BIO 123 Chapter 7 Notes (Part 2/2)
BIO 123 Chapter 7 Notes (Part 2/2) BIOL 123
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Logan on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 123 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Dorothy C. Scholl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Biology for Health Related Sciences and Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
The Steps of Cellular Respiration gt Check out these videos Khan Academy httpsMMNyoutubecomwatchv2f7YthHcg kamplistPL7A9646BC51 100F64ampindex21 CrashCourse httpsMMNyoutubecomwatchv00ibG chuQ NOTE The products of each step are in red to help you keep track 74 Glycolysis Glycolysis breaking down of glucose 0 Oldest metabolic pathway on Earth occurs in almost every eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell 0 Takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell 0 Anaerobic does not require oxygen 02 why it is so widely used 0 Requires input of ATP to produce ATP only step of cellular respiration that needs this 0 10 stepschemical reactions 9 2 major parts see Image 4 1 Energy investment 2 ATPs used to phosphorylate adding a phosphate PO4339 group a carbohydrate puts stress on covalent bonds in carbohydrate 9 they are easier to break 2 Energy payoff Enzymes facilitate series of chemical reactions 9 carbohydrate splits in half 9 forms 2 pyruvate 3carbon atoms molecules When carbohydrate splits it oxidizes loses e39 9 NAD electron carrier is reduced gains e39 9 becomes 2 NADH carries potential energy to electron transport chain ETC Produces 4 ATP molecules since 2 are used in the beginning there is a net of 2 ATP Substratelevel phosphorylation enzyme phosphorylates ADP to ATP by forming and enzymesubstrate complex see Image 5 Glucose quot5 LI 2 HT bCarboA v 2 Sugar moophaf 3 10 2 RD w W Q kDHrH39Dt x1 gtMlok ZCMbmn Image 4 The important thing to know here is that glucose is phosphorylated w the help of 2 ATP and is broken down into 2 pyruvates producing 2 NADH and 4 ATP overall 2 net ATP l l II compound quotYquot substrate quotXquot a highenergy transfer compound Image 5 Only important thing here is just recognizing that phosphorylation is the adding of a phosphate group Substrate X is the phosphorylated intermediate gt Check out these videos Khan Academy httpsMMNyoutu becomwatchvFE2jfT XAJ Hg Science Music Videos httpsMMNyoutubecomwatchvEfGlznwfu9U 75 Pyruvate Oxidation or Pyruvate Decarboxylation NOTE This is considered an extra step of cellular respiration in our book but Dr Scholl only considers glycolysis the Kreb s cycle and oxidative phosphorylation to be the main steps this is simply an intermediate between glycolysis and the Kreb s cycle 0 Takes place in the mitochondria Takes place when 02 is present 0 Why it s needed pyruvate must be broken down to acetyl 00A before it can enter the citric acid cycle 0 Overview see Image 6 1 Pyruvate decarboxylation carboxyl group in pyruvate is oxidized to 002 net 2 002 o For each 002 formed 1 NAD is reduced to NADH net 2 NADH 2 Pyruvate 9 acetyl 2carbon molecule 3 Enzyme attaches acetyl to CoenzymeA 9 forms acetyl CoenzymeA net 2 acetyl 00A 0 Acetyl 00A is important in the role of the synthesis of acetylcholine vital in muscle movement 0 NAD CoenzymeA 20 CH3 C02 fyruvate NADH Acetyl CoA Image 6 Important thing to notice is that pyruvate is oxidized forming acetyl 2 CO2 and 2 NADH then enzyme attaches acetyl to CoenzymeA forming acetyl CoA F 76 The Citric Acid Cycle A Unifying Metabolic Pathway The Oxidation of Acetate Takes place inside mitochondrial matrix 0 Aerobic requires 02 Acetyl 00A brings 2carbon acetate to citric acid cycle 0 For each acetate 3 NAD are reduced to NADH net 6 NADH I 1 FAD is reduced to FADH2 net 2 FADH2 NADH and FADH2 are critical in the oxidative phosphorylation step of cellular respiration 1 ATP is produced by substratelevel phosphorylation net 2 ATP 0 After 10 enzymefacilitated reactions acetate is oxidized to 002 net 4 002 o Takes 2 times through the citric acid cycle for the carbonsacetates to oxidize 0 CO2 diffuses out of