 171
Popular in Intro Monkeys & Apes >3
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Smargiassi on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 171 at University of Oregon taught by Ting N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro Monkeys & Apes >3 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Anth 171 day 3 Keywords in bold blue font How do we organize the Natural world Phylogeny Evolutionary relationships often depicted by phylogenetic trees Shows relationship and the time scale of splitting between ancestors and the following evolution of the species Taxonomy theory behind naming and categorizing biological organisms modern taxonomy groups all living organisms in hierarchal categories EX Kingdomphylum classorderfamilygenusspecies largest encompassment down to most specific name Humans in kingdom animalia phylum chordate class mamalia order primates family homindae genus homo species sapiens Primate Taxonomy Chart T00 large to post here but it is available on canvas under files and then labs How do we trace ancestry back millions of years Look at living animals and fossil groups try to identify features that related groups share Homology vs analogy Homologous similarities similarities due to ancestry Analogous similarities similarities due to common function Homology traits that are the same in different organisms because of a common ancestor EX tetrapods and armbones all have a structure starting from the top with 1 big bone humerus two bones ulna and radius little bones cluster of wristbones and then digits or fingers This is the structure in our own arms because we are tetrapods Analogysimilar traits despite not having a common ancestor EX Bats and birds have similar bone structures and Wings but they do not belong in the same order Different tvDes of hom0102V Primative refers to features that have not changed from the ancestral form Derived refers to feature modified from the ancestral reference point is required EX Among primates quadrupedalism is primitive and bipedalism is derived Tree shrews Model for ancestral primates Order nrimgtes and hom0102ous features of the order nrimati Primitive body plan 5 digits clavicle 2 bones in forearm that rotate primitive Derived Horses for example only 1 digit that is very extended no clavicle Grasping hands and feet Opposable thumbs with exception to spider monkey Grasping feet with exception to humans Nails instead of claws for the most part Binocular vision Orbits or eyes on the front of face and visual fields to overlap and gain depth perception and teamwork between eyes Reduced reliance of olfaction Olfactory bulbs much smaller in primates smell not as important as vision Shorter rostrum and plate that separates orbitals from tempora fossa Generalized dentition More primitively designed not derived Reduced dentition Cut patterns primitive but number of teeth is derived Relatively large brains Primates have relatively larger brains compared to body size Relatively slow life history Longer gestation maturation age to reproduction and life span Results increase parental investment reliance on learned behaviors and greater sociality Anth 171 day 4 Keywords in bold blue font Refer to primate taxonomy chart found on canvas under les then labs Strepsirhines lemurs lorises and galagos Found in Africa and Asia Typically thought to be more primitive Haplorhines Tarsiers and Anthropoids Tarsiers are found in south east Asia more closely related to humans than lorises Anthropoids are monkeys and apes Anthropoids Platyrrhines found in central and south America New world monkeys Catarrhines old world monkeys found in Africa and Asia More closely related to humans than platyrrhines Catarrhines Hominoids and apes Gibbons found in SE Asia small apes Great Apes Orangutan genus pongo found in bomeo and Sumatra Gorillas genus gorilla found in west and east Africa Chimpanzees genus pan found in central and east Africa Bonobo also genus pan found in central Africa Why do primates live in groups Most mammals don t live in large social groups Primates are particularly known for being very social Sociality is an adaption Potentilll cost of being soda Increased competition over resources Risk of disease transmission Conspicuousness to prey or predators Chance of being cuckholded increased Potentilll benefits of being sociai Foraging for food Cooperative hunting and cooperative defense of food patches EX In capuchin monkeys there is a relationship between group size and encounter success Predation avoidance if a predator attacks your group you have a better chance of surviving the larger the group sel sh herd effect if the herd is running around the predator may get confused confusion effect in larger groups and individual spends less time scanning for predators and can spend more time looking for food Vigilance effect cooperative defense Social benefits Learning is easier Finding a mate is easier Sharing information is easier Assistance in rearing offspring Division of labor Primate social systems are determined bv Mating systems Social structure Philopatry and dispersal Social organization Mating systems Monogomous one male and one female Polygynous one male and multiple females Polyandrous one female and multiple male Polygynandry multiple females and multiple males Social structure Noyou or solitary foraging individuals are relatively solitary however are still social Males have a larger movement range than females Typical unit is female and offspring Males rarely know their offspring Pair bonded social group Typical unit is one male one female and their offspring Typically territorial however they do cheat on each other sometimes One female and multi male social group Typical unit is one adult female that reproduces with all the males One male multiple females and their offspring composition Bachelor males may reside together until they find a group to take over Multi female and multi male and their offspring Common around species that are active during the day Fissionfusion social structure seen in chimpanzees and bonobos Large social groups containing small parties that do their own thing but return to their groups Those small groups are not consistent Multi level society social groups one male units combine to make clans clans form into bands and bands get together to form troops Can get up to 400 or 500 individuals Social structure vs Mating system One describes who is in the group and the composition of it and the other describes who is having sex with who Evolution and Behavior Females invest more into offspring than males do Mothers under nutritional stress have high infant mortality Poor nutrition leads to later age at reproduction Poor nutrition leads to longer interbirth interval Probability of conception is tightly linked to food availability Females exert mate choice search for highest quality male increases their ability to reproduce Males invest verv little energv into parental care Sperm are numerous and inexpensive there is no gestation or lactation period and mail aid in rearing offspring is relatively rare Resource availability is not a limiting factor for male reproductive success Access to mate is more important to male fitness Intrasexual selection Malemale competition to gain access to mates EX How do males compete Strength large canines Mate guarding or hanging around a female while she is cycling Infanticide killing offspring of a female so that she may start cycling again this is evolutionarily beneficial because the female now must mate with the more dominant male Sperm competition Energetic displays like colorful features this is indication of good genes and high fitness Intersexual selection Struggle by female to choose the right mate EX Female is much more likely to choose a mate if it is shown their offspring will surVive One way they choose a mate is based on strength
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