Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 122 page Reader was uploaded by Professional Image on Wednesday August 28, 2013. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Hawaii taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 272 views.
Reviews for Music 157
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/28/13
University Of Hawaii Manoa Music Department Music 157 String Techniques and Methods Course Packet Instructor Lin University of Hawai i at M noa Music 157 String Techniques and Methods Course Packet Table of Contents 1 Parts of the Instrument Bow and Strings Klotrnan 1 2 Care and First Aid for Your Violin Suzuki llethod 4 3 Measurements and Terminology of Sizes K1ot1nan 5 4 SurLrllti Sizing Guide 7 5 ViolinViola Postures Hopkins 8 6 Stiidtll l Bow Hold Miles 11 7 ViolinViola Bow Hold p 1 loplsiins 13 8 ViolinBow Hold Klotrnan 15 9 Left Hand Position Hopkins 17 10Beginning the instrnction Green 20 ll Conrrectillhe Dots Kjelland 30 12 39l winlltle twinkle little star Va139i8ti011SSL1I22L1l39l 35 13 Flexercises Kjelland 37 14 Tone Production Galamian 45 15Playing Position for ViolinViolaDeverich 47 1 6 39l uning Instruments lwlopkins 50 17 SLl39 139ll1 lesson lliga 55 1 8Bornoff Finger Patterns 56 19 Project Self Evaluation video 58 20 Teaching Strategies I1op1ltins 60 21 Parts of the instru1nent Kjelland 69 22 Quiz parts o1 instrurnent open strings 72 23 Cello and bass posturesK1otrnan 75 24 The bow hold ALeonid 81 25 Proper care of string instrurnentsRoda 83 26 Playing the string garnes Young 85 27 Principles ol Sound ProductionKjelland 95 28 Cornrnonly asked questions on Teaching TuningKjelland 99 29 20m Century Schools of String Teaching a Klot1nan 101 30 Assignment Paul Rolland Teaching of Action in String Playing 109 31 Long Sustained Tone 1 10 32 The Left Hand Exte11sio11s Potter l l l 33 One Octave Scales 113 34 Learning tenor clef for cello studentsLin 115 35 Basic Bowing Guidelines Klotrnan 117 36 Assignment Basic Bowing Guidelines Klotnian 118 37 Basic Bowing Teriris 1 19 38 Project Techniqtie Analysis 120 WM 1 4 General Information Regarding String Instruments In addition using correct terms prevents misunderstanding when reqzi gtg ing repairs by mail or phone A5 obvious as this advice seems there is a dis concerting amount of confusion created when conventional terms are not used Scroli Peg Pegbox Nut Fingerboard e Neck Top 39 Ribs Bouts I f In 39 Purfiing F Hole B dge Tuner Tailpiece Chin rest Saddle Tailpiece Gut gunon Figure 11 Figure 11 shows a front exterior View of the parts of a violin or viola 39 Figure 12 shows the rear exterior of a string bass When comparing a vio lin and viola note that the viola is slightly larger in all dimensions Figure 13 shows a cross section of the interior Construction and Nomenclature 5 Neck biock Back Purfling Adjusting screw End pin Figure 12 Rib lining Bass bar under the bass strings Sound post Neck biock End biock Figure 13 General Information Regarding String Instruments Tip or point Heed Stick Thumb ieather or grip Pear slide Ferrule French German Figure 3 5 The Bow The nomenclature for the bow isthe same for each member of the string family see Fig 14 The parts of the bow for each instrument vary in size and thickness in proportion to the length of the stick The only instrument with two styles of bow is the string bass which may be played with either a Frenc 39 or German style Butler bow see Fig 15 However the French conforms to the bows of the other members of the string family and is the more popular in most string classes mquot 4 ix alt395quotquot 9 1Kquot 57 f Qz e3 9Y Extended Range Beginning with the lowest note 0 of the String Family on the violin the sting choir of the o taves Incidentally the string bass so is Written n the string bass to the highest note rchestra spans a range of over six oc unds one octave lower than where it gva ee 6 J gva 3093 mg 333 3 23 mama 25 55 828 53 8 3000 can 22 m m oa 2 3 28 5 n22 2 gt5 2 new Eoeazms 29 SE 25 omqmqS 2gt n2mc m 3 Son 232 Emcmcrma 3m 3533 cam 223 mmm mn a E 22 9 2 wmq Eamum Eon mmm2n 89 22 a ma ace noahotma an Enos mioam uo 32 gtoE9mEm 9 mEm 3 3m 35 223 mE2n9a Q3 w Em m 0 mac ma a vases wmgtogt Emu new mocm22mE QESQ 82 2 m mw 2 new cmo 8o3 32 233 2 8 25 E 2 name 3 33 E28 ag m E 2 293 9 63 2 2228 2 283 3 58 2 22 2 mEm Emu me 229 S9 53 E2 9 2232 ogtw new 232 396 Sam 38 2 no 22 2 coo 2 2 3 umtoaaaw 8 2 as 2 2 mmmemu a 6 2 m 2 22 mm 2u new was 8 on 2mm ouw B Em 3 Em m m 2oom 5323 FEE m 2 Qocm m 2 ogt 2 92 2 E2 3 5 gma new 3 95 8 92 zxmmoooam 95 so cowou Bmtoo 2 gtmExoaqm 2 22 983 E3 Eoanzzom 2 E5 cm 53 Em xowa 223 9 968 222 an nmncmamsm 2 8558 2 new 222 sumo E 6 228 ms 2 ho muse E 35 cm 9202 E 320 3 2 umS new 3 2 nca m ma a m 2 222 9 B 28 8 6 aoancaow oz 33 dean ogt m o mmogt8m 2 aim rcou 2 new csou naxoocx ampE mEuom 3 223 302538 E dozm 23 m E mums on gtmEo Ezocm 2caEm lt dam 2mm 2 0 co 25 2 ncima Ea u m oo an Emocm Eoaucnom was 2 gt no mmom9mE 6 a 2 5 gaze 0 cozmuium mmn a 3 8 92 2 2323 sumo Bu Em oxm B 2 ucaoq oo ma 5 E52 6 5 n onEoo ma 6 cozmoiqm cm 5 nmsmc as can 2 5 22 E5 amen 22 50gt ogt 2 52 B 295 Amnca E335 mz manm 53 232 ceEmo2aE cos n mmom9mEm En m2m new 2 o1Soo8 2320 295 mm 235 58 Ba 9222 on Ema 2235 2 Bm am 2 522 2 238 E 3 2 25 Exes 5 3 3Sogt w 22 2 u omzoo B 225 28 2 E252 Emzco 22 22 5 53 25 2 33 35 mm 522 E3 mmcza 9 3 22923 2 E9 Ema 823 8205 new 3 5 mE2no3 83 9222 name 8 2 2 mst m 2 2 2 2 338m 2223 new 2 Egmzm mn m 2 32 30gt 9 Sam mE 2 280 mmmnm 2 E5 20 2 33 new 92 23 as E mmc w E 0 m 82 82 ncmuomoE E3 3 Sn 283 30 mmgzm 50 5 823 8 Eegt umu2 B 2 6 3 Em omo 9 co 3 lt 3 d 6 9 35 Sea 968 some 9 womram 23 m 9 22ma E oE22 3 2 63 6 gt6 353 32 B 3 98 mlt doe c2 oo5 E2 2 E 325 92 new comcoE 88 53 gt23 2 am 5 235 can mmszw 2339 25 50gt 2230 an 3 Man Ea gt2EmuoE m no 25 50 w 2 235 82 E 22 E 22 2 2 coannm E mmzmomn 85 En nmmo m 5 an Exec mEEw 50gt 9amp2 2 3 53 2 2 9 2 6 new 9 3 2203 22 33 8 3 m22 555 203 new Q2 2 2 908 gm oEo 23 3 mmmrnm mmEmn ma non mEm3oa 2 32 3 new 2gt 50gt 2 was be 2 22mq 2 E2 esmzxm 28 co 2 2 2 ma 2 33 2 EEm2 So 2 6 co 2 2 35 23 8 6 co 2 cmoo m oBw Eoo EoEm 59 qmmx mocoo O 832 9 8553 96 3 233 E3 osoo 2 E93 23 m2om9mEm 9 3 22 2ogtm Q 2 an 53 so oommEmE gtEmgtma 2 w 2 a am 2232 mm3no E 239 EmE 252 m2E 33 5888 53 m mcgtBo new EmEmm 30gt xomzo 2 2 some wEmEoE 32 a main uEn 6 2 cosnzoo mo 2 ooo B c22gt 53 o2cmEm 88 533 so 2 B3 25 E5 38 32 1ea Developing String Programs in Schools 2 7 quot848 Measurements and Terminology of Sizes 1 Instrument Terminology for Measurements a The body length is measured from the top shoulder upper edge Where the neck joins the body to the end of the lower bout base of the instrument b The string length is measured from the edge of the nut where fin gerboard meets nut to the bridge Actually it is the open string length that vibrates when played dl t 1 Violin and Viola The body distance diapason between the in side notch of the Fhole on the soundpost side to the upper edge of the top Where the neck joins the body should represent three fifths of the string length 2 Cello The diapason should represent tenseventeenths of the string length 3 Bass The diapason should represent foursevenths of the string length II Instrument Measurements Body Length String Length Vfoffn Size Inches cm Inches cm Standard fut 44 14 3555 12 78 3220 intermediate 34 13 14 3366 12 3050 Junior 12 2 me 3159 11 516 283 Bantam 14 11 2794 10 154 2544 Bantam 18 10 2540 9 532 2326 Bantam 110 9 14 2350 8 932 2103 Bantam ma 8 12 2159 7 2553 1880 Bantam sizes vary depending upon the country of manufacture iiota Size Inches cm Inches cm Standard fut Large 16 12 and up 4190 and up 15 381 Standard foil 1 6 4064 15 381 Standard fut 15 12 3940 14 1164 360 Standard full Smelt 15 381 13 3132 355 lntermediate 14 3556 12 78 3270 Junior 13 14 3366 12 3050 Cello Size Inches cm inches cm Standard fuii 44 29 58 7525 27 12 699 intermediate 34 27 5 I 6 6940 24 34 628 Junior 12 25 12 647 23 14 5905 Bantam 14 22 34 5779 20 34 5231 Bantam 18 2018 5112 18 18f32 4711 5 Bass Size Inches cm Inches cm Standard 34 43 14 to 10986 to 41 12 to 10540 to Standard 34 44 12 1130 43 5 1 6 1100 intermediate 12 38 58 to 9811 to 38 34 to 9843 intermediate 12 41 14 10478 38 3X4 9843 Junior 14 35 889 Bantam 8 III Bows a The bow length is measured from the tip to the end of the screw button Bows should be proportionate to the size of the instrument used 28 Developing String Programs in Schools Length Iiolin Bow Size Inches cm Standard 44 29 34 7430 intermediate 34 27 6858 Junior 12 24 12 6223 Bantam 14 22 U8 5620 Bantam 18 19 14 4890 Bantam 110 9 14 4890 Bantam 1 63939 16 316 4270 Both use same size berglass bow 11 6 size Length Viola Bow Size Inches cm Standard 44 29 134 7430 lntermediate 34quot 29 14 7 43O Junior 12 27 6860 intermediate 1 4quot violas use the same length bow as a 4K4 violin but the viola of 14quot or larger should use a vioia bow under all circumstances Smaller v otas may use violin bows Length Cello Bow Size inches om Standard 4291 28 18 7140 intermediate 34 26 716 6715 Junior 12 25 12 647 Bantam 14 23 12 5969 Bantam 18 20 58 5239 Bantam 130 17 12 4445 Length Bass Bow Size Inches cm Standard French 34 28 34 7303 Standard German 34 30 38 7715 intermediate Eirenob 12 26 W2 6730 intermediate German H2 2 34 0619 Junior 1abuse hatt s39rze bows French or German Butler bass bows are acceptable in all sizes b Bow Materials 1 Pernambuco woodmmfirst choice for better quality instruments 2 Brazilwood 3 Fiberglass acceptab1e for 116 and 18 size instruments c Now Hair Materials 1 Natural horse hair unbleached hair 2 Synthetic hairw must be texturized 3 White hair is preferred for advanced solo students however mixed hair is quite acceptable 4 Bow hair should be sighted down to make sure there are no crossed or twisted hairs SELECTING MATERIALS There is no one method book that will address all problems and auto matically ensure success A music teacher should carefully examine all the books available and select materials on the basis of his or her own basic ap proach to teaching strings Nothing is more revealing of a teacher39s attitude about strings and about music in general than the materials he or she se lects It is the teacher39s choices that will determine in a sense the musical development of students ex lee u 3 32 PT M 5 2 mi N 8 am 3 m 8 3 m 3 mm mm Em R 8 am iv 8 ooogtgt mmmzmamw E0 mum mm9mnm 9 E aanag mEoo no 9 3 Bo 9 ES Eao mmcz mbzoo 9 0 E0 5 mEE mmoro B 2 on 230 n 2 33 oem mEQEmgtgt 22 28 m 9 B 32 9 2 on E3 Ra 95 m mO 9 new m mmo Secs 3 9 293 eco mmm mmgtwE 9 55 33 8 29 a 38 2 B as E 22 3890 2 28 2 3 dog g 9 gong Eoo Son maolt K 9 3 BS8 Q2 9 9 om umncmzxm 2 ozmo 9 0 5 9 Am aE on new dmcx 2 o mum 2 B a 209 2 xmao m E n mmm an 538 233 9 C m mmoa as 520 mm SEE 2 EonEc 9 B Ezoooa cm 5 3 ES EeEoE 25 3 mczwmu B no mE 52 B ou ocmi cum 0 EEmgtgt Emnam 2 um mn as 95 use 3305 c3moaEoo 29 a 2 gtmn m 2 23 w aw 830 3 m am Enema m 52 gtnamE 03 9 cmmfmn B coo momgtn Bias 3 noo B 2 zo ma w 2 EmEm cm E 2 295 Ben mi meam5gtm 9 So 33 E5 23 mw 2238 gtmE mmomou mugtE mmcmua EwExSaum ozu 2 20 ncwz m3 mmm EmE3w 55 coz mtoo E EaE a ccw 3 Eon mm 5 wmm Enwnm Bmucmm 2 mEmEm cmmaohnw mcmaEoo o mcmm m mmngtoE omm wgtmn B mEmEEmc mEowE 5 293 23 mzmza 35 Emma 2 333w 2 93 as 2 gmasw ozm zmsSm2 ssmaw mm 025 a E c 955 cEx dam all 1 SW4 39 g p us buu 2 mg W 3 n nrv E 3 oo ua 8 1 uzun o n neo 1 n E Tn T cum 2 5 I vutllgllll p E 39 39a a sEaa T 3 3 2 E2 gf I v z aa fzz g a a3f 39 gf j39g2 25 g sa mga 7 2 a 326 E Sizgzmgi 3 23 ii wiz z i fsi 39lt3 g i hltiquot E 22z E 525 im2 lt 22 iatfij Q E22lt zz f2i E5 3 lt t ltgtz 2m2c 2 lt3 i2392zglt 22 Za3f i lt gE2E jy39 gt i zi azmi 3 3328 r f e39gtk gtzzltElt zmd 3 zgtewas3 6 3 xii 7lt2 3 ifsaei a 7a E33 ts 39 2s 39 5332 7r2m1s 3 sir 39s2zszg 3 ass s39 i quot Equotee zzzre sf Wi Ti 3 mzaizsggeagues iTnlt lt 2392 S g a f ilt 39w rs