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October 15 notes

by: Red-Roe

October 15 notes Anth 1113 003

General Anthropology
Samuel G. Duwe

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About this Document

Primates notes
General Anthropology
Samuel G. Duwe
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Red-Roe on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1113 003 at University of Oklahoma taught by Samuel G. Duwe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
Renee Roe October 15 o Humans are a member of the order of primates 0 Our closest living relatives are other primates including monkeys apes lemurs etc o comparative anatomy o paleontology o comparative genetics Singlecelled organisms gtfish gtamphibians gtreptiles gtprimitive mammals gtmonkeys and apes gthumans amphibian 5 lmarnmele ether reptiles ether dlineeeure thereped dineeeure birds 0 rapid diversification of life forms to fill new ecological niches 0 new niches can come from environmental change or from novel evolutionary developments airbreathing flight o 5 digits on hands and feet O O retention of clavicle I retention of clavicle in primates allows for much greater moblty of frontupper limbs unspecialized heterodont dentition OOOOO grasping hands and feet reduced reliance on sense of smell tendency for vision to be dominant sense small litter size long gestation prolonged juvenile dependency relatively large brain calibrated to body mass long life span 0 humans 2 incisors1 canine 2 premolars3 molars 2123 2 123 0 money 2 133 2 133 o nonheterodont dentition dolphins small litters long life span for body size prolonged period of gestation high levels of encephalization large brains dependence on learned behavior 0 long life spans 0 long gestations and developmental periods 0 the larger the brain relative to body mass the longer it takes to fill up through learning 0 arboreal hypotheses 0 visual predator hypothesis 0 fruitflowereating hypothesis Primates emerged as arboreal creatures with varied diets made possible by generalized physical traits high level of dependency on learned behavior o lemurs and lorises 0 00000 modern lemurs confined to madagascar lorises galagos and bushbabes in Africa andor SE Asia small brain doglike snout mobile ears heavy reliance on olfactory and visual senses expressionless face possess rhinarium moist patch on nose elongated hind limbs adapted to vertical clinging and leaping c all New World monkeys have distinctively flattened nose structures Platyrrhine and nostrils are oriented laterally has wide septum c all Old World monkeys apes and humans have downwardly oriented nostrils Catarrhine Central and South America known as platyrrhine primates virtually all possess tals some are prehensile tend toward quadrupedal locomotion nearly all are completely arboreal stereoscopic color vision capuchin squirrel spider howler and wooly monkeys marmosets uakar titi saki Pygmy marmoset primitive new world primate has claws owl mo 0000000 0 Africa and Asia known as catarrhine primates most possess tals none are prehensile tend toward quadrupedal locomotion some arboreal some terrestrial stereoscopic color vision some especially grounddwelling species are sexually dimorphic colobus proboscis and patas monkeys baboons macaques mandrills mangabey langurs I most primates have pette noses human and proboscis monkeys are obvious exceptions I only 2 primates besides humans that live outside of the tropics barbary and japanese macaque I grounddwelling macaques and baboons walk around on all fours o moneys tend to sit upright when eating sleeping and grooming The Hillaministalls FEJUll liHilHummus Africa and Asia also catarrhine primates lack tails and possess short deep trunk laterally oriented shoulder most are largebodied except lesser apes locomotion patterns vary but suspensory capabilities are common some arboreal some terrestrial stereoscopic color vision social adaptations variable some grounddwelling species are sexually dimorphic O O O O O O O O o gibbons and siamangs orangutans chimpanzees includes bonobos gorillas humans nwlillil ill gibbons and siamangs are brachiators o orangutans which are much larger than gibbons of SE Asa move deliberately and slowly through trees by clambering with all 4 limbs 0 they possess high joint moblty in shoulder and hps both hands and feet have powerful grips 0 African species include Chimpanzee lowland and mountain gorilla bonobo 0 today they are distributed over relatively limited area of Central and West Africa Juliet ll le lmrltwl1 l1illtltel1 m filmAltairaimlllr39llwlfll1writl J illimfl lWillwilllli o knuckle walking large brachiators on the ground 0 typical hominid bipedal locomotion


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