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University of Hawaii Man0a Music Department Music 280 Basic Theory and Aural Skills Course Packet I Basic Sight Singing by Byron K Yasui and Allen R Trubitt n Instructor Dr IBei Lin Basic Sight Singing Preface We ve designed this collection of rudimentary exercises to help beginners sightsing It is not a text for elementary music theory it contains only enough prose to explain the exercises and to of fer a few ideas about sight singing We ve written it especially for those college undergraduates who hope to become music majors but whose musical background is at a basic level To help serve students at this basic level we ve incorporated some distinctive features All examples are short 410 measures We feel that many short examples are better than fewer long ones Because the most dif cult part of sight singing is getting a proper start with a melody a basic premise of this text is that es tablishing a routine procedure for getting ori ented to the melody is of the highest impor tance Short melodies allow maximum time to be spent in this critical orientation to new melo dies determining the key scale tempo and certain essential reference pitches The melo dies are generally through composed recapitu lations are avoided Each chapter presents rhythmic exercises rst followed by pitch exercises staff familiarization exercises and melodies solos and duets com posed by the authors and examples from the literature Some of the melodies from the liter ature have been transposed or otherwise adapted to the purpose of the text All exam ples not attributed were composed by us The duets provide a different musical experi ence from that typically offered in a sight singing class where one student sings and the rest of the class listens To actively enlist the entire class you may choose to have one stu dent sing one line of a duet while the rest of the class sings the other All melodies are within the range of an octave with rare exceptions in the examples from the literature to help students who have little ex perience in singing Melodies are grouped by range tonic to tonic or dominant to dominant to draw the attention of the student to the im portance of selecting a suitable pitch for the tonic t Solfege syllable letters are used along with scale degree numbers to represent pitches in Part I You may decide to use one system both or another system altogether Because of the dif ferences that arise between various systems in the minor keys only scale degree numbers are used in Part II when the minor key is intro duced Exercises are very carefully graded Rhythmic complexities and the various scale degrees are introduced gradually and melodic skips are only to pitches of the tonic triad with a few exceptions in the examples from the literature Pitch is presented in successive levels of dif culty with the emphasis on learning to hear the tones as scale degrees in relation to tonic pitch Some exercises employ only scale degree number and solfege syllables to eliminate the distraction of rhythmic problems or staff nota tion Next are exercises that show how these scale degrees are located on the staff without a clef Once students realize the connection be tween the scale degrees and the location of the notes on the staff the matter of key and clef becomes less relevant The melodic exercises are divided into two groups melodies with the tonic in one staff position and melodies with the tonic in various staff positions Consequently a wide variety of key signatures are used from the beginning but students understand that the critical factor is the location of the scale degrees on the staff Rhythms are limited to subdivisions that is division of the beat into not more than four subdivisions in simple meters and not more than six subdivisions in compound meters Only treble and bass clefs are used with ranges extending to two ledger lines above and below the staff The text is neutral with regard to the various solfege systems and there is no attempt to cul tivate absolute pitch iii iv Preface 39 Some exercises contain long rests and sustained notes to provide practice in counting and to allow a moment for the students to develop their ability to anticipate the next pitch 0 A convenient reference table of key signatures can be found on the inside back cover Acknowledgments We wish to express appreciation and gratitude to our colleague Professor Armand Russell who tested these materials in class and made valuable suggestions for improving the text We would also like to acknowledge our appreciation to the following reviewers of the text for their many excellent suggestions Michael Arenson In addition we ve included in an instructor s manual many teaching suggestions and a list of many of the software programs currently availa ble for sightsinging classes University of Delaware Robert I Hurwitz Uni versity of Oregon Daniel Kazez Wittenberg University Samuel Magrill Central State Uni versity David Mallory California State Univer sity at Chico and John Scandrett Indiana Uni versity of Pennsylvania IJ1 in Basic Sight Singing jrz439 Byron K Yasui Allen R Trubitt University of Hawaii at Manoa V May eld Publishing C 0 Mountain View California To our parents Copyright 1989 by May eld Publishing Company All rights reserved No portion of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission of the publisher Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Yasui Byron K Basic sight singing 1 Sightsinging I Trubitt Allen R II Title MT870Y35 1989 88 753239 ISBN 0 87484 880 6 Manufactured in the United States of America 10 May eld Publishing Company A 1240 Villa Street Mountain View CA 94041 Sponsoring editor Janet M Beatty Cover designer Holly McLaughlin Text designerTypesetter AR Editions Printer and Binder Bookcrafters Contents Part 1 Major Keys Chapter 1 Rhythm Simple and Compound Meters Undivided Beats and Rests 3 Pitch Tonic to Dominant 12 Examples from the Literature 29 Chapter 2 Rhythm Simple Meter Only Undivided and Divided Beats 2 31 Pitch Tonic to Tonic 34 Examples from the Literature 52 Chapter 3 Rhythm Compound Meter Only Undivided and Divided Beats 3 54 Pitch Dominant to Dominant 57 Examples from the Literature 75 Chapter 4 Summary of Part I Rhythm Simple and Compound Meters Undivided and Divided Beats 2 3 with Ties 77 Pitch Tonic to Tonic Dominant to Dominant 80 Examples from the Literature 87 Part II Minor Keys Chapter 5 Rhythm Simple Meter Only Subdivided Beats 4 without