dlt39gt2 E39Es 22 gtmz wi 21 B if 2Tgts2 i wamprT g2i 27 gt2 zmz ga Trg ijfze 239 g s izam gt5 iizsi waa ga zi z xE gt Ez z392ltET adwltTza ltlt 2I239 52 f23 39223 f2 39 tam 223 wiailaz pi 3 E39 z i igt E ii y 32 sZ39i s Evv i22 s f3 i pn lt E323 39 f2 332 2mf LT 2E f 39A N rampgtr kt 39r 3 3quot 39 3 wt 39 w r1 r 9 VV39dquotEv I M 39 V v 39 v r 3 5422 ltz 139 if 1 E a2 ij i fi 52 a r z 53 ZI39 lt52 i aa z 22 m a Em xa gi 1f aws2 gr 39 LE 3i E 39 fi3 39 E lt 39iquot quot39 39 335i r 39quot a 2 i 1 39f 32 x E 3E 555 c e 7 quot j a a fi 39 g gt 39i39a m E r quotE7 i 239ai zgzm 11 a lt3 gigr zrLzi lt 3 73 1 1Tig1 EltE p gt 7 l gtzi 23 lt 2gtv gti w i3E3E 2 quotH36 Elt2392se am TEltsltElt3 i ez D23Lzg iarzsmn Est he ltgtvquotaquot 1 m and 2 iltElt 0391quot fegtlt bi ty 3 T326 at we was quot522 Ep 2Z f 4 K1E ltgtf 2 we ghi is piaced gt23 me iegx Whiiazsz L3si 935 T f f Igt T W133 gm an be 39i eg i E lt3 quot i e Vie zdring pssdagaagzzes 22i ltlt r2i e Ap zci3g 21 the zgt4lt3Z fri m 316 T g f i39 Iieg J 432 the 3 3hJ T i 1g 7 i 3f gt32 sz r ihezr the sf 39 gt23 aha zigizi wzili 922239 gtflt 5zgtltsgtzi23 wi h tltgtm5 pltgtlt 2lt ilti gt lte in the EEEEEEQE3 2 915 223 t ze bmiiazs 2223 ia39t rhe2z lti the f 3 are shz zzid srr wiC1 I gzpam i iquotTiamp Ef me n fs EiCEL i This i2 en 3 rasiing zazquot eibaw aga asi be badge Exiai ce Em effac W3 has an 328239 haw giammeni Ha me win be zazaak am umaaveyy afafmi is the muse if size Sacks grape shaasi er aupgaa far we imirumeni he 59 hand is mid ng asp me insirameni aazhich cazsses fa gue Yha f ii S an eacy weui Eben he is ms he eibow agaizzsi hes beefy fxzlt2ia gi a aisag chm am 6339 ra g ng s23is de E52 Ema a quot a me siwam 3 amp i Eg ms Eefi shazgidea e mfz ia affecis the Qeis i sn sf aha ei iira a f agm mzci ie wagzc 2quot W5 p ciagia Em c rz is E lt g sza z Ehe E i 3 quot i is raaga in fm 0 E338 hwy max me Eef quot3E 3ampzs39 es 33i S b 8 53 azzmeyii g ha quotz2m quot i E r2 s ma cause z2imaan rlt em am sim d 85336 r2yiaai graage 9 ha 3 C Gquot Q We afi mm f Ja zc1 far mega mmmm gra ians 3 the beg m izg stagw G i m QiquotE Repeat we en re praams cs m rzg ng ze is sirazma inia msii an es3ge y 3mb s3ms am ltlt ms ma 2 2 asaz za amr f 139 f 5 2 mi mxziezaza Ld gsz quot mg Q i mrs iar quot 39 2 s3 was gz m a wi gai zsixmssa 0 Palm Side oflIand Bow Hold Touch Points The diagram below maps out the bow to hand contact points that Professor Suzuki recommends the violinist use to hold the bow Dr Suzuki39s technique was developed by Karl Klingler well lltnown violinist in Berlin Germany in the l92039sm Suzuki was the only student of Klingler who in turn had been a pupil of Joseph Joachim famous Hungarian violin soloist and composer 18311907 W Joachim studied in Vienna with k and in Leipzig with Schumanmz Knowing this helps us to understand that the techniques taught here are not merely quotSuzukianquot but have been passed down from the great masters The thumb and middle ngers carry the bow Suzuki teachers often refer to this center axis as quotthe bunny rabbit39s mouth with the index and pinky nger being quotthe earsquot stabilizing and completing the bow hold Beginner39s bow hold The beginning violin student may start by placing the thumb half on the silver ferrule and half on the horsehair on the outside of the bow39s frog When the hen strengthens and becomes consistently rounded stable and relaxed the studen can move to the professional bow hold b bringing the thumb in to the stick This transition could occur at any time during the first year of study or much later according to Evelyn Hermann in the Vital 0 R 39 Points portion of her book Suzuki The Man and His Philosophy Evelyn Hermann founded the Suzuki Institute of Dallas in 1973 and her work is an excellent reference Another important aspect to note in the above picture is the angle at which the fingers point downwards towards the screw at the bottom of the bow The middle two fingers are not perched with nger tips on top of the stick but come down slightly to secure the angle of the bow hair The pinky finger however does sit on top and aids in controlling the tip top of the bow The fingers are not overly spread out but are just close enough to support one another Also the index or pointer finger does not wrap around the bow stick but rests on top at the curve of the first knuckle Carefully using this bow hold keeping the thumb powerful and the hand soft will greatly assist in the production of a beautiful tone Right Hand Touch Poims For p 1 the Bow e ats zepresentpiaaes on kwquot Thumb If Professional Bow Hol Panda Power is an expression common 2 P 7 PM among Suzuki teachers that refers to the rounded hand and powerful thumb see picture to the right It is told that the expression began on a day when the children were excited about the arrival of a panda to the zoo in Japan and Dr Suzuki creatively used their enthusiasm towards their violin playing With quotPanda Powerquot the hand remains relaxed and the thumb opposite the middle nger carries the power of the downbow while the lowered elbow draws down and inward With the up bow the thumb and ring nger are gentle yet strong and move the bow until the frog reaches the strings and the thumb may bend slightly more Especially note the contact points of the pinky and thumb References quotscrew he 1 t ghhms best wood perrtarnbuen rfmgzl 51i 3f stack student bowsro en berglass mnmwstpgmt bswliair siberian horse hair mane or tell MW l Footnotes 1 Shinichi Suzuki The Man and his Philosophy Evelyn Hermann 1981 Athens Ohio Ability Development Associates inc 2 Collins Encyclopedia of Music Sir Jack Westrup FLI Harrison 1984 London William Coffins Sons 8 Co Ltd From httptheheartstringorg 2 Competency 41 Be able to specify and identify the correct right hand position for holding the bow of your violinfviola Violoncello or doub1e bass Holding the Bow HOLDING THE VIOLIN BOW Steps for learning the proper bow position for the violin and the viola are as follows 1 Hold the bow on the screw with the left hand with the bow hair to ward the body Fig 316 Place the inside tip of the right thumb on the stick against the corner of the frog Bend the thumb so that the upper part of it touches the hair Whether or not it should touch will vary with teachers but it is advisable to start with this concept to be sure that the thumb is bent see Common Errors in Posture Place the second finger opposite the thumb with the stick crossing the crease in the first joint from the tip of the finger Let the first finger fall on the stick across the middle joint Place the third finger comfortably alongside the second finger with its tip pointing toward the pearl inset on the frog Then place the fourth finger in an arched position on top of the inner side of the stick The fourth finger must be curved In this position the joints of the fingers are inclined toward the tip of the bow Figs 317 and 3418 J Be certain that all the fingers are curved and pulled quot into the stick Figure 316 Figure 31 Figure 318 Violin bow hand 539 6 0 Early Instruction i E if V if fl Figure 34 9 e as e if ll quot l ll W 77 Figure 320 When placing the bow in playing position at the frog the student should tilt the bow slightly with the hair toward the bridge at an angle As the bow is drawn to the middle the angle should be flattened so that from the middle to the point the full hair is used As the point or tip of the bow is approached the student should have the feeling that he is pushing the bow away from him The process should be reversed when the bow is drawn from the tip to the frog Note the angle of the left wrist in Figures 3 19 320 and 321 Except on the cello see discussion in the following section the bow moves parallel to the bridge e e e e e e e e e 39 f gm f J39a 39 39 7 i z39sa NE5 s 3s39 251 3 3 ff W 2 quot 1 quot 39 fquot vquotquot 39 lt 2 a mi g3 i z2alt3m3ra ai f zzg quot s zmi quot quotquot 2am quot39Ze z z 1s 39 quotf 392gt greza i v lt 2E3 3d3 lt gt ga Ea Em Eai22rrzm s39as 5g ltd i393 i 1 iiit3i 3E e 339Ffquota i ingz z S 1 iE d bat i39E2s deiierm 2 z2g i7a gt1 fez im fgt 2ltt3r2z1 ltgtiiquot lt ihzmigt zzzzai 3 t3ltm39 39a1snzm 2a39ltie i fi E f 1 239i 39ilti E ai g3ELz1zlt Er Llt1 22 2 zz iii eIIiltms M2222 ma mltgtsE finagtr2b1c cltmc i gtts fi l ih r 2s39zzltm4 1ltltgt2s 3 7 1fT 13S ltr39 quotvquotiltgtiin EEE2fi25 22nd quotf eai gg 39 393 14 2z 39 ilt p z2 39lt p lt E i i c fEgs 3lt ltmquotz E s am 31 39f rltbgt m quot i 2z391 P t i1c z2rnEg 112 Eza2a i ltim w1E i39Emi iii t3 T CE pjiaice 39f f s2 quotmagic plt3s ltn f fgtz j 2 Ezga2rs z hmilai ha2 32msquotampil z vlti gt1 32 aha 39i 22glt3r Egtrc azzac x s2f1 gt gt 1sgt zE1lt3 Ezt2 ltri 5hltm1d nzzziaez slttzzlt xix 39 fh ihzz 939 z39 2g T3quotz393 2aquot g 2agtsf be s quotzi39 v 39igtc39z2 Wz st WEE lt339 i fin 2391 ilt gtx3913123392 z21slt 3zi zmai cltigts i sii e 3Iij gt izm E quotZfii 3 3f quot quot msz gt aare 2 39 39 quot a 2 zmz y gia quotf z mv lts lt Eras 3ZE g E E 3 1 lt ami ss i 2 39 Em Equot2lt 39 EgtltE iid aisr 39iquotiquotf 39T quot tlt5 39i1 239r 7 3ml 2ltx39lt t jTlt quotis ltim ltgtlti E229 vs 3939 9 3 zi 13939va E1 ssJiam 55 3 39e2m3 5a m ar2 Pwiz 39i i39fquot LIi212Z39i E in 3939 lt39239 of ibeizi ir2ltlt lt2 12 rag pgtsi ltgtz1 2235 a EltJ iheazm lt3 sIf2xiii l393 mltif wiih zz mv g i39 s3 i2Ti 2lt1lti 3i 39iquot 2gtgte zm3 mam wgtagt 2ss 2Eigtsgt ighaz quotazgt2ilt 39 ilt i Eifi3T3 392 39lt hzi s ii sf iilt139i 39i s m2lt lt amai a 3ltz2ltiE gt1 3 h39mE39gt ca zmt in 392 uj i393 sizes 2 is 395i i 2zZE is g 2x39lt3 232 amaze p ezsg szrzzam f 39f7 i2r2 39 E2 g 2 ampZ39 3 392m 2 1j ltazv i3 339 f E e i 2gs39filtarltquoti md h 3 asi1 jgtlt2in sf mt iE2ge39z fa sf 3 i EgtL2 quot Egz s 422 n22 ga ltltez2z2lti39 wizh aim strijizg igim zhzz zxb is i1lt1 in 22 gtagtd pltgts i39iiltsz I231 vioizs 325 s2ms pa39 23z39plcs 39ltgtd im as gt ma v39iltgtIi z lmiif quotS 1 T 6quot39 iltgtJis 3 brirg 313 thumb ltilt3slti 13 ltm 2 aI hzmlt 35 Ezeip wiz3939i he Ilt3zf zf lti c2lt mq 3d A137 39 f 39ii ems i f z 1 3i in this mp zz 123 great vigt1 s39 Wi1Iiam Ir 3 1rzmz df SC i1SS 3S tize d ff ltgtr2alt35 39bz393twltgtz 3 v ltgt1i and vig zz ielt1miq12a in the iltgtltgt lt z 39139zgg39 We i quotifcz ifl zrgrw395c2quot ltms x z 2 s 39Vz39z z395z2z fquotz39zz39gtaza by Imvizi f22 E gtn 17 to ifffa zgsmisza t wa z quot E 39 2t c T i 4 23942 httpwwwuvmedumhopkinsstringpedagogy3931 i sc jg3 392ltgtzltgt39 quot f za f lt 2a i r E lt lt39m1339 lt39za quotEMS clt 39E zpsrsd quotETiS gzsuil Eh3 i n e ltgtu z39 ltff3ltgt 39 ltgt ii pzzis i1z12lt3z2zilt2AT Ez39 n gm i 1z i231iltmi39 quoti h a 2quotlt jrlt gm czmnes mmeri 5j 39lt3mlt in am s gtltz Eiukrzd 1 i i i lt w s is 1 a i3 gsmi iEflt i 3e2 gt e2Tlti3i ltmlt 7 2 gt 3z sltmi rig L a a39 r39 Egt7 h 2m i m can Emw zquotEk3 3ng as 3 gjm 339 atzsg f ifaias 39 i if 39quot i i223 aim ltgtf 39jgte3ltf x3 lti s szmltai 333 2 f 2 a ltgt 3 gtplt2 ltgt2 lt zf 539agflt339 if 1125 Esquotff 7 mlt T 3lt3lt a39gtifna5 2 s tsltaquot 2 Elt quot 112 Si plt 391 E ii ag 1lt3 ggf 392 igt quotfzs 39 yfa39 z 2 392 zL 126 smiltz23939 mj lts gt1 2 plt E2 2rsTquot E 39 I e lt aamp 2s g 3 E 2 5 i 15quot 2 if 1 i 2quot i is EElt i39 35 2s39 fgt 223 2335 ltgt mltlti 2ar si 2 a ltgt39s tgtltas zmszi 3 i E 3 c I 3 quot fquot quot139 quot39 quot 39 L 39339quot quot 3quot 39 1 339 139 32 v V a v V we 39 4 5 39 re S s 339 1 39vs 39 39 lt 399 avI A 4quot a4ltf 3Tszs 52 E736 gta a irlt3 23 s T f35gt an aa 39itf 3zlt 2f lt3 xmi Ea sgtimgiflt52 Jau 39 S a1 i ltgt Ers 39 39z5 5 F g E z2zquotiw 2 a2z39 2lt3 1 lt aci 2 g 2m T 3 quot E 39i 393 E 3 cr 2 3 39 mi lt gt lt zm39 39 quot2 i fe a Ii3quote j 3ii cm was mi quot s 39sisam 23 i 3 2 rslt gt 2ws s2z 2m2 sz ltaz Es 3 fT 3 imgtquot 5quotE2lt 33 a 7z 1222 p 32 ztamp aim ijiw 39 Li LiE Tii3 iT altE 2 139 Ea2 fi ems lt Vtci mlt mzquoti1g L2iquot ZltE LEi39i x 2 ms s39 5 39aza 39 