Gender and Sexuality Studies - Week Two Notes
Gender and Sexuality Studies - Week Two Notes Gen & Sex 50A
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Popular in Women and Gender studies
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Gen & Sex 50A at University of California - Irvine taught by STAFF in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Gender and Feminism in Women and Gender studies at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
10615 WEEK TWO Gender and Sexuality Studies 50A Science and the Production of Gender Race and Sexuality Key Concepts from last lecture a differing constructions of gender differences moving from ideas of one sex to differentiation b essentialism determined by biology natural unchanging nature c social constructionist method challenges essentialism looking at things come to be given meaning come to be or seem to be natural d modernity rise of scientific discourses rise of liberal nationstate e binary oppositions opposites that are understood only in relationship is you know what a man is because a man is not a woman heterosexual vs homosexual f continuum models as opposed to binary opposition understanding sex and sexuality on a continuum Sex Differences Across Cultures a conflicting paradigms i essentialism sex differences regarded as innate biological natural unchanging ii sometimes used as a strategy for claiming rights iii social constructionist method differences between men and women are not products of biology or nature but of culture and society Meanings vary historically and culturally Interrogation and interpretation are key Constructionist Paradigm a focus is on the interrogation of what we mean by nature and natural b insists that what we know of the human body is an interpretation subject to change Key Questions a what is science b how and why did science gain its authority c what other kinds of knowledge did modern western science marginalize or degrade d how why and in what contexts have science and technology come to be associated with masculinity Key Concepts a binary oppositions i malefemalemasculinefeminine ii mindbodymindmatter iii sciencemagicsciencesuperstition iv objectivityspeculation v advancedprimitive civilizedprimitive vi culturenatu re vii rationalityemotionality 6 Western Modernity a 0 f g h Enlightenment rise of the liberal state our own Western democracy that we understand now rationality becomes dominant and valued instead just religion Scientific Revolution emergence of science Technological Development new tools that change work family life Colonial Expansion expansion by largely Great Britain France etc into places like Africa Middle East Asia Economic arrangement colonizes and sets up political and economic systems Timeline of Civilization linear notion of progress that all these things are part of civilizational advances capitalism new economy shifts in family Agricultural to wage labor timework discipline labor and resource exploitation Instead of keeping on your own timework you sell your work for hours controlled not by you control classification containment 7 Devalued in Modernity a b c d e nonlinear notions of time tradition magic nonscientific ways of knowing animism 8 Science as a Cultural Paradigm a 90 pays attention to how culturalsocial factors influence the kinds of scientific research that are undertaken assumes science is a social enterprise for every fact there is a factor factmaker examines the politics of funding looks at the culture of scientific disciplines i who is included who is excluded 9 Scientific Studies of Sex Differences a Anne Fausto Sterling i I believe that the majority of scientists not only are highly capable but try in good faith to design careful thoughtful experiments Why then do they seem to fail so regularly when it comes to research on sex differences FaustoSterling 42 10 Science and Gender Ideologies a there are assumptions in culture that are underlying and unconscious scientists look through deeply embedded culture 11 Science is a Social Enterprise a by definition one cannot see one s own blind spots therefore one must acknowledge the probability of their presence and provide others with enough information to identify and illuminate them FaustoSterling 42 12 Magic and Birth Control Linda Gordon a magic and science share the same root both concerned with explanation and control b why did magic become degraded with the rise of modern science what were the gender and race politics of this process c Christian church played a role in demonizing magic and legitimizing science binary becomes established 13 Feminist Approaches to Technology Sheila Rowbotham questioning the distinction between formal and informal knowledge craft production alchemy household knowledge nutrition healing weaving midwifery access and exclusion in scientific profession the Royal Society and other formal academics exclusively male higher education women s nature used to exclude 14 Women s Brains Stephen Jay Gould a extends FaustoSterling s critique of conventional science further b questions science s claim to pure objectivity c refutes essentialism in Broca Topinard Le Bon Montessori d argues that science is an inferential exercise what we come to think of scientific knowledge is inferred is interpreted not a body of facts preconceived notions shape the interpretation of data Broca 1824 1880 interpreted his data that females were inferior because brain size 15 Physiognomy Phrenology Craniometry and Anthropometry measure of human body a moral character and aptitude deduced from physical appearance b racial science 18th and 19th centuries ideas about race that are emerging through science c sexual science 19th century 16 These sciences now considered pseudoscience a why measure skulls and brain weight why draw particular kinds of similarities to animals each field seeks a classification system classification system based on hierarchy hierarchy works to establish