Ties 91 Pitch Tonic to Tonic 95 Examples from the Literature 108 Chapter 6 Rhythm Compound Meter Only Subdivided Beats 6 without Ties 110 Pitch Tonic to Tonic 116 Examples from the Literature 122 Chapter 7 Rhythm Simple Meter Only Subdivided Beats 4 with Ties 125 Pitch Dominant to Dominant 130 Examples from the Literature 144 Chapter 8 I Rhythm Compound Meter Only Subdivided Beats 6 with Ties 146 Pitch Dominant to Dominant 152 Examples from the Literature 158 Chapter 9 Summary of Part II Rhythm Simple and Compound Meters Subdivided Beats 4 6 with Ties 160 Pitch Dominant to Dominant Tonic to Tonic 164 Examples from the Literature 171 vi Contents Part III Supplementary Exercises Chapter 10 Additional Exercises in Major and Minor Keys Rhythm Exercises 175 Pitch Exercises 178 Examples from the Literature 183 Part I Chapter 1 RHYTHM simple and compound meters undivided beats and rests PITCH tonic to dominant Rhythm Beat A pulse heard or felt at regular intervals usually 60 150 times per minute Basic Duration The time that elapses between the beats Tempo The rate at which the beats occur Meter A recurrent grouping of beats into regular patterns usually of two three four or six beats Each grouping is called a measure or bar and is in dicated by a vertical bar line on the staff Music consists of sounds and silences organized by regular pulses or beats Music notation consists of a set of symbols called notes and rests each symbol represents a particular duration of sound or silence NOTES RESTS Sixteenth note Sixteenth rest 3 Eighth note Eighth rest I Quarter note Quarter rest 1 Dotted Dotted quarter note MH quarter rest H Half note Half rest E Dotted half note p Dotted half rest E Whole note o p Whole rest Dotted E whole note o Dotted Brave 39039 whole rest E The breve is sometimes called double whole note The whole rest may be used to indicate a si lence of one measure s duration whatever the 4 Chapter 1 time signature The time signature is explained later in this chapter Eighth notes and sixteenth notes may be writ ten with ags or with beams see diagram but there should be no difference in the manner of performance ags beam ags beams JMMJ7 z A dot following a note or a rest increases the duration by half Thus a dotted whole note has a duration equal to the combined durations of a whole note and a half note 00iJ The time elapsing between the pulses or beats is represented by one of the notes shown in the list on page 3 For each piece the composer decides which note value to use for this purpose Notes and rests have xed relative values The following list shows the notes in order of increas ing length the shortest at the top Each undotted note in the series has half the duration of the next larger value The same principle applies to dotted notes SCHHUI o 7 9 quot 39 L39L 7 Therefore if a quarter note is used to represent one basic duration the half note represents two basic durations From this you can see that the same rhythm can be written in different ways de pending on which of the note values is chosen to represent the basic duration 1 The beat represented by J J13lJMJ33l 2 The beat represented by J JJJU JIJJJII 3 The beat represented by J JJMOJIJJJII The composer decides which of these notations to use The factors governing that decision are be yond the scope of this book The performer learns which note represents the beat from the meter sig nature or time signature which consists of two numbers written one above the other on the staff before any notes appear Thus the previous ex amples would look like this 139 n1uMr39J397I ZEJJJIJ JUJJH 3 JJJloJlJJJl In simple meters the lower number indicates the note value used to represent the beat and the upper number indicates the regular grouping of the beats into a pattern typically consisting of two three or four beats The location of the bar lines also re ects the grouping Some time signatures representing what are called compound meters may be interpreted dif ferently these will be discussed later in this chap ter In some exercises in this book the note value Rhythmic Exercises The rhythmic exercises in this book should be practiced and performed using this routine 1 Glance through the exercise to see if there are any unfamiliar notational symbols or other problems Understand the notation thoroughly before you begin 2 Examine the time signature to see how the exercise will be counted that is what note value represents the beat In all exercises and examples in this chapter and in certain exercises later in the book you will see a note value above the rst measure indicating the note representing the beat Your counting should be gauged by this note value Find a tempo at which you can perform the Exercises Rhythm 5 representing the beat is indicated by a note writ ten above the rst measure of the music y The following time signatures are used in this text 8 Two other symbols are also used 0 3 and I3 exercise while counting the designated beats Avoid converting to a more familiar meter for example do not change 3 to j 3 Glance again through the exercise to see how dif cult the rhythms are Choose a tempo that will allow you to perform the rhythms accu rately while counting the beats as indicated in step 2 r 4 Establish the tempo by conducting or tap ping the beat with your toe or your nger Your teacher may indicate a preference 5 Maintaining a steady beat intone the rhythm using the syllable ta or any other method recommended by your teacher 6 If you make a mistake try to recover with out stopping going back or adding extra beats 1 The beat represented by J 1J 6 Chapter 1 Often the rst beat of each measure receives a slight emphasis although this emphasis is usually rather subtle However not every piece begins with the rst beat of the measure for example exercise 4 begins on the third beat of the measure Any note or notes that precedes the rst full 4l measure of a piece is known as the upbeats or the amzcrusis Sometimes a piece beginning with an upbeat will end with an incomplete measure but there are many instances where that does not happen 2 The beat represented by ab 10 J3 Rhythm 3 The beat represented by J 11J 12 J 13 J 14 J 15 J 16 J 4 The beat represented by Pieces written in 3 2 2 Q g and 132 compound meters may not always follow the rule given ear lier for interpreting time signatures If the tempo of the meter is quick do not count the note value shown in the lower number of the time signature Instead count the measure in groups of three beats notice