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Chapter 7 Book Notes

by: Amanda Romano

Chapter 7 Book Notes Chem 1061

Amanda Romano
U of M
GPA 4.0
General Chemistry 1
Michelle Driessen

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About this Document

Detailed summaries of sections in the book with highlighted equations.
General Chemistry 1
Michelle Driessen
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Romano on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1061 at University of Minnesota taught by Michelle Driessen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
Ch 7 Book Notes 71 The Nature of Light electromagnetic radiation Ex Visible light xrays radio rays microwaves A The Wave Nature of Light Properties of electromagnetic radiation Frequency v Number of complete waves or cycles that pass a given point per second 1 second Hertz Hz Wavelength A The distance between any point on a wave and the corresponding point on the next wave nm or pm Speed The distance it moves per unit time Speed of light c cvA V 1 Al 1 A1 B The Electromagnetic Spectrum Differ in frequency therefore wavelength Electromagnetic spectrum arrangement in order of increasing wavelength Visible light small region of spectrum Violet A 400 nm amp red A 750 nm White light composed of all colors of visible light Ultraviolet xray and gamma light Very short wavelengths Infrared microwave and radio waves Longer wavelengths C Classical Distinction Between Energy and Matter Refraction and dispersion Refraction when a wave changes speed and therefore its direction as it passes through a phase boundary into a different medium Dispersion white light separates into its component colors when it passes through a prism Diffraction and interference Diffraction light bending around an object Interference waves of life coincide Constructive interference amplitudes add together and create brighter light Destructive interference crests coincide with troughs and form darker region D Particle Nature of Light Blackbody Radiation and the Quantum Theory of Energy N quantum number H Planck s constant A quantum of energy hv An atom changes its energy state by emitting or absorbing one or more quanta The Photoelectric Effect and the Photon Theory of Light Photons bundles of light energy Ephoton hV Alli atom Energy of photon is related to frequency 72 Atomic spectra A Line Spectra and the Rydberg Equation Line spectrum a series of fine lines at specific frequencies separated by black spaces The Rydberg Equation B The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom Postulates The H atom has only certain energy levels The atom does NOT radiate energy while in one of its stationary states The atom changes to another stationary state only by absorbing or emitting a photon Features Quantum numbers and electron orbit Lower the n number smaller the radius of the orbit and lower the energy level Ground state First energy level Excited states Electrons in orbit farther from nucleus Absorption Absorbing photons and moving electrons to outer orbit Emission Emitting photons and moving electron to lower orbit C The Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom Z2 E 218 X 10 18J E Z charge of nucleus 73 The WaveParticle Duality of Matter and Energy Matter and energy are alternate forms of the same entity A The Wave Nature of Electrons and the Particle Nature of Photons Wave Nature of electrons de Broglie wavelength Mass m at speed u B Heisenberg s Uncertainty Principle II quotIt is impossible to know simultaneously the position and momentum ofa particle Axis the uncertainty in position Au is the uncertainty in speed h is Planck s constant 74 The QuantumMechanical Model of the Atom A The atomic orbital and the probable location of the electron The Schrodinger Equation and the Atomic Orbital Look in book on pg 306 for explanation of equation The probably location of the electron By squaring the wave function 1 Probability of the electron being in some tiny volume of the atom 2 Total probability density at some distance from the nucleus 3 Probability contour and the size of the atom B Quantum Numbers of an Atomic Orbital Specified by 3 quantum numbers 1 The Principal Quantum Number Indicates relative size of the orbital n Is a positive integer 2 Angular momentum quantum number I Integer from O to n1 3 Magnetic Quantum Number m1 Integer from I through 0 to Threedimensional orientation of the orbital in the space around the nucleus C Quantum Numbers and Energy Levels Level Given by n value Lower the energy level the closer to the nucleus Sublevel l 0 s sublevel Levels are divided into sublevels or subshells l 1 P SUbIEVel Given by I value l 2 d sublevel Orbital I 3 fsublevel Combination of n l and m1 specifies the size shape and spatial orientation of one of the atom s orbitals D Shapes of Atomic Orbitals The s orbital l O spherical shape ls orbital holds the highest electron probability density Zs orbital 3s orbital has 3 regions of high electron density and two nodes The p orbital Two regions of high probability One on either side of the nucleus Different spatial orientations The d orbital One of five orientations


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