superiorityinferiority f different meaning and value assigned to different bodies on hierarchy 17 Broca s argument and evidence 1870 s a claim women had smaller brains than men and therefore could not equal them in intelligence b evidence drawn from autopsied brains from four Parisian hospitals 249 males 140 females c Broca interpreted the data to claim 09965 0 90 i men in modern societies have larger brains ii male superiority to women increased over time 18 Broca s blindspots a ignored the fact that women were generally smaller b mansplaining 19 Gustave Le Bon 1879 a a founder of social psychology expert on crowd behavior b said women were closer to gorillas than men 20 Gould s reexamination of Broca s data a tiny subject sample in L Homme Mort cave group 7 male and 6 female skulls too small as a basis for claiming that sex differences in brain size increase over time skull is identical to brain b Parisian hospital study i brain weight decreases with age women in study older than men ii brain weight increases with height average male taller 21 Born That Way Schuklenk et al a does establishing a genetic basis for sexual orientation help make the case for lesbian and gay rights 22 Refuting the genetics of sexual orientation a civil and human rights should not be conditioned upon genetic determinations i example religious liberty b sexual orientation may be resistant to change but this doesn t mean that it is genetically determined c claiming a genetic or biological origin does not protect people from discrimination and prejudice d the scientific procedures of research on the gay gene and gay brains are themselves deeply flawed e evocative of sexual science of 19th century 23 Control through classification and containment a medical and scientific discourses that emerge in 19th century as part of a growing concern with classifying bodies and populations b age of distinctions i between genders races classes sexual identities desires and practices ii organized hierarchically with what is seen as natural and normal on top iii scientific classifications reinforce assumptions and beliefs about hierarchy of humans 24 Sexology a the study and classification of sexual behaviors identities and relations Bland and Doan 1998 1 b Scientific discipline emerging in later 19th century along with new sciences like anthropology sociology and psychology c emerge as part of growing attempt to classify bodies d at first seen as radical and not widely recognized as a legitimate branch of science until 1920s and 30s e discipline itself developed in Britain Europe North America from as early at 1870s 25 Radical or Regressive a most scholars see as a mixed phenomenon b replaces old view of sex as sinful managed by church with new view of sexual perversions as diseases andor signs of degeneracy managed by medicine and psychology c curious about sex and sexual acts as well as bodies d brings discussion of sex and sexuality from shroud of shame to public discourse seeks to understand and acknowledge importance in lives on individuals and society 26 What do Sexologists do a combined data from biology anthropology history with their own case studies b produced prolific classification of multiple aspects of sexuality i looking at causes fantasies fetishes pleasures of body c constructed new pathologized identities homosexual pervert sadist masochist frigid woman d often constructed in collaboration with patients or informants themselves 27 Concluding thoughts a biological determinism has been used to build social hierarchies and to support inequalities b essentialism homogenizes differences within social groups c social constructionist methods deconstructs the cateogories of gender race sexuality 10815 WEEK TWO LECTURE TWO RaceGenderlSexuality in the Making of Modern Imperialism 1 Key Concepts for Today s Lecture a empire b imperialism c cultural imperialism d eugenics 2 Historical Context a 19th century and European industrial capitalism means the rise of newly formed middleclass bourgeoisie workingclass class conflict b emergent theories of the modern state i liberal state social contract pact between individuals and the state citizens give up some liberties for the state s protection and rule of law state has monopoly on violence excluded slaves women and children from voting policy inequality built into the system ii conservative state also based on social contract founded on a concept of natural law and order human beings regarded as nasty brutish and short Thomas Hobbes state has monopoly on violence excluded slaves women and children poverty seen as a natural condition Modern Imperialism a a nationstate s exertion of political and economic power over other nationstates and regions b the policy practice or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nationstate either by i direct territorial occupation or ii gaining indirect control over the political and economic life of another nation or region Capitalism and Modern Empire a imperialism is capitalism s expansion of and search for new markets Vladimir Lenin i labor natural resources territory trade routes consumers b British East India Company c Dutch East Indies Company Modern Empires 15th century to present a Dutch b Spanish c Portugese d Belgian e Danish f ETC Cultural Imperialism a process of social influence by which a nation imposes on other peoples its set of beliefs values knowledge behavioral norms and overall style of life b involves the spread of stereotypes ways of speaking about and treating those seen as others c shares qualities with process of spiritual conquest Edward Said Culture and Imperialism 1993 a For Said imperialism means the practice the theory and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory b colonialisms which is almost always a consequence of imperialism is the implanting of settlements on distant territory European Imperialism in Africa a by 1875 European possessions in Africa consisted of some forts and