that the upper number is divisible by three Thus in exercise 17 it is more convenient to count only two beats to the measure J J 1 2 than to count six quicker beats J J J J J J 123456 In this book the note written over the first mea sure will tell you how the example should be counted 8 Chapter 1 17 J 18 J The durations of two or more notes may be of a group of tied notes is articulated For in combined by means of a tie The result is a single stance the tie is needed to indicate a note equal to uninterrupted tone whose length is the sum of all three dotted quarter notes the durations of the tied notes Only the rst note 19 J 20 J 22 J Exercises with Ties Reminder When two or more notes are tied together only the rst note is articulated 1 The beat represented by J 23 J Rhythm 9 24 J 25 J 26 J 27 J 2 The beat represented by J7 10 Chapter 1 32 J3 3 The beat represented by J 33 J 34 J 35 J 38 J 44 J 4 The beat represented by Rhythm 11 12 Chapter 1 Pitch range tonic to dominant Tonic The rst note of the scale The central tone in a piece It is usually implied in the rst few notes of a melody and most often but not always is heard at the end where it gives a sense of arrival at a goal Major Scale The pattern of pitches heard by play ing the white keys on the piano beginning on C and ascending one octave or by singing through the syllables do re mi fa sol la ti do The major scale consists of whole steps between all consecu tive scale degrees except between 3 and 4 mi and fa and between 7 and 8 ti and do which are half steps Scale Degrees The notes of the scale in numerical order The tonic is the rst scale degree and the other tones are numbered in order of ascending pitch The rst the third the fth and the eighth scale degrees are basic reference tones used in sight singing Solfege or Solfeggio A method used for teaching sight singing employing a traditional set of sylla bles Each 39tone of the scale is assigned a syllable The student learns to associate the syllable with the speci c pitch The syllables correspond to the scale degree numbers as follows do re mi fa sol la ti do 12345678 In Part I of this book the two methods of iden tifying pitches will be combined in this abbrevi ated form d1 r2 m3 f4 s5 l6 t7 d8 Interval The distance or difference in pitch be tween two tones Half Step The distance from one note on the key board to the next consecutive key whether it is black or white The distance between scale de grees 3 and 4 mi and fa and between 7 and 8 ti and do Whole Step The interval of two consecutive half steps as found between the rst two notes of the major scale do and re rst and second scale degrees Key Signature A series of sharps or ats written at the beginning of a piece of music to indicate the tonic pitch and the scale to be employed In this text key signatures refer only to major or minor keys A complete list of these signatures for all major and minor keys is found on the back inside cover Before you begin to sing from staff notation you must establish in your ear the basic patterns of the various scale degrees In this chapter we will limit ourselves to the rst ve degrees of the major scale We will begin with only three tones gradually adding others In the Scale Degree Number Solfege exercises the tones are pre sented as a series of numbers without notes Practice singing these exercises until you can sing the series uently at a steady tempo Level 1 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 d r m stepwise motion only Scale Degree Number a1232321212323 b2123212123232 c3212123232123 d2123232121232 Solfege adrmrmrdrdrmrm brdrmrdrdrmrmr c mrdrdrmrmrdrm P rdrmrmrdrdrmr Scale Degree Number continued e123232121232l f321212 232321 g1232323212123 h1232121232321 i2321212323212 j3212323212123 k2323212123212 L3232121232321 Both treble and bass clefs will be used through out this text If you are not very familiar with these clefs don t worry uency will come with practice In fact for many of our exercises the clef is relatively unimportant What is most important is the position of the tonic Once the tonic is lo cated the other scale degrees fall logically into place If the rst degree of the scale falls on a line the second degree will be on the adjacent space above If the rst scale degree is on a line the third and the fth degrees will be on the next two lines above If the tonic is on a space the third and the fth degrees will be on the next two spaces above Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst line below the staff Pitch 13 Solfege continued edrmrmrdrdrmrd fmrdrdrmrmrmrd gdrmrmrmrdrdrm hdrmrdrdrmrmrd 1 rmrdrdrmrmrdr I l 1I Cl139IIlI 1T1I Cl139ClI39I39I1 D I1 D H B H D r k rmrmr 1 mrmrdrdrmrrnrd In the following exercises no clef is given 1 d indicates the position of the tonic on the staff These exercises should be done in two ways rst recite in a uent fashion the scale degree number or solfege syllable that each note repre sents second sing in a uent fashion the notes as pitches using the appropriate scale degree num bers or solfege syllables Do not write the scale de gree numbers or solfege syllables under the notes These exercises are intended to be used repeat edly as needed especially for review purposes 14 Chapter 1 Melodies Many different keys are used in this text If you are not already familiar with all the major key sig natures you will want to learn them as quickly as you can but this need not delay your progress in sight singing In our rst exercises the tonic al ways lies on the first line below the staff Recite the scale degree number or syllable of each note then sing the melody using the same numbers or syllables Maintain a steady pace Becoming a good sight singer is partly a matter of developing appropriate habits It is very impor tant to have an established routine before you be gin You should always take the following steps before you begin to sight sing Tonic is on the rst line below the staff Note Not all melodies begin on the tonic 45 J 1 Sing the tonic and a scalelike pattern such as 1 2 3 4 5 d r m f s If this is easy for you just sing 1 3 4 d m s but don t begin singing with only the tonic in your car you must have other pitches in mind as well Vocalizing the scale helps to develop familiarity with the feeling of singing particular pitches A glance through the melody you are about to sing will allow you to anticipate common problems melodic skips dotted rhythms ties and so on 2 With the key established tap the beat to feel the tempo Gauge your tempo