ltzgtlt g s quotltmi lt lt f L s i i 3 3 319 2WE3bltlt i a3sE quot pziri lt2 133 m gt zra 32 ma 39 lm3 39 zamsgi 39 3quot t 39 g r the hlt39 quotz 3 1733 1i3 3i 39i 7Ir2 egtpsmi3 sZ3970z lti 72 E2123 a mgtugE1 30 2z1e z gran piice 2 12212 ltgt122 x39gt39m t11 ltgtu aliz Em gtpming E1 Ii2T a1 s za31 ilt2hrs 4 1 gmzzxg siudsszzis 223 g T13ii g wmms 0 E h1s39i z 2 E1is gtegtim ii Wltgtks Y 2ga2 lt 3 ffsgama 1 iii i v etsiiizz arrzaf sr3921 T amp i i e 2ltEa 1 2z xfaa22 i391e e39 1ma ziiwszg39 h L v Z3 i1 39 3jTgt fn IE igtf c 332z z wi39f 2 113 139u1lt12n zz i39i i 3amp g E2a3 E239z39i3 mad aha bags j ltgt 1t ltimcIilt of 2212 1da kinger p thzce gt n c393 ltgtquot ltltgtz3i2ac 39ia gt lt lt am i121 efi22s239 z3r lt iz39 I2 iz s39m2 lt39s cm 31 siz1 z 23 2rm i Pzmi Razilzind amplt2ssfs quot n ltm3939s gt39 quot39 hlt39 s39f izlt i2 Es3ger in quot35zrr 1fquot zz sig efquot fgz wz 5 f39s39 2g quot 39 z39zgquot gm E1 7E52 mfiizs mat iha 5313 8 Strings are not harder to teach than winds Whereas the problem of the beginning wind player is that of building range note by note the problem of the string novice is the birnanual functioning of his hands each doing a specialized type of work but each having to correlate with the other so that while functioning individually they can also work effectively together For this reason the methodology for the beginning string class di ers vitally from that for the beginning wind class The wind player will start the reading of music much sooner The string player will play by rote and PH i by ear for an appreciable period before going to the music But once he begins his reading he will progress by leaps and bounds so that at the end of the first year s study winds and strings will be ef ciently comparable in the amount of skill developed in their unique elds of endeavor The road to mastery in the strings is somewhat longer than that for the winds For example the technique of double stop and chord playing the production of harmonics as such and the many kinds of staccatos rnartel slurred spiccato sautill volante ricochetmeach a specialized technique in itself contribute to the lengthening of the period of study needed to become pro cient But the road can be interesting and fasci nating most of the way Qfe 2 BEGillNlNG THE INSTRUCTION W39th the e brief introductory f friafkss let 15 Pmceed immediately to 1 S 39 f th trm ed instruments H1 the business atharlds riarnelih the gigclll ltgtgachiig pmilems Occur in the the class s1tuation S1nce thehmore news Class this book will deal with class of mixed strings the etefifge Showing vherein the teaching tech the methodology for such a situla io znos and basses and in which aspects Tilque may Correlate violins W0 3 Ce dividualized attention of the instruction they must be Elverilinmm Star Should be provided with Before the first class convenes eacl Y 1 83 or full size Figure L1 an instrument of the C0IIeCthS136frI1ea1rig the chi1dS arm on Violin 0 Shows theVEfC0Il1neded Hclffttlile left hand can curl around the Scroll with or viola en e ngers pS p 3 11 I osrtion there wi the instrument In the pictured position then in p ayxng P 39 heir b fiicient bend in the elbow to permit the ngers t reach easily tn e su 39 1 t f r the young 06 18 correct pitches ox Ehe svgraler1f nT111 7gl1te String shouldbe 39 I1 3 l tR Q R 0 P 0 R iR a e 0 spa 39 me Whom fourth nger should encomP355 0 bass the Y01mg5te rst to 39 39 39 h that the 39 hould be adusted in heig t 30 tone and most essential the bass 3 d t i t the e box stan s a a not over which the strings pass as they 3 3139 P g 1 The standard sized bass is the ii Full sized basses are Very rare Z Figure 11 Measuring the arm on the 010 1quot bow correctly on the string without an ungainly bend in the elbow not available the strings on around so that it temporarily becomes a viola This is not good tonally but it enables the child to start his viola work immediately and time takes care of the rest of the problem NOTE We earnestly advise no home practice until after these first ten lessons are completed in the supervised classes THE FIRST LESSON The children come eagerly into the room Their greatest desire is to get the new instrument into their hands and to begin to make it sound If the class is large the teacher may wish to tune only the D and A strings thereby saving time for the real instruction NOTE Some teachers prefer to start the instruction with the use of the bow others like to set the left hand and begin with eartraining and the plucking of the D scale and perhaps a bit of a tune We shall set forth here the routines for the first two classes with the premise that either one of the two could furnish the material for the very rst class with the other becoming the second lesson Two or more classes a week are imperative in beginning work The lniiiol introduction to the instrument The children are asked to pick up their instruments and to turn the strings toward themselves so that they can take a good look at them The violins and violas will stand upright on the child s knee strings facing the player The youngsters playing cellos and basses will rotate them until their strings are also facing the players The teacher now plucks the A string on his own instrument or plays it on the piano and asks the children to find the string that sounds the same on their instruments This approach tells the child nothing but instead requires him to use his own cars to solve successfully his first problem The immediate activating of the ear is imperative in all stringed BEGlNNNG THE INSTRUCTION 3 position opposite the child s forehead This permits his left hand to reach playing position without strain and also allows the bow arm to position the For youngsters who wish to study viola if small sized instruments are a violin of the correct size may be changed 6 4 EEGINNING THE INSTRUCTION 39 39 t The ear instrument playing Thslngs ails orsly in time if they sound in une alone can identify pitc on e s rings t h tells The same process is now repeated with the D string The eaic er h h39ldren that the rst string was the A string and this secon string 15 the 10 1 Th A is the higher pitched sound on the violins 0133 and Cquot3H 5 t e 8 v 39 I h 6VBIE1l but the lower sound on the basses ThB1l r3SS 51gEhhEP 1SeSb1aCk times calling them bylnfarne They are s own 0 39 th 39ous c e s bOT1oddntiul3arfhis pitch identi cation by 83 the teacher now says 1 t 39 5 If Listen carefully I shall pluck a little tune using Jtltstrfilsege 0 h5a11 ga Her you think you can repeat it on your own instruinen 1312 d h Gt H You have heard it The teacher plucks A A A D Severa darsl S S to thP 39 t t no es e instantly After these youngsters have successfully reitera e H e them b whole class is requested to do so All then sing the nqtes 08 1113b 1 Y t 39 e ow name The process is repeated with several more mo 1 s as given A maoaaoo uoooAo DADDA DAAD mDAADDAA wooDAAoD wDADA The teacher asks if there is someone in the class who can malltlt3 11 3 y gt7 th he calls on was using W13 these quotquotquot 5 gS39 Om3931 lih11dhrlSePEli lag it together another youngster to repefat llis tune 6 fv 0 ate a 1 I1Illf calling on a and than the Second shim is given a C hanCet 0 Crda until the children show third Child to repeat it Oh ll gaInl3 1S39C0nquotmfle and until the children complete familiarity with this Initial instruc ion 3 ethm more in show by their attitudes that it is time to progress to S031 8 teresting ta I ki has been in a steady quarterno rh1l5llTE fll39llf3ll1etl1lEfEllfCf1l1efl gSStiFJalI3g0V8139 with their origi al id3aS rhythmic variations may enter the picture d t otes Now the teacher plucks another motif in evenly space quar er ri 39 D D D D D D D D A Here the children nd that they have to count 111 order to know how marl Us to P13Y Rhythmic Counting has been subtly 39 39 h t treitera introduced This establishes a T11d1m nt9TYti33 t if tm F the class tion of the regular pulse of music T us in 8 39 1 the two most basic elements of music have been touched upon h 39 39 t blquot hin t e Sing the ears to Identify pllch alid Zf l1OuIl13tll thldfleds 0 flieseg two feeling for the rhythmic relterano ob t 8 gcted nsir1g music to ex fundainentals the creative aspect has 931 ml On is im wn ideas The early awakening Of the lifllagma I 1 t press ones 0 39 sica in er portant for in its furthest reaches it ultimaftelly suplpigess mrl wing from pretation Good teaching methods keep all 0 t ese 3 8 this time on BEGINNING iii INSTRUCTION 5 Here it should be stated that there is one essential diiierence between class methodology and that of the private lesson In the latter it is oftentimes su cient to say to the child Do it this way But in good class methodology there must be a series of small logical steps that will lead everyone in the class from here to there without losing any of them along the way Each bit of technique has to be built up from an easy starting point wellknown to the child to arrive in a few minutes at an understanding of the new thing that is being taught One cannot skip steps in the process when one is dealing with a large group NOTE We shall now take up the setting of the left hand for each of the four instruments In the class situation it saves time if the teacher starts with the basses and cellos since they have need for a pi39eliminary exercise which they can practice while the teacher instructs the violins and Violas However in this book we shall aways present the meth odology in the following order violimviola cello bass Setting the Left Hand ViolinViola The students now take the neck of the instrument in the left hand the strings turned away from the player and set it in mandolin or guitar if you prefer position We now proceed to establish a feel for the position of the left hand on the neck of the instrument The hand is extended Fig 12 ngers together little nger directly toward the floor thumb pointing straight up a kind of shake hands position The end of the neck of the instru ment is placed on the first nger just forward of the big base knuckle at a point that is opposite the web that connects the first nger to the second Fig 13 The youngster should be cautioned not to let the violin ride up to the middle joint of the first nger Fig 14 When it does so the ngers cannot fall accurately in tune on the strings nor can they slide forward and backward to adjust pitch Such a position often causes youngsters who may have fundamentally good ears for pitch to play out of tune simply because the hand is not in a function able position A The thumb now falls into a natural position forward an inch to an inch and a half from the end of the neck The important thing is that its position be natural to the hand in question Flipping it on and 0d the neck several times quickly will usually give a one as to what is natural Figs 13 15 This forward position of the thumb sets a straight wrist whereas pulling the thumb back at this time to the end of the neck often causes the wrist to collapse into a faulty position Figure 12 The shake hands position Figure 13 Hand placed on neck of violin Figure 14 Faulty placing of hand on neck of violin Figare 15 Correct placing Of ngers on string Of 05035quot seomwmo ms nmsnihcraon 7 NOTE The natural function of the thumb is to work in opposition to the ngers so that the hand can grasp thingt When the hand hangs completely relaxed the thumb does not line up parallel with the ngers but opposite to them This natural forward position of the thumb should be utilized in the beginning stages of instruction The length of the individual thumb and its positioning on the individual hand some thumbs are set higher some lower on the palm will determine its ultimate position on the neck of the instrument A short thumb set low on the hand will go more under the neck in playing position A long thumb set high on