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Zoology Lab 106 Echinodermata

by: Dallas Bowe

Zoology Lab 106 Echinodermata Bio 106-016

Marketplace > Kutztown University of Pennsylvania > Biology > Bio 106-016 > Zoology Lab 106 Echinodermata
Dallas Bowe
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.76

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About this Document

This set of notes covers the taxonomy of phylum Echinodermata and class Asteroidea (sea stars). Along with internal and external functions of the sea stars.
Zoology Lab
Dr. Nancy Butler
Class Notes
Zoology, Biology, lab
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dallas Bowe on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 106-016 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Nancy Butler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Zoology Lab in Biology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 03/23/16
Chapter 13 Echinoderms Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Echinodermata   Deuterostomes  o Anus develops 1st opening in blastopore o Indeterminant development  o Radial cleavage   Marine   Symmetry  o Pentaradial symmetry ­ in adults  o Bilateral symmetry ­ in juveniles  Nervous system  o No cephalization  No head or brain  No centralization of nervous system  o Possess a nerve ring with nerves radiating out evenly around body   Body o Endoskeleton   Composed of calcium carbonate ossicles   Covered by cuticle o Dermal branchiae (skin gills) ­ thin out­pockets distributed along the epidermis  surface that allow gas exchange to occur between the outer sea water and inner  coelomic fluid   No respiratory or circulatory systems o Diffusion through coelom   Water vascular system  o Uses seawater to generate hydraulic pressure that powers the tube feet for  locomotion and for capturing prey  Class and  Characteristics Representative  Animals Crinoidea Stalk present and attached to aboral surface; mouth and anus both  ~ 625 species  present on oral surface, branched arms with feathery pinnules;  Sea lilies, feather  madreporite absent  stars Ophiuroidea  Long, slender arms distinct from central disc; tube feet lack suckers  ~ 2,100 species  and are not used for locomotion; no ambulacral grooves;  Brittle stars madreporite on oral surface Echinoidea Body spherical or disc­shaped and without arms; endoskeleton  ~ 950 species  plates fused to form test; tube feet with suckers; well­developed,  Sea urchins, sand  movable spines  dollars Asteroidea Broad arms indistinct from central disc; tube feet with suckers  ~1,600 species present in ambulacral grooves; anus and madreporite present on  Sea Stars aboral surface  Holothuroidea  Body soft and cylindrical and without arms; spines absent; tube feet  ~ 1, 150 species with suckers; mouth surrounded by branching tentacles; madreporite Sea cucumbers  internal  Sea Stars Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata  Class: Asteroidea Genus: Asterias  Feeding o Carnivorous predators   Slow­moving; stalk prey  o Mouth → Esophagus → Cardiac stomach → Pyloric stomach → pairs of Digestive  glands extend into each arm and connect to pyloric stomach by pyloric ducts →  food passes aborally in intestine → branched rectal ceca → undigested waste is  eliminated through anus   I.e. Sea star everts its cardiac stomach through mouth and wedges it intp  slit of bivalve’s shell; digestive enzymes from digestive glands pour into  body, partially digesting it; pulled into pyloric stomach through cardiac  stomach where digestion continues; cardiac stomach is pulled back into  the coelomic cavity   Body  o Undersides of arms are covered with tube feet, bearing suckers used for  locomotion and prey capture   Reproduction o Dioecious  o No external features to distinguish sexes o Fertilization is external   Males and females must coordinate the timing of reproductive efforts to  ensure the fertilization of eggs   Water vascular system o Consists of a series of internal canals that branch from a centralized ring canal → terminate into hundreds of tube feet that line the ambulacral grooves along the  oral surfaces of the arms  o Water enter through madreporite and kept under pressure by muscular  contractions (affects all behaviors) → tube feet connect to ampullae to contain  water   Muscles o Small valves on ambulacral are closed = contraction of muscles in ampullae  force water into tube foot to elongate  o Postural muscles in tube foot = lateral movements  o Contractions of the retractor muscles in tube foot = shortening of tube foot and  water forced back into the ampulla  External Anatomy of Asterias Structure  Function Spines Calcareous projection and support Pedicellariae  Pincer­like structures believed to kill small organisms that might settle on  body surface, thus keeping the epidermis free of parasites and algae  Dermal  Gas exchange and excretion through simple diffusion branchiae  Mouth  External opening to cardiac stomach (through a short esophagus)  Anus  Regulates egestion of undigested food (feces) from the body  Madreporite  Porous entrance to the water vascular system that serves as both pressure regulator and simple filter  Ambulacral  Radiate from the mouth to the tip of each arm and house the tube feet grooves Tube feet Locomotion and prey capture  Internal Anatomy of Asterias Structure  Function Cardiac stomach  Can be everted through the mouth to envelope prey; site of initiation of digestion Pyloric stomach Receives secretion of digestive glands for chemical digestion Digestive glands  Secrete digestive enzymes for breakdown of food; play a major role in absorption and storage of food materials Rectal ceca Small, branched “trees” that increase the surface area of the intestine for more efficient nutrient absorption Gonads  Produce gametes for reproduction Ring canal Portion of water vascular system encircling the mouth Radial canals  Portions of water vascular system emanating from the ring canal and leading into each arm of the sea star Stone canal Portion of water vascular system leading from the madreporite to the ring canal  Madreporite Porous entrance to the water vascular system that serves as both pressure regulator and simple filter Ampullae Provide hydraulic pressure for movement of the tube feet Ossicles of endoskeleton Support 


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