by the quickest notes Imagine how fast they will sound and gauge your speed accordingly 46 J 47 J See the back inside cover for information on key signatures 49 J In these exercises you must determine the key to know the position of the tonic on the staff On 50 J 52 J Duets The duets may be sung by the entire class di vided into equal parts or by a single voice on one part and the rest of the class on the other In the latter case the class must sing softly enough to al low the solo voice to be heard Pitch 15 the back inside cover you will nd a list of major and minor keys with their key signatures As you rst sing the duets your attention will be mainly on performing your own part correctly but as you become more con dent in your singing try to notice what the other part is doing and how the two parts interrelate 16 Chapter 1 54 J 55 J m3 Note In this book when the nal pitch of a low the nal pitch Refer to exercise 55 The In 3 melody is a pitch other than tonic the appropriate above the nal pitch of the upper voice indicates scale degree indication will be placed above or be that that pitch is mi or scale degree number 3 Level 2 Exercises scale degrees 1 3 5 d in s Scale Degree Number Solfege a 1353531315315 a dmsmsmdrndsm s b 5153 3153513 brnsdsmdmdsmsdm c5131531513153 csdmdsmdsdmdsm d1351513135315 ddmsdsdmdmsmds e3151351315135 emdsdmsdmdsdms f1531513531531 fdsmdsdmsmdsmd g1351353151351 gdmsdmsmdsdmsd h5315131531513 hsmdsdmdsrndsdm i5135313151531 1Sd1TlSII1dl I1dSClS1Tld j3513151351315 II1SClI1 lClSdII1SdI I1dS k3153513135153 kmdsd dmdmsdsnm l 5135131353531 lsdmsdmdmsmsmd Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst space Melodies Tonic is on the rst space 56 J Pitch 17 18 Chapter 1 Tonic is in various positions 60 J 62 J Duets 64 J Pitch 19 Level 3 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 5 d r m s Scale Degree Number Solfege a1232351512531 adrmrmsdsdrsmd b5125315132153 bsdrsmdsdmrdsm c3251312315315 cmrsdrndrmdsmds d5125325131532 dsdrsmrsdmdsmr e1325315123512 edmrsmdsdrmsdr f3151232513153 fmd drmrsdmdsm g3513153251513 gmsdmdsmrdsdm h3153215135132 hmdsmrdsdmsdmr i3251312535125 imrsdmdr msdrs j5135132151253 jsdmsdmr s rsm k3512315135325 kmsdrmds msmrs L1351251325312 ldmsdrsdmrsmdr Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the fourth line 20 Chapter 1 Melodies Tonic is on the fourth line 66 J 68 J Tonic is in various positions 70 h Pitch 21 73 J Duets 74 J 22 Chapter 1 Level 4 Exercises scale degrees 1 3 4 5 d In f s Scale Degree Number Solfege a1345315453154 admfsrndsfsrndsf b1345153 43534 bdmfsdsmsfmsmf c513 153154351 csdmfdsmdsfmsd d1535413134153 ddsmsfdmdrnfdsm e3541341531534 en1sfdmfdsmdsmf f1345315413513 idmfsmdsfdmsdm g5134154131543 gsdmfdsfdmdsfm h1354153415135 hdmsfdsmfdsdmd i3415315435154 Lrnfdsmdsfmsdsf j5134154135341 jsdm dsfdmsmfd k3134531541351 kmdmfsmdsfdmsd l5413153413531 Lsfdmdsmfdmsrnd Notes on the Sta 39 Tonic is on the third line Pitch 23 Melodies Tonic is on the third line 76 J 77 J Tonic is in various positions 80 J 81J 82 J3 24 Chapter 1 83J Duets 84 5 e S5 85 J Level 5 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 4 5 d 1 m f s stepwise motion only Scale Degree Number Solfege a1232345434323 adrmrmfsfmfInrm b3212123434543 bmrdrdrmfmfsfm c2323454343212 crmrmfsfmfmrdr d5454321212323 dsfsfrnrdrdrmrm e1234345432321 edrmfmfsfmrmrd f2321234543212 frmrdrmfsfmrdr g2123454321232 grdrmfsfmrdrmr h1232345434321 hdrmrmfsfmfmrd L3232121234545 xmrmrdrdrmfsfs j2123434543232 1 dI I39I1fII lfSfII1I39I1 l1 k3454343212123 kmfsfrnfmrdrdrm L3234345432321 lrnrmfmfsfmrmrd Pitch 25 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the fth line mfs 302 Melodies Tonic is on the fth line 86 J 88 A 26 Chapter 1 Tonic is in various positions 90 J 92 J Duets 94 J Level 6 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 4 5 d r m f s steps and skips Scale Degree Number a123541 b354123 c232125 d153415 e513254 f315431 g325431 h312541 i153413 j312534 k132534 1154132 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the second space below the staff 3 o rLnHlJLJtJtIlAH J1r iL1LJIlJU1U39IUJI lUgtU Il r lUJFI3b UJUJ42hUJI3bib JlJLaJb UJI3lht lt gt I3 LlILh lJ 3i b lJU39lULl1 UJJ U1 h JUJU11 lJDlJ I4tJaJUJU1LIIlJUJllthUU1 Solfege a d r b m s c r m d d s e s d f m d g m r h 111 d i d s j m d k d In 1 d s U IIDD CL B880rBB HPhrI30QaQ quothV ca arcB BOB 39B I hquot39hD39 I U3 HcBB BoB 0 B DDH 09 H IhQDH hquot391 Pitch 27 28 Chapter 1 Melodies Tonic is on the second space below the staff 96 J 97 J 98 J 99 J Tonic is in various positions 100 J3 101 J 102 J Examples from the Literature 29 Duets 104 J 105 J1 Examples from the Literature 106 J German Folk Song 107 J5 Carulli 30 Chapter 1 108 J 109 J German Folk Song 110 J 111 J 112 J Carissimi H Finck Soriano 16th Century l RHYTHM simple meter only undivided and divided beats 2 PITCH tonic to tonic Rhythm Simple Division Division of the beat into two equal parts Simple Meter A meter in which the beat or basic duration is divided into two equal parts For ex ample in E or 2 the quarter note representing the beat may be divided into two eighths Exercises without Ties Chapter 2 32 Chapter 2 Exercises with Ties Rhythm 33 34 Chapter 2 Pitch range tonic to tonic 39 Level 1 Exercises scale degrees 1 5 8 d s d Note A dash above the d represents the high do as distinguished from the low do Scale Degree Number Solfege a1585815185181 adsdsddsddsddd b5158185185815 bsdsdddsddsdds c185 518581518 eddsdsddsddsdd d5815185158158 dsddsddsdsddsd e8151585185181 eddsdsdsddsddd f1581851518515 dsdddsdsddsds g5158151581851 gsdsddsdsdddsd h1815815851518 hdddsddsdsdsdd i8518515815185 1 dsddsdsddsdds j8151858151581 jddsddsddsdsdd k5185815818515 ksddsd sdddsd 11815815185851 ldddsd sddsdsd Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the third space d s E 2 Melodies Tonic is on the third space 17 J Tonic is in various positions 22 Pitch 35 T 36 Chapter 2 23 J 24 J1 Duets 26 J Pitch 37 Level 2 Exercises scale degrees 1 3 5 8 d m s 3 Scale Degree Number Solfege a1358S13838185 admsc1sd1namadas b8513518358351 u sdmsdiims msd c3518513815383 cmsdasdmc 1dsm3m d8351385158318 da1nsdmasdsamda e5381351838515 asm dmsd m sds f3815318535813 rnadsmdasmsadm g3183538135183 gmdamsmadmsdam h5158381531835 nsds m dsmd ms i8138515831538 Ladmasdsamdsma j3835183158153 jmEmsdEmdsEdsm k1538538153158 kdsmasmadsmdsa 15818383158531 Ls d m mds smd Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the second line 38 Chapter 2 Melodies Tonic is on the second line 28 Tonic