Chapter 14 Notes
Chapter 14 Notes Microbiology 210
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Gause on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Microbiology 210 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Elizabeth McPherson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Chapter 14 Infection Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology organisms that cause disease living together 1 Three types of symbiotic relationships bene ts both organisms bacteria in human colon bene ts one organism and doesn t do anything to other organism staph on skin bene ts one organism and harms another tuberculosis bacteria in human lungs 2 Normal Microbiota in Hosts microbes that colonize the surfaces of the body without normally causing disease also called normal ora and indigenous microbiota resident microbiota live here forever transient microbiota there for period of time live in areas with more moisture armpits between legs etc microbes cover external and internal surfaces of body but NOT inside body tissues around for period of time but not permanent may be competition from other microorganisms defense cells How do we get normal microbiota womb is generally sterile but as soon as baby comes out they are surrounded by microorganisms as people handle the baby etc it colonizes by microbes much of one s resident microbiota is established during the rst months of life 1 Conditions that Provide Opportunities for Pathogens introduction of normal microbiota into unusual site in the body disease malnutrition emotional or physical stress during nals week tend to get sick because of immune suppression as well as with kids and old people changes in normal microbiota use nutrients and take up space changes in relative abundance of normal microbiota may allow one member to become opportunistic ended up somewhere they aren t supposed to be such as a zit cut etc 2 Capabilities of a Pathogen must have reservoir difference between opportunistic and regular pathogens opportunistic only cause problems when opportunity arises 3 Reservoirs of Infectious Diseases of Humans place where pathogen is stored or maintained most pathogens can t survive long outside of the host three types of reservoirs animal human and nonliving animal dog and rabies Old Yeller human someone throwing up on you nonliving food water dirt many pathogens that infect domesticated or wild animals infect humans as well more similar the physiology of the animal and human the more likely to get the disease zoonoses disease that are naturally spread from their usual animal host to humans acquire this through various routes direct contact eating animals bloodsucking arthropods like mosquitoes One type of human carrier are humans with active disease Other carriers people with no obvious symptoms before or after an obvious disease may be infective and some may be asymptomatic and infective for years some may eventually develop illnesses soil water and food can be reservoirs of infection become contaminated by feces urine etc 7 Modes of Infectious Disease Transmission transmission is either from a reservoir or a portal of exit to another host s portal of entry three basic modes of transmission typically involves body contact between hosts kissing touching sexual intercourse pathogens spread from one host to another by fomites inanimate objects such as needles Kleenex toys diapers medical equipment droplets expelled when we exhale cough and sneeze all this travels LESS THAN 3 ft or 1m pathogens travel more than 1m or 3ft spread of pathogens via air drinking water and food as well as bodily uids being handled outside the body airborne pathogens traveling more than 3ft waterborne important in spread of GI disease foodborne transmission pathogens in and non foods that may be inadequately processed undercooked etc bodily uid transmission blood urine saliva and other bodily uids may contain pathogen arthropods that transmit diseases from one host to another Biological Vectors transmit pathogens and serve as hosts for the multiplication of a pathogen during some stage of it s life cycle Mechanical vectors not required as hosts by the pathogens they transmit Passively carry pathogens to new hosts on their feet or other body parts Disease does not affect the vector 11 Exposure to Microbes Contamination and Infection the mere presence of microbes in or on the body some remain where they rst contacted the body without causing harm and become part of the resident microbiota successful invasion of the body by a pathogen infection may or may not result in disease become established in the body change in normal body function contamination doesn t always lead to infection 12 Portals of Entry sites through which pathogens enter the body three major pathways skin mucous membranes placenta circumvents the usual portals broken skin 13 Role of Adhesion in Infection adhesion is the process by which microorganisms attach themselves to cells and organisms must adhere to host cells if they are to be successful in establishing an infection ability to change block ligand or receptor can prevent infection 14 Manifestations of Disease Symptoms Signs and Syndromes symptoms subjective characteristics of disease felt only by the patient headache nausea etc signs objective manifestations of disease that can be observed or measured by others fainting etc syndrome group of symptoms and signs that characterize a disease or abnormal condition 15 Stages of Infectious Disease incubation period prodromal period illness decline convalescence ability of a microorganism to cause disease degree of pathogenicity factors of this include traits that allow pathogen to interact with and enter host adhere to host cells etc 16 Toxins proteins produced by Gram positive and negative bacteria destroy host cells or interfere with host membrane lipids produced by ONLY gram negative bacteria to limit extent and duration of infections white blood cells engulf and remove pathogens via a process called phagocytosis often composed of chemicals found in body slippery 18 Frequency of Disease number of new cases of a disease in a given area of population during a given period of time the total number of cases both new and already existing in a given area or population during a given period of time occurrence of disease always present in low levels all the time here and there plague black death spike in number of cases not normal in uenza at certain times of the year world wide epidemic swine ue multiple continents u
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