the hand will naturally project above the level of the ngern board The teacher must take these things into intelligent consideration in helping individual students to nd a comfortable as well as a tech nically facile setting of the left hand After the wrist has acquired the 39 habit of its good straight alignment with the arm the thumb will almost invariably seek out a position closer to the scroll end of the neck But this should not be permitted to happen if the wrist still collapses To straighten the wrist push the thumb forward In all of this discussion the really important thing is the fingers for they play the notes Having set the ngers in workable position the thumb should accommodate itself to them not they to a theoretical approach to the thumb The rst and second ngers contact the string on the side of the tip of the nger that is closest to the thumb They form three sides of an approximate square as they fall on the strings and they should point toward the bridge Fig 15 When the violin is raised into playing position there will be more of the fingertip toward the E string side and the string itself will appear to emerge from under the center of the tip of the nail Figure 16 shows the tendency of the little nger to close up toward 39 the neck of the instrument When this is allowed to happen it forces the ngertip too far over the string 39 toward the D string the ngers no 21xan Calamian Principles of Violin Playing and Teaching Englewood Cliffs New Jersey PrenticeHall Inc 1962 pp 1517 Figure 16 Little nger curv 39 ing toward ngerlioard causing faulty position of fingers on string 39x I 3939 8 BEGINNING THE msraucnon longer point toward the bridge and a collapsed wrist begins to form The little nger should retain its toward the floor position when play ing in mandolin style Compare Fig 16 with Fig 15 It is imperative that the ngertips point toward the bridge Only then do the extension muscles function easily Three motions are necessary to the ngers of the left hand 1 going on and off the strings 2 moving forward and backward on the string and 3 slipping directly across from one string to another Violins violas and cellos use all three motions The string bass uses only the rst and third of these motions until such time as the thumb position is needed seventh position It is wise to have the youngsters isolate these motions and practice each one silently just to get the ngers to move easily There has been perhaps too much emphasis in our beginning methods on habit forma tion and not enough emphasis on exibility we have oftentimes over conscientiously drilled the youngsters into rigidity but stringed instru rnent technique is based on exibility and we should see that the children experience it right from the very beginning The importance of the correct setting of the hand the correct point of contact of the ngertips on the strings and the ability to move and adjust the ngers cannot be overemphasized All of these steps should be reviewed many times during the rst year of instruction The D major approach is the most natural for the hand a whole step from first to second nger a half step from second to thirdsince it follows the natural construction of the hand Starting from this point the extensions are gradually introduced See Chapter 4 page 51 It should be emphasized in the beginning that there are only two possible positions for the ngers on the string either they are approximately an inch apart a full inch of vacant space between the ngers or they touch each other on the string The concept of a halfinch is fallacious and should never be mentioned Cello The first rule is Sit on the front edge of the chair Adjust the height of the endpin so that the upper bout of the instrument rests about midway of the child s chest The right knee straddles the cello in the neighborhood of the circle cnt out on the lower rib of the instrument and the left knee ts near the lower point of the left cutout These things are approximate since every measure ment of the player s body length of leg from foot to knee from knee to thigh length of torso and so on must be comfortably adjusted to the Figure 17 C ll 39 3 9 hand at budge and 0 ngerboard Figure 18 instrument For this instrument should noltelldllldlilttllh CllilClllntlldbelr1fC1Se39 The neck of the ab39c1ni1telpl with l1 31I1lgyer s left ear er e C peg 15 In height arm s on the hand is in playing Ii1tirftrIgtl3939tli1nl31 from e1b 0 ngers when Elie pialm of the left hand on the strirligs htafhlelelhlidsdlgs as 011f flaw oar Fig L7 and 1d h c 39 e en 0 t e nger Slip the thumb under Elie 20 il ir ldeup 0 playing Position Fig 18 fdacing them on the D string The slidl g gpe lza d gurvethe ngers 3 String as describ d ft h an on its palm up as the elbow bendseangi 1 Selpg tlie arm to assume a natural Position wrist which either too high ofto In nmnate the bad curve in the left P The ball of the thumb contact Oljlfl an elbow W111 produce lmposite Second ngef when thatCfiSr1ge1ilsacCrlI39fnall11l3 llleck hf llle Geno t is helpful if the te h 3911 m n t quot 5 g shown in Fig 1 9 T112 Ilglllert31I1tSO l1ti31I1tEl31llI 11J lfjosltmn for the thumb as from getting too far aroun mm pointing upwards or d tl k prevent the ngers from attainigg g1C d3aiilIer0Eft1 111 positions Will s rings 9 C ll I 39 39 e 0 rand slzdzng up to playing pasitigm Figure 19 Cello neck marked for positioning the thumb String Bass Have the student stand on the E string side of the bass facing the rib with the instrument approximately a foot away from him Fig 110 The bass is then leaned over to Contact his thigh and the left knee is placed against the bass on the back of the lower bout Fig 111 NOTE There are several acceptable positions for the left foot and knee The one given here seems to be practical for the beginner In some schools of advanced playing the left knee does not contact the bass at all This point of Contact of the knee on the bass is very helpful at first The student s first lesson is to balance the bass to get it to stand alone without the players hands touching it This is a necessary skill since the left hand cannot function freely if it is also trying to support the weight of the bass The position of the thumb on the neck of the instrument is similar to that for the cello in half position the thumb is opposite second nger when that nger is on Enatural on the D string in first position op posite Fnatural on the D string Fig 112 shows both markings If the bass is to correlate with the other instruments in the D ma39or approach it will have to start in the first position When the bass is Figure I10 Stance at the side of the string bass Figure 11 Placing of the knee on the hack of the bags Figure 112 Bass neck marked for thumb in half and in first position Q4 12 BE3lNN quotquotquotTHE lNSTRUCTlON taught individually or in a homogeneous class it is better to start with the half position Notice that in moving the hand from half to first position the thumb drops approximately two inches down the neck The Preliminary Exercise for Cello and Bass The importance of the following preliminary study for cello and bass cannot be overernphasized It pro duces a good left hand position right from the start and will save time in building that hand s technique It should be required that the cellos and basses perform well these actions before they joinquot in the D major scale approach which follows shortly After the students have correctly placed the thumb and second nger basses in first position to correlate with the cellos the other ngers are dropped on the string In the cello each nger has approximately an inch of vacant space between itself and the neighboring ngers On the bass rst to second nger is about a two inch stretch and second to fourth is another two inches The bass does not use the third nger for playing notes in the lower positions I throughVI This nger is first used on the octave harmonic half way down the strings length However the third nger should fall onto the string whenever the fourth nger drops into place Arch all ngers straighten the arm For the sake of quick correlation use the D string on both instruments After the initial hand position is set have the basses slip their four ngers straight across to the G string The exercise now proceeds All four ngers ON the string all four ngers OFF the string raising just barely off and retaining their stretched position so that when they go back on the string they return to the same relative position Pluck 4 0 4 0 4 O 4 0 many times The notes sounded will be G and D on the cello and Bnatural first position and G on the bass all part of the Gmajor chord Notice that the tendency during the reiteration will be for the cellos to drop the ngers gradually down the neck of the instrument until the first nger instead of the second nger is opposite the thumb On the bass the ngers will gradually lose their spacing and soon all four will be touching each other on the string Call attention to these errors and insist that they be avoided Also check on the side of the rst nger It should be entirely free of the neck not clinging to the side of the latter When the ngers are o the string only the tip of the thumb contacts the neck of the instrument If allowed to go unchecked 139355Wze39 mgcV iagtx r39 quotLnat lulunot nu y tins Flmglng flan develop into a verybad habit especially on case pm Vepgtlrilg a facile technique and good intonation from developing the mac t h u en 5 can practice this mechanic silently while 39 ier urns or attention to the V10l1l 1S and violas and the correct placing of their hands in the mandolin position Thereafter all students 333 prliuisk the1r1 notps together cellos and bassessounding the 40 notes 39 o ins an v1o as alternating the open D with rst nger on the A string Bnatural The class may now proceed as a unit on the following studies Correlating All Four lnstruments A string All students pluck A A A A tli1aIeel11tll1dhfl3rsflnf lgSe Z BO sfffd pluck B B B B A A A A B B B B and repeat many times When this 13 easy the Cisharp may be added Cellos will use third nger on the A String dTf3P131I1g the second finger on the string as the third is placed Basses Will use fourth nger on the A string dropping the second and third simultaneously Thus A A A A B B B B C sharp Csharp C sharp Csharp Finally theD is added basses plucking open D and cellos adding fourth nger violins and Violas place the third nger close to the second nger Be sure the second nger is high enough in pitch DTransferring all of this to the D string the foundation is laid for the major scale which gradually takes form Music Example 1l gives the accommodation for the basses without requiring them to shift positions Basses Music Example 1 1 ifaving the cellos andbasses pluck a descending scale while the vro 1118 and Violas ascend is also excellent since it starts the low instru ments with all four fingers on the string and helps to build a better hand positron Music Example 12 14 BEGlNNlNG THE INSTRUCTION youngsters time every time a new nger is nee with perfect position in the notes for that nger Plucking and playing in fours at the beginning is r M 1 A D Cellos 4 3 1 0 4 3 1 O A ll J l I I I 1 E quot l l hi l i I C Basses 0 4 1 0 0 4 1 0 First position D A G D M usic Example 12 Do not try to keep this scale moving at a rhythmic pace Give the ded to place it correctly hand before plucking the four rhythmic ne because it gives time to adjust pitch before going on to the next note The pitch should be good by the fourth reiteration of each note If there is any time left the first strain of Twinkle Twinkle Little Star may be plucked D Violins Violas D D A A 1 1 jt 3 3 2 2 1 1 Q D Cellos DDAA11 4433112 G D quot Basses D D 1 1 4 4 C G 4 4 1 1 2 all in rst position THE SECOND LESSON The teacher tunes one violin and I adjusts it on the child s shoulder