is in various positions 32 Pitch 39 Duets 37 J 40 Chapter 2 Level 3 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 5 8 d r m s 5 Scale Degree Number Solfege a1235813281532 adrmsadmradsmr b3251285381538 umrsdr smadsm c153281512832S cdsmr dsdr mrs d5813251283512 dsadmrsdr msdr e3285123815328 emr sdrm dsmr f1358132151238 fdmsadmrdsdrm g3285151283125 gmrasdsdr mdrs h1532812583158 hdsmr drs mds i3851253283251 im sdrsmr mrsd j5325812318325 jsmrsEdrmdHmrs k3512813258153 kmsdradmrs dsm L8532512835128 L smrsdr msdr Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst line Pitch 41 Melodies Tonic is on the rst line 38 J 39 J 40 J Tonic is in various positions 42 J 42 Chapter 2 44 J Duets 46 J 47 J Level 4 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 5 6 8 d r m s 1 5 Scale Degree Number a123568 b312561 c561832 d153281 e568132 f351856 g156328 h531285 L835631 j325185 k568325 1132568 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the second space 5 pr GlgtOI gtn rU1U1O0Oo r tlr zu1UJtdU tOI UDU3 I QOOgtbDOOU1lJlJUJU1JtJ OOU1U1tUJO P LllF 1 U39IUquot UlOUOOJO0lgtOlJU39lOOI CNUJOOLIII lUJltI1OOLI10LlllJ Utr OLlllJOUJCL0OOO Solfege a d r b m d c s 1 d d s e s 1 f m s g d s h s m i 5 In j m r k s 1 1 d In B mcz coIBc QIf3 I1 Qm BOC3 c B Q 2 all CL CLI on 9 B B B0IB B0 015 oI1 fd Gal 039 Cf DQ r130 Balm H 9 1 oIrn U1 D0 wOJCL W cn BQv9 OIquot1 BOIcn 1 Gulf 0 B Q Pitch 43 44 Chapter 2 Melodies Tonic is on the second space 48 52 J Tonic is in various positions 53 s5 Pitch 45 Duets 46 Chapter 2 Level 5 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 d r m s 1 t 3 Scale Degree Number Solfege a1235678756321 adrmsltatslmrd b3561287635128 bmsldrdtlmsdra c5187325618563 csdatmrs1dis1m d8561253256873 dasldrsmrslatm e1325687312567 edmrslatmdrslt f3125618735132 mdrsldatmsdmr g5687312532587 gs1Htmdrsm1slit h3568128763532 hms1EdrEt1msm1 33125683873215 Lmdrsl m tmrds j8563218731256 jaslmrdatmdrsl k3561873251285 kmsldatmrsdras L1325873561253 Ldmrsatmsldrsm Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst space below the staff Pitch 47 Melodies Tonic is on the rst space below the staff 59 60 5 Tonic is in various positions 63 48 Chapter 2 65 Duets 67 J Level 6 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 d 139 m f s 1 t 3 Scale Degree Number a123548 b318754 0563487 d856325 e531287 f154568 g345128 h534512 i856321 j132587 k534875 1312587 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the second line below the staff 7 UlOLJO0OOIU39lII Or tIJtnlgttgttgttU1 UJl Q UJOOP I U1U1UJO I5UIU libiJJr lUJOLJL1UJ IUJOrLJ l JlJU Ii I O UItJUJ39J IOOOU10OOO0OOtJ uaootxJo x1 39ausquuuaum Solfege Wquot39quot qlt2quotrDQOo no moomBc clmB N U D B9IE DIcnB Q1 I h oI1 OUgt DDu B cIcI h D Iquot DI ltvD 39 gt 39L L CD 1 00 F B WEEDB UJQIh quot 39OIDlCgtI9 U5 quot1 Pitch in B 9 B e Scale 49 50 Chapter 2 Melodies Tonic is on the second line below the staff 69 Tonic is in various positions 74 Duets Pitch 51 52 Chapter 2 Examples from the Literature 80 Byrd Palestrina s5 83 Humperdinck r2 84 Mozart J S Bach 85 35 Examples from the Literature 53 86 J S Bach Schubert 87 Chapter 3 RHYTHM compound meter only undivided and divided beats 3 PITCH dominant to dominant Rhythm Compound Division Division of the beat into three equal parts For example a dotted quarter may divide into three eighth notes Compound Meter A meter in which the beat di vides into three equal parts In compound meter the beat is always represented by a dotted note Typical time signatures for compound meters are g 2 g 2 3 lg The guide for interpreting simple meter signatures see Chapter 1 does not apply to compound meters The upper number in a compound time signature indicates the number of beat divisions that together make up a measure Thus in 3 there are six eighth notes in the mea sure but the measure is counted in two each beat represented by a dotted quarter note 54 Time signatures in which the upper number is 3 6 9 or 12 may have either a simple or a com pound division of the beat depending on the tempo For example a piece in 3 in slow tempo is usually performed in 6 that is with six beats per measure and duple division of each beat sim ple division It becomes more practical in fast tempo to perform the same piece in 2 that is with two beats per measure and triple division of each beat compound division To determine the number of beats to tap for each measure in fast tempo with time signatures whose upper number is 3 6 9 or 12 divide the upper number of the time signature by three Thus a piece in fast 182 will be performed with four beats per measure and each beat will have a triple division Exercises without Ties 1 J Rhythm 55 56 Chapter 3 9 J 10 J Exercises with Ties 11 J 12 J 14 J 16 J Pitch 57 17 J 18 J 19 J Pitch range dominant to dominant Level 1 Exercises scale degrees 5 6 7 8 s 1 t d steps and skips Scale Degree Number Solf ge a5678756587685 asltdtslsdtlds b8587565876856 bdsdtslsdtldsl c5658587568768 cslsdsdtsldtld d8758568587656 ddtsdsldsdtlsl e5658756858758 eslsdtsldsdtsd f5687567585685 fsldtsltsndslds g5875685687567 gsdtsldsldtslt h8568768565875 hdsldt1ds1sdts L5875658567587 Lsdtslsdsltsdt j8756876585658 Jdtsldtlsdslsd k5875876565875 k dtsudtls sdt L8568756587658 ldsldtslsdtlsd 58 Chapter 3 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst space below the staff Melodies Tonic is on the rst space below the staff 21 J 22 J 23 J Tonic is in various positions 25 J Duets 29 J Pitch s5 S5 59 60 Chapter 3 Level 2 Exercises scale degrees 1 3 5 s d m s Note Underlined scale degree numbers and solfege syllable letters represent pitches that sound below the tonic Scale Degree Number Solf ge a151351531 315 adsdmsdsmdsmds b315 3513 5135 bmdssmsdmssdms c513 351 53153 csdm msdssmdsm d 315 1513 153 dsmdssdsdmsdsm e315 351 53153 emdssmsdssmdsm f1513 153 531 idsdmsdsmssmds g 1355351 31S1 g dmsmsd mdsd h351353153 513 hmsdmsmdsmssdm i315 3531 351 1mds msmd msd j35135 153 39315 jmsdms dsmsmds k 315 3153 513 ksmdsmdsm sdm l513 1351531 1 lsdmsdmsdsmdsd Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst space Melodies Tonic is on the rst space 31 J 33 J Tonic is in various positions 35 J Pitch 61 62 Chapter 3 37 J Duets Pitch 63 Level 3 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 5 g d r m s Scale Degree Number Solfege a 13253 5125 3 a39 dmrsn1 sdrs m M b1532 31253 15 bdsmrgmdrsmgds c3135 1 312532 cmdmsgdsmdrsmr 39 d532 513 1253 dsmrssdmsdr mg e1532 12 35135 edsn1r dr msdms f35 1532 51253 fmsgdsmrgsdrsm g3 121532 3155 gm drdsmr mdss