mitochondria A Unifying Metabolic Pathway Cells oxidize fats and proteins by breaking them down to acetate 9 enter citric acid cycle via CoA to be oxidized o Hibernating animals and migrating birds depend on these stores during times when food is scarce Citric acid cycle is the center of catabolic reactions for generating ATP Provides intermediate molecules for anabolic reactions ie amino acids STOP Up til now IN OUT 2 pyruvate Glycolysis 1 glucose 2 NADH 2 net ATP 2 CO2 Pyruvate Decarboxylation 2 pyruvate 2 NADH 2 acetyl 00A 6 NADH 2 FADH2 2 acetate 2 ATP 4 CO2 Citric AcidKreb s Cycle 4 ATP 10 NADH TOTAL 2 F ADHZ 4 CO2 diffuses out of cell 77 Oxidative Phosphorylation One of the Most Important Metabolic Pathways to Evolve Takes place in inner membrane of mitochondria Relies on the fact that oxygen is so electronegative that it pulls on the electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 Electron transport chain ETC protein complexes and enzymes located within the inner membrane of the mitochondria o 4 main proteinenzyme complexes each is more electronegative than the previous 1 Complex 1 oxidizes NADH to NAD This is an exergonic reaction 9 energy e39 is transferred and used to actively pump protons H ions into intermembrane space of mitochondria 2 Complex 2 oxidizes FADH2 to FAD 3 Complex 3 pull e to them and use this energy to actively pump protons into intermembrane space creating an electrochemical gradient 4 Complex 4 ATP synthase transports protons from intermembrane space into the matrix phosphorylating ADP into ATP in the process 0 Proton motive force kinetic energy that results from potential energy stored in the electrochemical gradient produced by the proteinenzyme complexes 0 Energy is saved as a proton gradient until enough energy is present to make ATP 0 Chemiosmosis occurs when proton motive force allows phosphorylation of ADP to ATP by kinetic energy of the moving protons 0 Oxygen is the final electron acceptor becomes reduced by forming water 0 Produces 34 ATP Image 7 gt Check out this video Science Music Videos httpsMMNyoutubecomwatchvVER6xW r1vc Connection Can we live longer forever The antioxidant craze health and aging Diets high in antioxidants no correlation between high doses of Vitamin C and better health 0 Diets rich in unprocessed plantbased material less red meat routine exercise decreased aging effects Current and Future Research 0 Mitochondria in birds and bats role of mitochondria and aging 0 Most smaller animals do not live as long as large mammals but birds and bats can live longer than many small animals 0 Studying mitochondrial membranes and membrane proteins differences are due to active lifestyle 78 Fermentation the Good and the Bad 0 Glycolysis is an anaerobic process 0 If 02 is present 9 pyruvate travels to citric acid cycle 0 If no 02 is present 9 molecules undergo fermentation Lactic acid fermentation pyruvate is reduced to lactic acid NADH is oxidized to NAD and glycolysis continues producing small amounts of ATP 0 Lactic acid in industry 0 Yogurt formed when lactic acid builds up in milk and denatures the proteins Beneficial to our health alter bacteria communities in our gut Alcohol Fermentation Yeast 0 Yeast oxidizes NADH to NAD and breaks down pyruvate into 002 and ethanol Connections Alcohol and Your Health 0 Alcohol is rated the worst drug in the world 0 Studies have found correlations between moderate alcohol consumption and lower rates of heart diseaselongevity 0 Why Possible hypotheses Chemicals in red wine that reduce cellular damage 9 results in slower aging Alcohol acts as a blood thinner 9 lowers risk of heart attack and stroke People who have an alcoholic drink at the end of the day are less stressed 9 leads to a longer healthier and happier life Picture Credits Image 4 httppixgoodcomglycolysisdiagrambiologyhtml Image 5 httpfacultyccbcmdedugkaiserbiotutoriaIsenergyfg2html Image 6 httpssa chabiochemOOO 1 wordpress com201 30323fateofpyruvatemadefrom glycolysis Image 7 httpmedblogmedlinkuknetkaty201W1 129respiration
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