The child39s left hand grasps the violin as shown in Fig 113 This position of the left hand is used also during all stages of the beginning bowing The youngster is now shown how to pluck the string in playing position the thumb along the side of the ngerboard and the rst nger functioning as the plectrum This child plucks rhythmically his Astring while the teacher repeats the process with the next youngster Each child adds his note to the ensemble as the teacher proceeds around the class tuning the instruments In this way the tuning period has served to givethe youngsters personal atten tion in addition to getting the instruments in tune Cellos and basses pluck with the first or the first two ngers of the right hand the thumb placed along the side of the ngerboard on the loweststring side See that the string is pulled sideways not perpendicularly to the ngerboard Figure 113 Violin in playing position preliminary to bow 2 mg a d th t ll d Plays a a Stu ems Pluck WEI the ngerboard not where the bow The bows are taken f th stand hair down frog trdmtqhe figchies and laid on the shelf of the music Holding the Bow Correlation of Method The followin r d to all fo r 39 t 39 g P 008 are 31131311533 as 0 r f2 is P0 she middle nger the thumb 8 lm39 6 up of the right thumb and the Closest to the nail See thapog c11r1g ihe nger beneath the knuckle hint TI um curves outward slightly at its lhe sltioltkh j flltbbfvsf Ol39l Elft1bS th n Simad 093 3 31 emugh to insert four bows the thunk Costaggv eSt ililCl39l7I xIotlE music Ztand On all frog For the violin and viola bow the thumb will bee lig cl1tltrn1hOm 1 the stick than o th 11 3 r tm T far side of the ldlouae Ce 0 and bass b W3 It must never stick out on the NOTE Th 11 39 much as if it 3vI1fbamdteh1tnfl tide frog fascinates youngsters It looks 50 the thumb in the outoul preen i10g11fltge a l ttlg th1unb tip lacing viola and its future exibility Children shoulldmlieet lcdurtllet tlimhn and exists only for the purpose of rehairin 0 a e cutout g the b th I 39 slips off the lower projection OW e ittle silver slide 15 ssWINe THE INSTRUCTSON F gug 114 Violin bow hand Figure L15 Cello how hand Figure 116 Bass bow hand French bow BEGINNING TH39 STRUCTION 17 The first nger may now be dropped onto the stick contacting the bow between the middle and tip joint of that nger and on cello and bass spreading a bit farther away from the thumb Refer to Figs 114 violinviola 115 cello and 116 bass The ring nger goes well over the stick onto the far side of the frog On violin and viola it may come to rest on the pearl dot or near it and the little nger will be placed on top of the stick close enough to the ring nger to curve slightly Under no circumstances must this small nger be stretched out toward the end of the stick becoming sti and straight On the cello and bass the ring nger reaches farther over the frog coming almost to the bottom of the frog and the little nger also reaches over aligning itself next to the ring nger with its tip above the pearl dot or directly upon the dot depending upon the relative length of these last two ngers It is good to stress sponginess in the base knuckles of the bow hand ngers especially for the violinists and violists One can press on these knuckles and teach them to collapse Carving the little finger will elim inate its stiffness Children invariably grip the how too tightly complain ing Trn afraid I ll drop it If the wide frog German bow is used by the basses the player may proceed as follows Hang the bow point downward stick to the left of the hair place the right thumb on the stick above the frog and the little nger beneath the frog Fig 117 Then ip the bow into its horizontal playing position Fig ll8 The long extension of the stick contacts Figure 117 Preliminary position for the German bass bow Figure 118 Bass bow hand German bow ea as ssdlNNsNo ms msTRUcTiON 39 f the rst and second ngers 00 the side of the rst nger The tips 0 39 ti 39 inserted frog and the ring DEB 13 tact the Stick on the far Side of the slightly into the cut out Starting the Tone When all how hands have thee eral times the instrurnen S 31 set correctly and the process reviewed SGV d f 1 music stand and Elaced in Plahng P0513011 the b W 15 mm mm B for d d ngerboard 1 3dY set on the strings halfway li93tquotV1 93nWl3i iquot11Segte 1bOW aboutat its middle the first tones Tile wolmi e 1h3SfrOg It Should be stressed for the the cellos and asses se 1 3 39 d h bOWhand 39 ortthe bow an to violins and Viola that thgdstrtmgs Vfrupfoceed to Play short bows down need only guide All en ldollafs rfst on the inner edge of the hair bow up bow Ce 0 an ass f of the hair violin and violadbogrifrest onal1ie ullSs1Or0gc0w NO e ort is made to A short Peri 0 lee Pr 39 tation the thls period of experimen 3 keep the class together During ar and giving needed teacher circulates making COrreit3910d 1 SClV1rl3d elldnt whenever a new individual hell Th1s free pidd lbr the rst time piece of tllchltnqlle istllldebbrwing practice stressshould be laid on keep Thmilg 0 3 0 39 lroad tracks or in lel with the br1dge39l1llte CW0 131 mg the bow P3131 h th bow contacts the s s t the pomt ere 3 makmg 3 good square corner a f H bout the Stmka 39 that square corner t roug string and preservmg 1 la a pmach for t ht the ressre ease P Y P Cellos Etllld basse shop1ld bb S Set thg bbw on the String at the frog their initia atternp s W1 39 t the bow This pressure and dr Press thle strglngf aglilgpg Splrissggrjndzr the Control of the bow Sets the enme engt 0 es 1 1 with the release the d and snnu taneous y The pressure is then release b tt I bass quahty T1113 guarantees a 8 8 motion of the bowstroke starts in the resulting tone The Bow Arm end Hond ViolinViolo When the bowf is restinghpn tglg th no will orrn a as an at the elbow an t e WIIS mien to that Stu 39 t t h lfway point or re p the Wnstdls tidatllthe bcldllgstha Tlfis ails an irI1P0Ytant P int39 0E39thequotSmng denfs in in use arm th 5 Ding and the frog onthe bowirlg SPi0Cat0l W111 Come between 15 1 BEGINNING THE ll l iTRUCTlON l9 string bowings short d tach will come at this point or between it and the tip generally speaking Also the motion of the wholebow stroke changes as this midpoint is passed More of this later on This is called the square position of the bow arm See Fig 22 page 22 As the bow approaches the point the right elbow pushes gradually forward to preserve the straight bowstroke Cello The bow hangs down from a tring at the frog The inner edge ck is topside of the hair gently curved wrist as it contacts the s of the hair is on the string and the sti Boss The bass pIayer s bowarm should hang down straight from the shoulder without any ungainly bend in the elbow If the height of the bass is too tall for the individual player he will have to bend his elbow in order to set the bow at the proper place of contact on the strings Refer to page 2 Concluding the Second Lesson The setting of the bow hand a should be drilled many times during this class starting with the initial forming of the circle of thumb and middle nger After the free practice 39 period the teacher may set a beat and bring the class together into a 39 good and synchronized rendition of quarter notes on the open strings violins violas moving from middle toward the point on the downbow cellos basses moving from the frog toward the middle The class may now play four A s stop D string play four D s stop on The teacher controls the lean the bow over to the tip the bow back onto the A string and so length of the stop until all bows are cor rectly set on the new string each time The four notes are played rhyth mically with good ensemble The bows are not lifted from the string quot in making the crossing but are simply tilted over from one string to the next After this introductory work with the bow the teacher should review the plucking exercises in mandolin position if he has used them in a preceding lesson Connect 8 NonVerbal Technique for Teaching Hand Position eDots Violin Viola Cello and Bass Dr Iames Kjelland isosszlstantprofessor of music education and director of string developmental the University of Southern California He holds Bachelor of Music Education and Master of Music degrees from the University of Wiscorzsin IVladi son and the PhD in Music Education from the University of Texas in Austin He taught instrumental music grada 412 in the public schools of Brodhead and Middleton WI and is now the director of orchestras at the RD Colburn School of Performing Aris in Los Angeles Kjelland has w workshops and clin icsirz string pedagogy and orchestral de velopment throughout the country and has conducted numerous state and regional honor orchestras Several of his articles have appeared in American String Teo erand Instrumentalist He is the current ideal of the California chapter of the erican String Teachers Association o 1939 James Kjeltand pv 6 James Kjelland Marking hands to assist beginners with finger and hand positions is not at all a new idea It can be utilized how ever in ways that are perhaps more comprehensive than is usually envi sioned It can also form the basis of an overall nonverbal approach to posi tion which can save time cut down on wear and tear on the voice and pro duce more consistently accurate re sults Since the marks do not disappear imrnediately they can help when stu dents are practicing alone between classes a time when it is harder for stu dents to remember verbal directions and even demonstrations In addition to the technique of rnarllt ing hands the following material re flects the author s personal priorities with regard to optimal beginning play ing position on all four instruments Given that there are probably no two string teachers who would totally agree as to exactly what position is quotquotcorrectquot it is hoped that the teclmique itself when used as a foundation for establishing early position can be of value The particulars about precisely where the ngers touch the bow etc are valid from a bio mechanical point of View user friendl 39 and will not cause major problems as students en counter other approaches 39 It is important to remember that the marks must be placed precisely ac cording to the dimensions of the students hands and the particular instznunent being played In that sense the marks are relative however the principles that these marks represept are important for physical comfort and optimum exibility Marks in the zoron g place can negate the value of this process to 39 the point of actually being counter produc tioe When the dotsare all connected 39 the correct position is there Marking hands in a large class re quires both speed and accuracy With pracdce you can mark a pair of hands in less than 15 seconds You may want to mark both hands concentrate on one hand at a time or use individual marlcs as needed in a remedial situ ation Compared to the amount of time it would take to verbalize correct posi tion to our students over and over taking the time to mark hands will save much time in the long run Some teachers prefer to mark the students hands as they walk into the room As with all crutches students should be weaned from suchaids as soon as possible The ear to hand con nection should begin to take over immediately Reliance on visual refer ences only delays this essential listen ing process Positively reinforce the students who can get along success fully without the marks In the accompanying diagrams the locations of hand marks are numbered to more accurately show where they correspond with the ngerboard and bow contacts ie connect the dots They are by necessity not always the same as nger numbers To prevent confusion in the students use these numbers for our own reference It seems to most effective to mark students hands with a felttipped pen 39 The marks last and tend notto smear yet do wash off eventually39It