h12 3532 1532 hdr msmrsdsmr i3 53251512532 Lmgsmrsdgdrsmr j 3215 1253 35 j mrds drsm ms W k1253 32512 31 kdrsmgmrsdrgm l5 312S32 1351 lsgmdrsmrgdms Notes on the Staif Tonic is on the second space 64 Chapter 3 Melodies Tonic is on the second space 41 J 42 J 44 J 45 J Tonic is in various positions 46 J Pitch 65 48 J Duets 66 Chapter 3 Level 4 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 3 5 gl d 1 m s Scale Degree Number Solfege a 1215312 51 agldrdsmdrglsd b3 5132 31253 bm sdmrglmdrsm c1 351325 5312 Qdgmsdmrglsmdr d5312 53 32 1 dsmdr 1sm mr d e315 132 5123 ernds ldmrssdrm f132 5 312S31 fdmrgsglmd smd g31 53 351253 gmdgsmglmsdrsm h5 32512 3512 hglmrsdrgmsdrg i5325 12513 53 ismr 1drsdm sm j132 53512 35 dmr lsmsdr ms k3 512 325 31 lemgsdrglmrsgmd 1 3251 132512 lgmrsdgldmrsdr Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the third line Melodies Tonic is on the third line 52 J Tonic is in various positions 56 J Pitch 67 68 Chapter 3 58 J Duets 60 J Pitch 69 Level 5 Exercises scale degrees Q 2 1 2 3 5 1t d r m s Scale Degree Number Solfege a Z1325121Z asltdmrsdrdtsl b12532 1Z51 3 bdrsmrsldtsdsm c5312 1Z3215 csmdrsldtmrdss d32 Z51253 32 dmrsltsdrsmsmr e132 51Z312 6 edmrlsd mdrsl f5312S 1Z32 3 fsmdrssldtmrsm g 12531Z32 53 gsldrsmdtmr sm h512 3251Z 32 hsdr lmrsdt1mr i312 6532 1Z35 Lmdrslsmrsdtms j1325 31Z5312 dITl1 S lII1dlSII ldI39 k3 1251Z325 km jdrsdtmrs l l532 615121Z 3 lsmr dsdrdtlrn Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the third space 70 Chapter 3 Melodies Tonic is on the third space 62 J 64 66 J Tonic is in various positions 67 J Pitch 71 69 J Duets 72 Chapter 3 Level 6 Exercises scale degrees 9 Z 1 2 3 4 5 git d r In f s Scale Degree Number Solfege a Z154123 1Z3 a ltdsfdrm dtm b512 31Z34153 bsdrglmdtmfdsm c3 5431Z32 12 omglsfmdtmrgdr d13 543 1Z 32 ddm sfm ldtlmr e51Z34 32512 esdtmfglmrsdrg f312 545 1Z32 fmdr sfsldtmr g3 541251Z 35 gmglsfdrsdtlms h5 321341Z512 hs lmrdmfdtsdr i1Z531254 315 1dtsmdrsf lmds j5 1341Z512532 ldmfdtsdrsmr k35 134121Z kms ldmfdrd l l155 3412541Z lds lmfdrsfdts Notes on the Sta Tonic is on the fourth space lcn J1 Inr D r1 In f 3 D Pitch 73 Melodies Tonic is on the fourth space 73 J 75 J 76 J Tonic is in various positions 77 J 74 Chapter 3 78 J Duets Examples from the Literature 75 Examples from the Literature J S Bach 83 84 D Scarlatti t7 85 Martini 86 F Hopkinson 87 H Albert 76 88 Chapter 3 Tchaikovsky Hassler SUMMARY OF Chapter 4 PART I RHYTHM simple and compound meters undivided and divided beats 1 2 quot2 3 with ties PITCH tonic to tonic dominant to dominant Rhythm Exercises 1 77 78 Chapter 4 3JW 10 J Rhythm 79 W 12 J A 14 J M 16 J 18 J 80 Chapter 4 19 h Pitch Exercises Melodies 21 22 J 24 J m3 29 J 33 J Pitch 81 82 34 J Chapter 4 44 J 45 J 46 J 48 J Pitch 83 84 Chapter 4 50 J Duets 55 57 J Pitch 85 86 60 J Chapter 4 Examples from the Literature 87 Examples from the Literature Purcell 63 64 Lochheimer Liederbuch 65 Shaker Melody 88 68 69 70 Chapter 4 Haydn H Neusiedler A Scarlatti Part P MINOR KEYS RHYTHM simple meter only subdivided beats 4 without ties PITCH tonic to tonic Rhythm Simple Subdivision Just as the beat may be di vided into two parts simple division the divi sions of the beat in simple meter may be further divided producing notes half the length of the di visions For example in 3 the beat represented by a quarter note may be divided into two eighths or subdivided into four sixteenths Chapter 5 92 Chapter 5 Preliminary Exercises Repeat the pattern of each measure until it is mastered before proceeding to the next measure 1 The beat represented by J a b c 2 The beat represented by h a b c 3 The beat represented by J a b c Exercises Rhythm 93 94 Chapter 5 12 15 J 18 J Pitch 95 Pitch range tonic to tonic The minor scale begins on the tonic and as cends for an octave It employs some pitches that are different from those of the major scale and has a separate key signature It resembles the major scale except for three scale degrees The third scale degree is a half step lower than it is in the major scale making the distance from 2 to 3 a half step and from 3 to 4 a whole step This difference alone has a very great impact on the listener The sixth scale degree is a half step above the fth and the seventh degree is a whole step below the tonic This pattern is known as the natural minor scale Compare the C major scale with the C natu ral minor scale C Major I I m gtltgt i 3 C Natural Minor 1 X i in 1 I Q L n quot quotquot quotquot 6 6 0 V J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 The symbols g Q and 2 indicate the normal posi tion of these scale degrees in the natural minor scale Although the natural minor scale is the basic form of the minor scale the sixth and the seventh degrees sometimes occur in the same positions as they do in the major scale These changes will appear in the music in the form of accidentals sharps ats and naturals not in the key sig nature In the Scale Degree Number exercises these pitches are indicated by carets above the numbers 6 7 There are different approaches to learning the minor scales and three different methods of as signing sightsinging syllables to the various scale degrees Using the D minor scale as an example we can illustrate these methods as follows la ti do re mi do re me fa sol 8 la 1FUJ 1quot quot sol fa mi re do ti la te le sol fa me re do 96 Chapter 5 Your teacher may indicate a preference for one method over the others Each approach has some advantages and some disadvantages but the nal goal is improving your sightsinging ability Sing ing the correct syllable or number is less impor tant than singing the correct pitch Because of the variety of syllable systems used for minor keys only the scale degree numbers will be used in Part II of this book no solfege syllables will be indicated Similarly only scale degree numbers will be used for scale degree exercises for Notes on the Staff exercises and to indicate the nal pitch of melodies that do not end on the tonic Following are Scale Degree Number exercises using minor scales To distinguish the third sixth and seventh scale degree numbers from their ma jor scale counterparts carets will be used in con junction with the numbers representing these scale degrees Thus a downward caret under the number 3 indicates that the third scale degree Level 1 Exercises scale degrees 1 33 5 8 Scale Degree Number a1 5851 8 8185 b851 518 58 51 c 51851 815 8 dsgsigssissgsi e5 s1 51s s515 rgsisgissgssig Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst