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Lecture Notes

by: Haleigh Siple

Lecture Notes BIO 120

Haleigh Siple
GPA 3.3
General Biology

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Lecture notes covering Chapters 6 and 7, from Monday Oct. 5th
General Biology
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haleigh Siple on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Rybczynski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
Bio 120 Lecture Notes Oct 5th Chapter 7 Lecture Notes Membranes and Medicines Digitalis Purpurea Foxglove plant poisonous used as heart medication This substance blocks Sodium Potassium Pumps and increases calcium in the cardiac muscle enabling better contractions Xanthopsia phenomenon caused by digitalis purpurea in which the color yellow is predominantly seen Coronas phenomenon of seeing auras of light Van Gogh was given Digitalis Purpurea as epilepsy treatment This could be an explanation as to the color choice and style of his painting This paintings contain many hues and shades of yellow and all light sources have an aura 25 of DNA is for coding membranes Membranes are uid mosaics made up of many components Phospholipids and some membrane proteins are amphipathic meaning they have both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic end Positive charge acidic Negative chargebasic Nonpolar substances are hydrophobic Know Figure 73 in Textbook Function of Membrane Proteins Transport hydrophilic channels Enzyme cellular respiration metabolic pathway Signal Transduction chemical messages CellCell recognition Intercellular Joining Gap tight fuctions Attach to Cytoskeleton FMPPP Structure 9 Selective Permeability C02 and 02 are relatively nonpolar but dissolve in water They pass easily through the membrane H20 and Glucose are polar and do not pass easily through the membrane Ions are hydrophilic and do not pass easily through the membrane Aquaporin membrane proteins transport proteins that create a channel for water Glucose Transporter a carrier protein Bio 120 Lecture Notes Oct 5th Passive Transport Diffusion Without the use of energy Osmosis movement of water across a membrane Dynamic Equilibrium for every molecule that enters one exits There is no net change in the movement of particles tonic 9 relative to the cell Hypertonic Environment has a higher solute concentration cell loses water Isotonic Environment has a similar solute concentration no net movement Hypotonic Environment has a lower solute concentration cell gains water Carrier Proteins carry solutes intoacross the membrane Active Proteins uses energy Sodium Potatssium ATPase Know Figure 715 in textbook Na highK low on the outside of the membrane Na lowK high on the inside of the membrane Membrane Potential Voltage across membrane Uneven distribution of anions and cations Inside of the cell is negatively charged Ions diffuse down electrochemical gradients Na rushes insides nerve cells Pumps generate voltage NaK pump 3Na out 2 Ka in Proton Pumps in plants fungi and bacteria pumps hydrogen ions protons outside the cell Important Terms to Remember Ions DiffusionOsmosis Concentration Gradient Channel Proteins Bio 120 Lecture Notes Oct 5th Chapter 6 The Cell Know microscopy Techniques and what they allow you to see Light Microscope 9 living cells Electron Microscope 9 dead cells Magni cation How larger it appears Resolution clarity of the image Cells are usually between 10100 micrometers in size Eukaryotic Cells compartmentalize their functions Barrier Different Chemical and Physical Conditions Specialization Simultaneous Function Know Differences in Structure between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic found in text Chap 6 Nucleoid region of nucleic acid without an envelope found in Prokaryotic cells Genetic Instructions are carried out by Ribosomes Histone pack protein into Chromatin which makes up chromosomes Ribosomes Protein factory of the cell found on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Free Ribosomes 9 Cystol glycolosis breaks down glucose Bound Ribosomes 9 membrane organelles secretion pancreas Endomembrane System regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic function in cells Nucleas 9 mRNA 9 ER 9 Vesicles 9 Golgi Lysosomes 9 vacuoles 9 Plasma Membrane Endoplasmic Reticulum Biosynthetic Factory Smooth ER makes lipids Rough ER makes proteins Golgi apparatus Receiving and Shipping 1 Vesicles attach from ER Bio 120 Lecture Notes Oct 5th 2 ModificationManufacture occurs 3 Vesicles carry products connects to membranes Vacuoles Used for foodwater storage and growth Mitochondria and Chloroplasts change energy from one form to another Mitochondria9 respiration Chloroplasts 9 photosynthesis Know parts of the Cytoskeleton of the cell Microtubules 9 cilia and agella Microfilaments 9 cell contration cytoplasmic streaming


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