is best to make the mark no larger than neces sary for the student to see Parents appreciate that and especially appreci ate the use of non toxic markers Mark the fin erboand with either pencil or chalk t will wear off natu rally and will not hurt the instrument Chalk will show up better on bows although it is usually necessary to mark only the thumb spot Tapes stickers whitoout nail polish etc are not recommended because of the po tential instrument damage39 mess in addition to their relative permanence PMERICHN STRING TERCHER I flquot391It n f rquot139 l 39quot393Is39 33 which invites dependency Some stu dents will do without the marks almost jgediately while others will need in much longer The point is to use them as individually needed but no longer than needed Furthermore needs cannot be assessed until the weaning process is initiated Since we are limited to two dirnen sional print it is necessary to explain that the ngertip marks should be placed approximately 18quot from the nail for all instruments This allows for the necessa curvature of the nger joints The marks on the ngertips are to actually touch the marks on the firzger bwrd NOT the strings The eshy pad of the nger then addresses the string from the low or quotpluckingquot side of the string as if the ngers were going to pluck the string This orientation of the ngers feels comfortable allows for upperstring clearance and pro duces a good sound Although cel1o bass players need more of the nger pad than violinviola players the samepmcedurecanbeusedforal1in struments Because of the thickness of the cellobass strings and tar string clearance above the ger fzrd the difference in pad contact 39 wem the larger and smaller instru mits virtually takes care of itself Youwillalsonoticethat the ngertip contact points are all otf center toward the thumb side of the ngertip Lateral exibility is essential for intonation control in changing patterns Fmgers angled toward the bridge will facilitate this and will promote a greater sense of freedom and exibility in the hand This indudes celloand bass The first nger marks on the bow hands except Gennan bass bow are on the thumb side in order to automati cally create a slight pronation of the forearm and hand in relation to the stick It is imperative that students are moved into a variety of patterns as soon as possible Please do not wait for the first pattern to be quotmasteredquot be fore introducing another I 71 general the IangerANY39IquotHlNG isdelayed thelmrder it is to cum later I JI DATES TO SAVE 1990 ASTA National Convention Wednesday March 28 to Sunday April 1 Washington DC Cquot 39quot 3913 JD VIOLINNIOLA POSITION 2 V39oIinfViola Left Hand Mando1infBanjo Position For their first experiences with the use of the left hand have the students hold the violinviola at a 45 angle across the chest pointed to the left shoulder with thebridge resting over the heart not like folk rock guitar position This allows the student to see and comfortably useall four ngers In this position it is helpful to have pencilchalk marks along the edge of the ngerboard visible to the player so the instmrnent does not have to be turned to see the marks For successful transfer to regular playing position 2 the left quotelbow close to the body and the wrist straight but relaxed Make the transition to regular position when the student can make a solid tone quality plucking with the right thumb usirzgallfourjingersintlie properspacing without handwristdis tortions Care should be taken not to allow the thumb to squeeze the neck to get the strings down Experiment to find the minirnum amount of pressureweight of the ngertip needed to get a clear tone Mandolin Banjo position can do much to prevent quot4thfinger itis because it is much easier to see and use all four fingers in this position The only T adaptation is the turn of the forearm the elbow remains close to the body ie tucked under When all the ngers are used in this way as a team the hand shape is established from the p ViolinViola Right Hand no I WV 44 anD 39 39 a3939u393939lI39 Z 2 U Ir39i ll3quot 39i393339sJ1H i39ci39 L I 3913 1a u 39 O 3 wunnwv I39M I5ur rn ru39wr r l MANU SCRIPT PREPARATION GUIDELINES Righthand nger spacing for all insuuments is determined by the natural Authors wishingto subrnitanarticle pacing created in a relaxed hand as it quothangsquot from the wrist The active quot for publication should observe the spreading of the fingers creates unnecessary effort and tension in the muscles sguowmg poms Q tendonsknuclltfl els otg d should be ntzlhaxed grid slightly curved hi t oseo e oprevent the umb mpokingthrough 1 efsiptgtgliafg 1r eSS 33i hEaI tthe st1cllt ancfhampa1siraslmthe student to feetlh the thumbnail against the them for manuscript pmPam g 10 391jIpp1g d 159 th a tmb ebowm the hand until the tion and writing style followed by 15 fou ebtggrsi so 8 ml ensures abent thmfnb39A5man A51 The Harvard Dictionary of P piece ohsurgih thru b tu ing or a plain rubber band can betslipped over the Music Cambridge Harvald new erela e ti mbogoes tt furthder assist bowhElaiold security and conifort University Press is also used for Fla 31 Eh mg quot ffhmboe 5 egfs he da gs his11 I Elm 51 38 e m sd ifwifh ti m n dia i X so is Effimiii th amp i b1 quot39 2 M3 15 339iPt5 must be tYPed d 39 Fingers should drapequot over the stick Vvithoutgclufchinglj b193P3 Ted 0 White Palierv dill 3 Leverage needed for adding weight at the tip of the bow is gained by plac 0f at 1935 One hid 01 311 ing the thumb between the second and third ngers not by spreading out the 1995 Sflbm t W0 P195 1 e t3mquot first nger If even more leverage is needed eg martel at ff etc place the ing a third We strongly prefer an third nger opposite the thumb ORIGINAL copy as one of the two submitted For manuscripts pre on computer a letter qual ity printout is preferred We greatly appreciate an accepted manuscript being available on disk which will be returned Macintosh or IBM preferred 3 A length of 153000 words six to twelve typed pages is usual Greater length encourages heavy 3 editing or rejection Reprinted articles are not usually accepted It I is assumed 21 Submitted manu script is not being considered by another publication Manuscripts will not be returned without a self addressed stamped envelope 4 Authors are responsible for clear ance of copyright or licensing re strictions eg in using copy righted music as illustration 5 Diagrams or examples must be neatly drawn inblack or India ink on white paper on a sheet sepa rate from the body of the text slightly larger than the reproduc tion size desired 6 Photographs preferably black and white glossy finish should Finger Spacing CELLOIBASS POSITION CelloBass Left Hand bmermtdmd 1 caampo39Nau13n2 4 5ruI39e zah1dt3n 3 rrurtda392 Bass players use extended hand lx in above illustration most of the time 0 in the neck positions Cellists use extended hand whenever a whole step is 5 needed between the first andsecond ngers or a major third between the first J and fourth ngers Have the student place the diagonal line directly over the string This will encourage the proper angle of the nger hand and arm in SE extended position The nger points toward the left ear of the player remain V ing gently curved 39 have caption and credit line typed 0gJ When changing from cdnd closed hand to extended hand llotv the left elbow 9 3 Sel adhesive label affixed to to move slightly forward and down forming a line between firstfinger and the back Of the Ph t Ph0t05 Win forearm Basses play in this position from the start Thedegree of forward be rammed P03 request 0 movement depends on the size of the student39s hand and on which string is being played ie lower strings require more forward motion to accommodate 0P the curve of the fingerboard This will prevent unnecessary strain and discom u fort in the first nger as well as promote flexibilityand endurance Be sure to 39 x keep the thumb under the second fingerat all times without squeezing the neck pv If you suspect a squeezed thumb have the student play without touching 0 w the neck at all the thumb however should remain behind the second finger t The quot no thumb use of the lefthand develops the larger muscles of the upper m arm and back rather than the hand and encourages the use of relaxed arm weight into the string When vibrato and shifting are introduced the hand will ememcan smmo rsaoen 32 7 No compensation is paid for ar ticles includedin AST However ASTpublished articles O for publishing requirements of aca demia Send manuscripts to the appropriate forum editor or attn Iody Atwood editor AST PO Box 490039 Key Biscayne Fl 33149 Vd 23ga 13j1 Av 4 mJ P3 Z pQ Q HEW I wT 3in IE q Z I g quot3 am x 1 I H Lmxi wi3 2 T L 5 L 1 9 N3 3 lta nw mw T 4 0 0 4 E L 3a 3 3 nRm ampv 4 T hwu mw xa U 1 W 3 C 4 a mi f n u vn H 2 7 0 L p U5 Q vL3axm 3T Lv vlta U m Rc A z to wow uH I w r 4 A4 gHu1 vm T J 4 ma E 3 2 p M u wwd 34 aw Gaga 5 To play H stop the bow without pressure after each note Bow J 3 3 3 smoothly E e a Ear ari p S Suzuki 3 Theme 4 vr vlt392 v r i J7 J an gt lt 1 o39lt J3939 95 0 sf 39ff1 If39C0f0 E I 39 E p G JV 7 Qtu Io ult2I FLEXERCISES Tum in with notebook Right Hand I Arm Fishing Pole Lines on Ceiling Description Point thebow to your front by using FINGERS ONLY Purpose TO RELEASE GRIP AND TENSION IN THE FINGERS ALSO TO TRAIN A STRAIGHT BOW FEELING Windshield Wiper Description Rock the bow like a windshield wiper by using mainly the FOREARM Purpose To feel the weight of the bow shift between the index finger to the pinkie A8 IN DRAWING AWHOLE BOW Circles on the Ceiling Description Point the bow upright and drew a circle on the ceiling using only ngers Purpose Finger exibility Witches Cauldron Description Point the bow upright and stir the soup Purpose RELEASES TENSION AT THE ELBOW AND ST RENGTHENS THE SHOULD MUSCLES Rocket Ship Description Hold the bow in front of you POINTING UP and then ELEVATE THE BOW UNTIL THE ARM IS FULLY EXTENDED WHILE KEEPING THE BOW STRAIGHT UP Purpose TRAINS A STRAIGHT BOW ACTION AND FLEXES ALL JOINTS IN THE HAND AND ARM Rock and Roll Description SILENTLY rock the bow back and forth ACROSS ALL THE strings Purpose PREPARES STRING CROSSING ACTION Tubing Description Put the bow inside of a toilet paper tube KEEPING THE HAIR ON THE BOTTOM OF THE TUBE TO KEEP IT STRAIGHT FEEL THE FRICTION Purpose Feel the resistance between the bow hair and strings AND TRAIN A STRAIGHT BOW ACTION Finger Taps Description Hold the bow correctly and tap each nger on the stick Purpose Finger exibility AND RELAXATION 9 Grasshopper Description While holding the bow vertically or with the tip hooked in the left little nger flex and extend the ngers Purpose This releases tension and transfers to subtle spiccato movements 10 Thumb Glides Description While holding the bow and resting it on the string in the middle slide the thumb along the bow stick while keeping the other ngers in place Purpose This releases tension I gripping of the thumb 11 Touch Bows Description Touch different parts of the bow on the string Purpose Preparation for whoie bow AND FOR CHANGING LOCATION SILENTLY 12 Side Winder Description Rest the bow on the string and silently move the frog back and forth Purpose This releases tension in the elbow and trains the action of maintaining a straight bow stroke or correcting a crooked bow while playing 13 Sleeping BowHand Description Rest the bow on the string at the balance point gradually relax the ngers until there is zero tension as in falling asleep Purpose This releases tension and helps students realize what little effort it takes to hold the bow while playing 14 Bow Dribble Description Allow the bow to bounce in the middle without any back and forth motion the bow does all the work as it bounces straight up and down once this is under control in a steady 8tquot note tempo add a