space is in its minor scale form that is it sounds a half step above scale degree 2 A downward caret un der the number 6 g indicates that the sixth scale degree is to sound a half step above the fth scale degree and a caret under the number 7 Z indi cates that the seventh scale degree is to sound a whole step below the eighth scale degree An up ward caret above the number 6 indicates that the sixth scale degree is to sound a whole step above the fth scale degree and an upward caret above the number 7 indicates that the seventh scale de gree is to sound a half step below the eighth scale degree Similarly in the Notes on the Staff exer cises that follow carets are placed above or below notes which represent the third sixth and sev enth scale degrees with the same application as in the Scale Degree Number exercises The Melodies and Duets sections of each level of exercises use simple and compound meters di vided beats 2 3 ties and subdivided beats 4 on repeated pitches only g 18 5 81 518 sissgsisgisgs sigssissgisgs gsgsisg158153 k153853 815 158 58l8 8 1585 1 Pitch 97 Melodies Tonic is on the rst space 21 22 J In these exercises major as well as minor keys tonic but it may also be the third or the fth scale are used so you must determine the key and the degree or less often the second or the seventh location of the tonic on the staff before you begin degree Often the nal pitch of the phrase will be the 26 J 98 Chapter 5 27 Duets Level 2 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 33 5 8 Scale Degree Number a 2358 2815 2 b 251285 815 8 c15 2815128 25 d581 25128 512 e 28512 815 28 f1 581 21512 8 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst line below the staff 009 u1ltL IltL gt U1 U1ltUJ 00 U1 0 U Q U1 DJ 00 lJlU I lU1 U1ooootgtoo t JIl39 LA lJltbJ tJltUJ to 00 lJltUJ to U l DJ J1 rI O0 O0 00 U 00 000 U0 U3 r nAlttgtt t tU1 QU391U1I3 OOltU I U1 D4LnJ U1 100 Chapter 5 Melodies Tonic is on the rst line below the staff 35 Tonic is in various positions 39 J Pitch 101 4 44 J Duets 47 J 102 Chapter 5 48 J Level 3 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 5 Q 8 Scale Degree Number a12 5g85 25128 g15gg28125g8g2 b 125g18 25s5g h5 1285g 8 215 c5g18 281515 18 5g 125 285 d15 2815g 125g 25185 12S 81 e5g81 25125g8 1lt5gs 251285g 2 f 5185 1 2125g 11 25 8 1285 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst space below the staff Pitch 103 Melodies jFQ Tonic is on the rst space below the staff 49 J 51 J Tonic is in Various positions 53 104 55 5 Duets 60 J Chapter 5 105 Pitch Level 4 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 5 Q Z 8 Scale Degree Number 7v 25 3v1 3v 3v 5128 9 2 3v 11 7v 5 1 6v 8 2 3251285 V 1 3 2 8 3v 7v 3v 3v 3v V 1 6v 2 1 3v Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the second line 106 Chapter 5 Melodies Tonic is on the second line 62 64 J Tonic is in various positions 66 J 67 J 70 J Duets Pitch 107 108 Chapter 5 Examples from the Literature Schubert 75 76 Beethoven 7739 Hassler 78 Schiitz 80 81 82 83 Examples from the Literature 109 Hassler Schubert 3 US Folk Song Lassus RHYTHM compound meter only subdivided beats 2 6 without ties PITCH tonic to tonic Rhythm Compound Subdivision The divisions of the beat in compound meter may be further divided pro ducing notes onehalf the length of the divisions For example in g the beat which is represented by the dotted quarter may be divided into three eighths or subdivided into six sixteenths Preliminary Exercises 1 The beat represented by a b c d 110 Chapter 6 2 The beat represented by y a b 3 The beat represented by a b c Exercises 1 J C Rhythm 111 112 Chapter 6 10 J Rhythm 113 15 J 114 Chapter 6 Exercises Including Materials Studied Previously 21 22 J 25 J 27 J 30 J Rhythm 115 1 16 Chapter 6 Pitch range tonic to tonic The Melodies and Duets sections of each level vided beats 2 3 ties and subdivided beats of exercises use simple and compound meters di 6 on repeated pitches only Level 1 Exercises natural minor Scale Degree Number a1 254s3sgg125 g 4512835gg283 b 1835412 5g8 h5 4512s3g 5g1 c5g 4s3125 485 i85g 2183 415g c185g 25125g183 1 2583 415g 2 e5 1233541 5g 1lt5 4s35g125 28 1545g83 41251 1 125835g 415 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst line Pitch 1 17 Melodies Tonic is on the rst line 35 37 J Tonic is in various positions 39 J 1 18 Chapter 6 42 J Duets 46 J 47 J 119 Pitch 6S5 jensemble 5 8 5 5 8 7 00 A6 00 A7 3v 3v rnuv 6v 5 S 6vA6 5 5 71v nV A7 6v 7v 5 6v 00 00 00 A6 HV 00 3v HVA7 5 00 5 1 00 A6 00 A7 2 2 A7 5 5 5 A7 A6 1 1 A6 rUvA7 4 A6 5 3v 4 5 VAD 3v 5 3v 5 5 3y 00 5 5 A7 2 6V 6V 5 5 2 A6 represents a beat Repeat each exercise until it is mastered before proceeding to the next exercise 7 ensemble 2 solo Level 2 Exercises SoloEnsemble Scale Degree Number These exercises emphasize the variable sixth and seventh scale degrees Each number or dash solo 55 153v15oo 55 4 00 5 5 00 A7 6v 6v 3vA7 A7 6v 6vAr0 7v 7v 5 A6 A6 7v 7v 5 O0 00 UV 5 5 O0 00 6v 7v11555 Tonic is on the second line below the staff r 1 oo 1 oo 5 6v 4 8 3V 3vA7 m 5 6v 5 3vA7 5 mu 5 A6 m 8 7v 6v 8 A6 6v 8 5 e A7 8 7vA7 5 7v 8 e h 5 3v wxa A6 5 8 A6 6v 8 f 3v 2 my 5 3v 5 5 5 1 K 1 1 F 1 5 3v 8 3v 5 6 a M C N C d S a D C d e f 120 Chapter 6 Melodies Tonic is on the second line below the staff 48 J Tonic is in Various positions 52 55 J5 58 h Duets Pitch 121 122 Chapter 6 61 Examples from the Literature 62 Beethoven Tchaikovsky Hassler Examples from the Literature 123 Handel 65 66 Schubert 67 Lassus 68 M Franck 69 J S Bach 124 71 70 Chapter 6 Spiritual quot39 Hassler RHYTHM simple meter only subdivided beats 4 with ties PITCH dominant to dominant Rhythm Preliminary Exercises 1 The beat represented by J a b c Chapter 7 125 126 Chapter 7 2 The beat represented by J a b 3 The beat represented by J a b Exercises 10 5 13 J Rhythm 127 128 Chapter 7 14 15 J Exercises Including Materials Studied Previously 17 18 J Rhythm 129 22 J 23 J 25 J 130 Chapter 7 Pitch range dominant to dominant The Melodies and Duets sections of each level of exercises use simple and compound meters di Level 1 Exercises scale degrees Q 1 5 Note An underlined scale degree number represents a pitch that sounds below the tonic Scale Degree Number a1 1 515g1 15 bg15 51 51 5 c51g 51 5 15 d 15 151 15g 15 51 5 15 f151 15g 5 1 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the third space Melodies Tonic is on the third space 31 vided beats 2 3 with ties and subdivided beats 4 on repeated pitches only U1 IUI U U3 ltUJU1 t U3 LII l U1 U l IU1 1 I U UU1i