trading posts along the coast and a few tiny colonies Colonialism and Racism a Spaniards in the Americas i classified indigenous people as of entirely different origins than Europeans ii lndios were not considered human in the same sense this justified not according them the same treatment or rights as Spaniards were assumed to deserve iii debated whether Indigenous people had souls iv colonialism manifested in forced conversion andor killing and plundering b British in the colonies imperialism considered a noble activity designed to bring civilization to the benighted members of other races c French in the colonies justified the maintenance of their colonial empire on the basis of their mission civilisatrice in other words their duty to bring civilization to the backward peoples 10 White Man s Burden Rudyard Kipling a many Europeans were honestly convinced of the nobility of their motives and their colonial enterprise b rhetoric of salvation redemption rescue and civilizing the Otherjustified the enterprise to those who were benefitting from it c racial superiority i the belief that formed the foundation of modern colonial expansion by Europeans ii fueled resentment among the inhabitants of colonized lands who were dehumanized through this belief system 11 Malthusianism and Population Control a ideas proposed by Thomas Matlhus in the late 18th century in England b central beliefes i population control needed ii increases in population are caused by defective individuals 12 Malthusianism and Sexual Sublimation a Malthus was a liberal in these days conservative and thus was attacked by both radicals and conservatives in his day b by today s standards malthus would e a conservative since he believed that the poor are so becuause of their own faults and cannot be helped c failed to see class interests and predominantly the interests of the bourgeoisie as leading to poverty d promoted theories of sublimation since his religious beliefs led him to oppose contraception Malthus believed that sexual energies need to be directed towards work and not sex 13 Social Engineering a Main tenets of Mathusianism i overpopulation causes poverty ii individual failings cause overpopulations 1 solution sexual restraint and selfhelp acceptance of poverty as natural fat b main tenets of NeoMalthusianism new i control of population ii leads to perfect society 1 society contraception and eugenics 14 A few Problems with the Overpopulation Thesis a population of developed world is aging b next generation needed to pay taxes serve in military participate in economy care for the elderly c members of affluent societies consume much more of the world s resources and energy than do the poor d firstworld capitalism depends on a surplus labor force exploited from among those from impoverished part of the world global south 15 Motherhood and Imperialism Anna Davin a mother s duty to the nation to produce new citizensworkerssoldiers b mother s duty to the empire to be a symbol of civilzation c poor mothers regarded as deficient and drain on the society 16 Eugenics a the science based on DanNinian ideas of selecting the most superior races to reproduce positive eugenics 17 Race Culture Frank Dikotter a eugenics is a modern way of talking about social problems in biologizing terms b gives scientific authority to social fears and moral panics and lends respect to racial ideologies and racist practices like sterilization and immigration laws c grounds racist ideas and hierarchies in laws of nature 18 The State s interest in Sex a controlling the population deciding who should and shouldn t have children b governing legitimacy in kinship no mixed race marriages recognized no same sex marriages recognized c targeting of female bodies for state surveillance d criminalizing nonreproductive sexuality 19 Eugenics and the duty of mothers a health and survival of infants and children are responsibility of mother nation needs healthy future citizens workers soldiers mothers need to get better at mothering rise of public health programs and welfare intervention policies aimed at the private sphere i targeting the role of the mother and the social institution of the family middleclass morality manliness and motherhood see to be endangered by constant threat of degeneracy constructs racialized others as threats to social order degeneracy understand poverty illness and sexual transgression as racialized mobilizes a discourse of eugenics mobile discourse in colonies and in cities of Europe and US 7quot 90 3939Ho applied to people of color as well as poor whites and those of mixed race discourse links race class and sexuality those seen to veer off the middleclass course in their choice of language in their domestic arrangements in their cultural affiliations characterized as degenerate racial body constructed as always a threat is constructed through sexual discourses i savage H cen ous this is a discourse of class as workingclass white women sees as racialized insofar as they are cast as promiscuous wild dirty middleclass white women s role is to protect middleclass white men from both native women and workingclass and poor white women in colonies and European cities discourse mobile in US at the end of 19th century ise of the cult of true womanhood i white middleclass American women s selfhood constructed through their distinction from the racialized bodies of their servants and maids ii they are to be protected from dirty work and labor by services of workingclass white women and women of color who are seen as naturally equipped for dirty work and hard labor white women seen as crucial in civil society in Europe US and in colonies i not as equal citizens who could participate in the public sphere ii rather as those who insure that marriage sexual morality and family provide foundations for civil life 20 Racial and Reification a racial formation includes both the rise of racial groups and their constant reification in social thought