slight back and forth motion to produce a tone Purpose 15 Make an L Stickem Up Description While holding the bowvertically change from thenormal bow hold in a grip like a tennis racket then extend the thumb and index nger to form the letter L Purpose This is the position for pizzicato while holding the bow practice going back and forth quickly to prepare the technique of quickly changing in performance between pizzicato and arco Left Hand I Am 1 Hot Strings Description Imagine the strings are very hot touch the strings and lift immediateiy Purpose This is to train fast fingers AND INDIVIDUAL CONTROL 3 Waving Goodbye Description Wave the HAND back and forth FROM THE WAIST Purpose Preparatory of vibrato Swinging Gate Description With the left hand in correct position swing the elbow from side to side Purpose This releases shoulder tension and trains the action of adjusting arm position for each string level Flying Fingers Description With the left had in position quickly lift and drop all ngers in a random fashion similar to drumming ngers on a table or similar flat surface Purpose This develops strength and quickness in the fingers Butter ies Description This is Flying Fingers see above plus shifting action Purpose Sirens and Whistles Description SIRENS Place the 2 nger on a string and slide it up and down while holding the string down and drawing the bow WHISTLES Same as Sirens only lightly touching the string Purpose Prepares shifting motions Ski Slides Description One nger on the fingerboard and slide to the end of the ngerboard better on on the cello Purpose Preparatory for shifting AND RELEASJNG TENSION IN THE LEFT HAND AND ARM Polish the String Description Slide the fingers short distance while lightly touching the string Purpose Trains vibrato action FLEXERCESES tum in with notebook Right Hand Arm i Name 1 Fishing Pole Lines on Ceiling description purpose 2 Windshield Wiper description purpose 3 Cirices on the ceiling description purpose 4 Witches Cauldron description purpose 5 Rocket Ship quotdescription purpose W39OO 4 6 Rock rt Roll description purpose 7 Tubing description purpose 8 Finger Taps description purpose 9 Grasshopper description purpose 10 Thumb Glides description purpose W3900 e 1Hquot L quot L 1 or 4 1 1 Touch Bows description purpose 12 SideWinder description 39 purpose 13 Sleeping Bowhand description purpose 14 Bow Dribble description purpose 15 Make an quotLquot I Stickem Up description purpose Left Hand Arm W 0O 4 V Left Hand Arm 1 Hot Strings description purpose 2 Waving Goodbye description purpose 3 Swinging Gate description purpose 4 Flying Fingers description J purpose 5 Butter ies description purpose W39O0 6 Sirens Whistles description purpose 7 Ski Slides description purpose 8 Polish the String description purpose W O0 39 THE RIGHT HAND ILLUSTRATION 33 Setting the bow near the 39 39 1 middle square POSIEIOH 1tILs raat1oN 34 Setting the bow at the point u mately the middle the exact place varies with the individual player a square is formed Illustration 33 Notice that this right angle in the elbow will form somewhere in every bow arm By straightening up this square which with some players becomes more of an elongated rectangle the player will nd that his shoulder will tend to relax his arm to hang naturally from the shoulder and his wrist to become almost level with his sense do they tell the whole story relative to tone production It is now our purpose to discuss in more detail question this important tacts the string This latter will be termed the rozn39rdz39ng point These three factors are interdependent inasmuch as a change u in any one of them will require a corresponding adaptation in 35 least one of the others How this interdependence works is increase of s eed in the bow deunease 0F preqcuwmrequgeg 513 crease of speed oi stroke wquotF 391 9 Increase of pressure with constant speed of bow stroke re quires the sounding point to move toward the bridge 3 Decrease of pressure with constant speed of bow requires the sounding point to move toward the ngerboard Greater speed with constant pressure requires the sounding point to move toward the ngerboar Slower speed with constant pressure requires a move toward the bridge In the foregoing examples one of the elements is always given as a constant IVhen change occurs iii all three factors a great variety of combinations can result In the followiricr paragraphs each of these factors will be discussed individually 4 THE RIt391 r p H0n39s07ttal Motion of the Upper Arm This is the motion quotfrom left front to right back and return which is common rgthe plain bow stroke especially when the bow is used be gen the frog and the middle A combination of these two motions can result in all varieties if oblique and curved motions which occur in the many types Bf bowings For instance the motion that forms the horizontal bow stroke on the G string will become a mixture of the two when crossing to the E string Apart from all of thesemotions which have their own legiti re places within the technique of the bow arm one en nnters often another rnovement that of raising shrugging ie shoulder This occurs frequently as the bow approaches the i pg Such a movement has 720 place at all in a sound bowing iechniqne In fact it is the evil source of frustrations and dis turbances in the bow arm and for the sake of a healthy bowing Heveloprnent should be eliminated as soon as possible ir rawirzg the Straiglat Bow Stroke The straight bow stroke from frog to tip is the foundation of e entire bowing technique The bow has to be drawn in a Straight line parallel to the bridge for two good reasons One that a crooked bow stroke causes the bow to change promiscu iously its place of contact on the string and to vary at random its distance from the bridge The second reason is that a crooked gbow stroke impairs the quality of the sound See also page The chief problem in the straight bow stroke is to be found the fact that action in the form of a straight line does not come naturally to the members of the human body The bend jing of the joint causes circular motion to take place as was said before This being the case a straight line can result only through the well coordinated combination of circular motions This fact alone explains why it is that beginners as well as many players who are a good way past the beginning stages of study have such great difficulty in drawing a straight bow with 6336 and assurance THE THREE STAGES OF THE STROKE TRIANGLE souaan AND iPOINT There are three distinct stages of the wholebow stroke 391 When the bow is set on the strings at the very frog a t3 13I1gle 13 formed by the arm and instrument as shown in lllus 39LUSRAoN 33 Setting of the how 5 W U011 32 2 VV hen the bow is set on the string at 21ppI39OXl frog triangle position Abl 1ai Q Playing Position for ViolinViola WWwviolinon1inecom by Dr Robin Kay Deverich t See to eld the Viotte tftoltn Placement e The viotln is held horizontally parallel with the floor and is angled to the ieft of a straight forward position a Place the violin on your left collar bone some violinists prefer the soft spot just behind the ootlar bone and rest the left side of your jaw on the chin rest a Many violinlsts find shoulder rests helpful to hold up the violin and there are a variety of shoulder rests available a Some violinists use round mallte up sponges attached with rubber bands and others use shoulder rests that feel most comfortable to them Left ttend Tips a The elbow should be under the center of the violin a Keep the wrist gently rounded 9 Avoid resting the wrist against the violin neck a The thumb should be opposite the first or second finger e Mainta n a curved open space between the thumb and index nger a backwards quotCquot Posts re a When standing stand straight with feet shoutder width apart and with relaxed knees all Some violiaists recommend sliding the left foot sltghtly forward a When seated use a chair with a firm base and sit up straight soft sofas aren t recommended a Some viol nists sit towards the front of the chair and prefer placing the left foot slightly forward i ge t J P s st was r N oeamew 4 we ing the bow close to the fingerboard Relax hand slightly tum wrist to the left and let the fingers drop into place e The tip of the bent thumb touches the frog contact point Fingers gentty curve over the top of the bow stick tnger is opposite from the thumb Good tone quality is achieved through proper bow placement bow speed and bow pressure a Slightly tilt the wood of the bow towards the fingerboard a Place the bow on the string at the middle point between the bridge and the fingerboard S n T es Q m f e la b M M b m e I t e g n T e O 9 9 9 e Draw the bow in a straight line so the bow remains parallei to the bridge a Loud sounds can be achieved with heavy bow pressure and by drawing the bow close to the br a Soft sounds can be achieved with light bow pressure and by draw 9 Keep the level of the arm and bow constant while playing on different strings M o H W o 2 beta Etoid Tips 3 ea etacement String Pedagogy Notebook Page 1 of 5 Teaching students to tune their own instruments is one of the most important things we do The process of learning to tune a string instrument within an ensemble takes place over a period of years and happens in several stages however so the teacher must be patient in Stage i the students are beginners so the teacher must tune all the instruments This process can use up valuable instructional time it not done efficiently tise ot Fine Tuners The teacher of beginning strings should make sure ALL vioiins Violas and celios are equipped with ne tuners on ALL FOUR STRINGS As students become more sophisticated and start to use better strings and buy better instruments they can remove the fine tuners but at the beginning they save huge amounts of time in addition to the money they save by avoiding lots of broken strings Tips s Get students involved in the process a Whenever possible do not take the instrument away from the student Have them play while you turn the pegs or fine tuners s ln an orchestra setting tune the low instruments first basses cellos Violas then violins e Once a student is in tune they can become your assistant by asking them to pluck the quotA or the quotDquot for you Students will quickly team the names of the strings When students have the strength developed to play tong bows you can use the tuning time as an opportunity to focus their attention on tone and extending the bow stroke s Make sure you give them a chance to rest if the tuning process goes on for a few minutes 5 httpwwwpvmeduhmhopkinsfstringmusicianshiptuning01 html 772006 String Pedagogy Notebook Page 2 of 5 When students can bow and have control over the change from up bow to down how they are ready for Stage 2 Timing Games There are many activities to prepare the ear for the act of tuning Higher and Lower Game You play your A string Ask a student to play his A string is his A higher or lower Ask different people in the class Match Pitch Play a note on your D string Ask the class to match the pitch Open String Song Start on High E string and play down open strings E ADG C Start on C and go back up Get students used to hearing the descending and ascending pattern of 5ths Basses ascend while others descend Sing the Other String Once instruments are tuned have everyone play their A strings Stop them quickly with a outoff gesture Ask them to sing him a D You may be pleasantly surprised or bitterly disappointed but if you keep at it they will be able to this and it wit help 1 variation on this activity is to have them play the A string while they sing hum the D string Repeat this process with all 4 strings Students will need to do an octave displacement of some strings to accommodate their vocal range kind the Toner Teach the violins and Violas how to reach