lU1ltL Ui lUI U1ltU3lU1U1 LJ U3 U3 U1 U0 DJ U1 t Iltbo IU1 I lJILJ39ll Il U1 U0 ltUJlU1 ltUJU1 ltU J IUI IUI DJ IU1 U3 1 Ill LJlLJl It IA U1 l id UI i tltLnltLnU1LoJ Pitch 131 Tonic is in various positions 35 J 37 J 132 Chapter 7 40 Duets Level 2 Exercises scale degrees 1 2 g 5 Scale Degree Number a 1 25 5125 g 1215 2 15 b15 2 125 15 12 5 2 15 2 c 1g5 1 g125g2 i 5g251 125 2 d5g2551 125 215 125g 5 e15 2 125 51 5 1lt125 2512 1 f3 5515 2 5125 l5 125 2 1 51 Notes on the Sta Tonic is on the fourth space Melodies Tonic is on the fourth space 44 Pitch 133 134 Chapter 7 Tonic is in various positions 48 Duets Level 3 Exercises scale degrees Q 1 2 5 Scale Degree Number a 1215 b 51 c1 51g2 d5 12 5 e 15 I f1 2 5 6 IUI ltO DJ 0 DJ U I ION U3 D0 EU1 P i l U tUJ U I0 DJ lJ ION IU1 U3 DJ 1 lJUJ UJ U1 IL U2 U1 U3 j IU1 U3 U3 ltO DJ I U1 l U l3 lltLJ IL IUI 0 1 J1 U1ltUJ IQ O O IUI U1 l IUI O ltO U Q t ION IUI U0 b U3 LII U A U9 DJ xltm U LII l JUJ LII IUII I40 Ln U1 0 U1 IU1 U1 Pitch U1 LA IUI U3 135 136 Chapter 7 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst space Melodies Tonic is on the rst space 57 J 58 J Pitch 137 Tonic is in various positions 62 J 138 Chapter 7 Duets 69 Level 4 Exercises scale degrees Q Q 1 2 3 5 Scale Degree Number a g1 25 1j 12 1 2 13 g125 b 125 1 7g125 h 25g51 1 51 c15 12 1i1 25 151251 g1f1 5 d5g 1f g5 125 g15 1f g1 21 e125 5 1f5 12 k g51f51 g 215 f 12 51 5g5 1 11 1251f gg21 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst space below the staff Melodies Tonic is on the rst space below the staff 71 73 J Pitch 139 140 Chapter 7 74 J Tonic is in various positions 75 J 77 J 141 Pitch Duets 3v Level 5 Exercises 9 Z 1 2 Scale Degree Number 2526 0v 7v 3v1 5 7v 3v 5 5 1 3v 7 Ov 5 1 3v 5 2 7v 3v 1 7 1 3v 6v 5 5 2 5 1 3v 1 2 6 142 Chapter 7 Notes on the Sta 39 Tonic is on the second space U1 Olt 11 lJ U3 Melodies Tonic is on the second space 84 J 86 J Pitch 143 88 J Tonic is in various positions 89 94 J 144 Chapter 7 Duets 96 5 Examples from the Literature 98 99 100 Hassler 5 Schubert Beethoven Examples from the Literature 145 101 Schubert Ockeghem 102 Dowland 103 Schubert 104 105 Schumann 106 Peuerl 17 Peuerl RHYTHM compound meter only subdivided beats 6 with ties PITCH dominant to dominant Rhythm Preliminary Exercises 1 The beat represented by M a b c 146 Chapter 8 2 The beat represented by a b 3 The beat represented by Exercises 1 J Rhythm 147 148 4 J 10 J 11 J Chapter 8 Rhythm 149 12 J 13 J 14 J 15 J 16 J 17 J 18 J 19 J 150 Chapter 8 20 J Exercises Including Materials Studied Previously 21 22 J 23 J 27 J 29 J 33 J Rhythm 151 152 Chapter 8 Pitch range dominant to dominant The Melodies and Duets sections of each level of exercises use simple and compound meters and divided beats 2 3 with ties Level 1 Exercises natural minor scale Scale Degree Number a g1512 1 2 g b5i2 g 1 415 h c g54 1 2512 1 d1 54 g1g 2 j e51 4 g 2512 k f 12 5455g1 32 1 Notes on the Staff Tonic is on the rst space gt U1ltbJ I U1 L J I U IU1 U1 Ln ltIo Ix U1 ION ION IU1 IUI O IO U3 U3 U9 U1 DJ f I5U3 Ir I3ltll UlLa I lJ 1AIUI 4 0 U1 UIIQ l IQ ltO Ix J I 39 l U1 U3 U1 ION U k I IL 03 IUI IO 0 11 l LII Pitch 153 Melodies Tonic is on the rst space 35 37 J Tonic is in various positions 40 154 42 43 J Duets 47 Chapter 8 155 Pitch 48 J Level 2 Exercises Scale Degree Number 2 1 2 1 1 A7 1 A7 3v 5 5 A6 5 1 5 A7 2 5 4 A6 6vA6 3v 1 3v 5 7v 5 5 5 1 6v 1 6v 6v r0v A7 7 5 7v 7 7v 1 1 A7 1 1 1 5 4 A6 2 3v 4 6v 5 5 1 4 5 7v 2 2 4 5 2 1 3v 1 5 3v 1 3v 1 5 3v 1 3v 9 h 1 1lJ k L 1 5 5 2 1 5 5 2 1 3v 5 3v 2 1 4 5 6 1 1 A7 3v 6v 7v 7v 3v A6 5 7v 1 0v 5 5 1 1 5 5 6v r0vA7 5 A7 2 lv 5 1 A7 A6 1 1 2 5 A6 5 A7 5 1 6v 5 5 1 A7 4 7 2 4 5 A6 5 1 3v 3v 6 5 3v 3v 5 1 5 2 nm C 0 6 3 Notes on the Stalf Tonic is on the fourth space 6v 7v 156 Chapter 8 Melodies Tonic is on the fourth space 49 Tonic is in various positions 53 Pitch 157 Duets 158 Chapter 8 Examples from the Literature 62 Hassler 63 Hassler 64 Vittoria 65 Schubert 2 66 Hausmann 67 69 70 Examples from the Literature 159 Schubert J S Bach J S Bach Schubert J S Bach SUMMARY OF PART II RHYTHM simple and compound meters subdivided beats 4 6 with ties PITCH dominant to dominant tonic to tonic Rhythm Exercises 1 160 Chapter 9 Rhythm 161 162 Chapter 9 23 J 24 J 27 J Rhythm 163 164 Chapter 9 Pitch Exercises Melodies 29 40 J Pitch 165 166 Chapter 9 46 Pitch 167 61 J 62 J 168 64 72 J Chapter 9 Duets 75 Pitch 169 170 Chapter 9 78 81 J Examples from the Literature 171 Examples from the Literature Hassler 83 84 Hassler 172 85 86 87 88 89 90 J Chapter 9 Anonymous M Luther Anerio Schein Schubert 5 Schumann adapted SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES Part ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN MAJOR AND MINOR KEYS Rhythm Exercises 1 Chapter 175 176 10 J 13 5 Chapter 10 Rhythm 177 178 Chapter 10 Pitch Exercises Melodies 21 Pitch 179 180 38 41 J Chapter 10 Duets 48 J Pitch 181 182 Chapter 10 51 J Examples from the Literature 183 Examples from the Literature 55 Hassler Beethoven 56 57 Handel M Haydn 58 184 59 60 61 62 63 Chapter 10 English Folk Song Fasch Schumann J S Bach J S Bach Examples from the Literature 185 64 G Fuhrmann 65 Hassler 67 16th century 5 Hassler W D H B IEI iC O TE El 1 LIOIIHN 3 310 P H V G 3 V 3IOIIHN O 10QW S3I39jug 8 u K931 J0 Qlqgl 4 RN xx Basic Sight Singing by Byron Yasui and Allen Fliubitt is a collection of rudimentary exercises designed to help beginners master this vital slcill The authors give special attention to thoughtful wellpaced pedagogy and cogent presentation of material Exercises are 139 care illy graded always building upon skills previously mastered 39 consistently presented each chapter addressing rhythm pitch staff familiarization and then melodies solos and duets 39 short 410 rneasures so students learn to establish a routine procedure for getting oriented to a melody 39 limited to one octave to only treble and bass cleats and to basic sube divisions of rhythm 1 neutral to the various solfege systems using both scale degree numbers and solfege system letters to represent pitches in major keys 39 presented in the cointext of melodies both from the literature and composed by the authors Also new from Mayfield MacG1AMUT Graded Aural Music Training on the Apple Macintosh by Ann K Blornbach A computerebased aural training program that gives beginners unlimited practice in notating and identifying interyralsgscales and chords llayfield Publishing Company ISBN 0 87 l848806
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