under their right arm with their left arm to reach the fine tuners Show the celios how to lean their instrument to the side and reach around with their iett arm to reach the fine tuners Warning The rst time students try to tune their own instruments it may take awhile Be patient You are investing in a skill that will save you an enormous amount of time once students have developed the ability to tone Going in and Out of Time Start with all the instruments in tune While class iistens tune your A string down make the pitch at but not too much Have the class imitate and try to match your pitch Then turn on an electronic A or play on the piano and tone yoLirA string back up until back in tune Then ask the class to do the same Journey to the Center of the Pitch Ask the class to play a stopped pitch for example E on the D string Use your arms to indicate sharp or flat If you hold your arms together on the same vertical plane than students should play in tune Wiggle your arms around this indicates to piay out of time Then bring your arms back into the same plane cue to play in tune You can get very creative with this game For example have the low strings do what you show in the right arm while the high strings follow the left arm Bring your left arm up high strings go sharp Bring right arm down low strings go flat Bring your arms back together everyone moves back to the center of the original pitch SI httpwwwuvmedurnhopkinsstringmusicianshiptuningO1 htm1 772006 String Pedagogy Notebook Page 3 of 5 In Stage 2 students focused on matching pitch hearing the distinction between higher and lower ieaming how to manipulate tine toners arid hearing the melodic Perfect 5th intervals between their strings 4ths for bass in stage 3 these skilis are placed into a functional toning routine for orchestra based on harmonic and melodic perfect 5ths Hearihg Perfect 5ths Students need to get used to hearing 5ths harmohicaily as well as meiodically The quotSing the other stringquot game from stage 2 gets students to hear a harmonic 5th Other activities Open string double stop sohg Piay E X then AD theh DG then GC hot so great on bass lths so have basses playjust the lower pitch lquotiddling tunes can be accompanied using open string double stops We are at the point where we can try having everyone tone their own instruments Fading one sttiog at a time ihdiyidoatiy listehiog to the harmonic Eths across the orchestra Step 1 Start with the double basses Get the first hassisfs A in time When that student is in tune they keep playing while you ask the second bassist to QUIETLY play his A Get the second player to adjust until in tune with the first player Repeat this until the entire bass sectioi is in tune Step 2 All Basses play their A and sustain it Tell themif they get tired to rest for a few seconds but the rule is you cant rest while the person next to you is resting Step 3 First stand cellist plays A and adjusts to the passes When the first cellist is in tone they keep playing while you ask the second cellist to QUlETiY play his A Repeat until the entire ceilo section is in tune Always add ONE person at a time NOTE Tuning should be done upbow at the tip Quietly Encourage students to tune quickly and insist that they bow their string and tum the fine tuner at the same time so they can tell when they are in tone Step 4 Repeat this process with the Violas and violins Always adding to the sound always playing softiy Effective timing is never done at a loud dynamic Step 5 Congratulations The A strings are how in time Have the first bassist go to D while everyone eise sustains A Gradually add the D strings until everyone is playing a D important Students should sustain A until they go to D and time D 2 httpWwwuvmedumhopkinsstringmusicianshiptuningO1 html 7 72006 String Pedagogy Notebook Page 4 of 5 Repeat with ali strings going in this order AD GC E To time the E string first have everyone play an A then have the violins time their E strings one at a time until everyone is in tone The rst time you do this complete tuning process it may take 20 30 even 40 minutes depending on the size of your orchestra Each time you do it however it wiil take less and fess time until it can be done in about 5 minutes Do this everydayitl Make it part of the routine in Stage 3 students tuned one string at a time ihdividualiy listening to the harmonic 5ths across the orchestra lh Stage 4 students tune in sections Unison toning in sections iistening to the harmonic oths across the orchestra 1 Follow the same process as in Stage 3 to get everyohes A strings in tone 2 Basses play D let ALL THE BrXSSlSTS TUNE D STRINGS AT THE SAME TIME while other sections sustain the A 3 When basses are in tune to D have the other instruments one section at a time tune their E strings 4 Repeat this process for all the strings Toning in sections in Sths 1 Get everyohe s A strings in tune 2 Get Basses D string in tone 3 While the basses sustain their D strings have the celios check their D strings with their own A strings double stops Repeat for viola and violin sections Encourage students to play softly Playing double stops can get food The hig moment Teaching the basses to time with harmonics The double bass is tuned really tuned with unison harmonics Here s how to do it at Play up the D string D E FG A all on the D string Use ngering 0 i414 e lhstead of pressing down 4th nger on the note A just touch it This will produce a harmonic A one octave higher than the stopped A The harmonic A is A 440 the same as open violin string or the A the oboe sounds You may have to adjust your finger around 73 httpwWwuvmedufrwmhopkinsstringmusicianshiptuning01 html 7 72006 String Pedagogy Notebook Page 5 of 5 on the harmonic to find the quotsweet spotquot where the harmonic really projects e Keeping your hand in the same position touch lst finger to the A string This should produce the same harmonic A as the one your 4th finger just played on the D string the exact same pitch it it is sharp or flat adjust the tuner for the A string until it is in tune e To really get it in time go the same direction with bow on both harmonics slur and keep the speed and pressure steady Balance the Bass See Sequence of Technique for Left Hand so you can quickly reach back and adiost tuners e Once the A string is in time move the left hand over to A string keeping in same position and play 4th finger harmonic on the A string This will produce the pitch E Play 1st finger harmonic on the E string Adjust E string tuner until in tone e Move hand all the way over to the 6 string keeping in same position Play 4th nger harmonic on the 3 string This will produce the pitch D Play tst finger harmonic on the D string Adjtist G string tuner until in time Note G string tuner not D string tuner We tuned the D string already Have concertmaster play open A string Let the passes time first Let them tune ALL of their strings using unison harmonics Concertmaster piays another open A Cellos and Violas tune their A strings When you feel satisfied with the quality of the A strings let them check their other open strings D A GD O G check AD again Concertrnaster piays another open A Violins tune their A strings then check other strings AD DG A E Concertmaster plays one A for the basses another A for all the other strings Toning takes about one minute Everyone is happy and in tune Sometimes students will get sloppy and loud in their toning and you will need to revert them back to Stage 4 or Stage 5 Pedaoooicai Information i The Instruments I Developing Mosicianship I Books and Information Home Copyright 19962006 tvtichaei Hopkins Ali Rights Reserved 54 httpwwwuvmedumhopkinsstringmusicianshiptuning01 htm1 772006 Suzuki Violin Lesson with Helen Higa 72906 Recommended Books Step by Step by Kerstin Wartberg with CD accompaniment Vol 1A 1B 2 A 213 vibrato illustration DVD Vibrato from the Ground Up by Joseph Karninsky Suzuki Twinkle Bow small bow ex panda power Karnimoto Strings Twinkle little stars prep play with CDs Start in the middle of the bow 90 degree angle trom elbow Ex Mississippi River forearm stroke Important rule coordination Always left hand first then right hand bow Sound Production magnet analogy the bow and the strings of the violin Bow stays closed contact to the strings the whole time Always listen to the sound quality Introduce the string crossing by maintaining the same string angle from E string to A string A to D D to G E to G Panda power trick pretend pulling the bow from left hand using the left thumb and picky String crossing Use the whole arms G string parallel with the oor Use Colle to teach power of the tip Suzuki s analogy of loss tip bow power Repetition is the key to perfect music for children I ll 0 quotL493 Lt 11quot S9S1 11327 NUILVIUS PERF STUDIES ID 8439467286553 PS2 X 4 FF 339aN FF F3953555 quot39Ew 11oLV gppgg m LL S mIN r5 VI1 433322 2 cgtLI12 2333 1391 139lcgm a L12223393 3gt w 33 2392 o0 lot 5 452 O L quot3 A sm ppgamp 1a max Wrrerw 439 E9 51 quot39 U53 Fmzseamss Haws 53 5ma V 6 odzzt 5395 3 I quotquotquot In P I 5pEcqto P ST lt TC V5 t 139lMc VJARLANTS use IL39TH ALL Pmreems cw Au Svezw D Q 391 393939 3quot 5e fc J quot7 11399S339E1 1128 NU MUS PERF STUDIES w ID8f3974572853 F P38 APRYTC LL STRWGS 3334M 4 3322 2 HM I g Q 5 R 416 Vmezams 3quot quot WE 5 W u ENG Music 151 Project 1 Check List for Self Evaluation Video 39 R Name p y How was your body Posture Was your elbow up Were you hunched over your instruruent 4 2 Are you using a proper bow grip Thumb bent How was your pinkie position 3 Are you bowing with full range of motion Ex Using your elbow arm and wrist 4 When you were out of tune did you adjust your left hand position to play in tune with the piano What were your tendencies Sharp or at 39 39 V 5 What could you do to iu3proye39 the quality of your sound Ex Bow speed contact pointand pressure 6 Were you using the sll length of your bow 7 Did you use the most convenient ngering for notes W t Wereyou followingthey m of the written musicProper bowings y bow and bow 9 Did you keep a consistent tempo 10 Were you having lo Were you playing with feelings and energy V a F Music 15 1 Name Posture I ilsayour left shoulder well under the violin Yes No 9 Is the le comer of your chin in the chinrest so that you are looking straight down the st ngs Yes IS the violiritil ted slightly to the right Yes Istheyiolin parallel towthe oor Yes a Are tlie fo1ioteisg is line39Nose strings left elbow left foot Y sm No Right Hand No No 1quot 3 pz on the stick against the comer of thcfrog Is the thsslbbestt o the thu1Iib oppositethe second nger s s Isthe fourth nger curved and on the top of the stick R S Y Yes No Yes No u Yes 0A g No Yes No ua ona 9quot it of the first joint Yes i w 0 9 1 t Pz tip z itsiaindgle correct apeyauagplaee joint ofthe thumb on the neck v P v w c to the first ngers 2 u J o393n gt s 5 z z isquot V P p p x y aux 7 Eur 139 quot9 quotg 39 5 v ads as gt v Ts y c figerboardts 0Vt a Iscethelle tharid collapsed o rii1 an opien palmil po sition 6 Correct nger placement correct Pitch 3939rW MM o z 4 r r b 1 3I gtr5 39 9 2 X 4 921 1ae Gm j t o r 5 p s p b i M j Jf W539392 V 1 9 V3 msE quot 39 21 V 3 5aagt 39 w ml z I 39 c c h Il z 39 z h D 0 5 n 7 f p j yj 0 p h i quot Rk rl g 1 Yes No v Curved ngers LH the ngertips placed on the strings Yeswm No tt te ett exettteg t ttte te be e ettteg teeehet We ere tietttg it eta ege where tttete is e gteteteg eteetetzeee eteeeg ttte tzeeete tee et the treeettettee et ttteeteet ttetetttg te etztte eezzeteetttettt te tee etee et 8t3 quottQl tj 33 tttete te ttteteeetttg etzieeeee thet ttttteteet teteet is eet e eeeetet gttt tttet Gtquott quot 39 e tee tteee eet tettzet en eeeeet et ttemee tetetttgeeee tts 39tt3t ett eeeete tteee te eettze ttegtee ttftueteet tetettt ttee tetettt te etetty eeeete tseeeeee it e ttet detzeteeed et ttze eteeet ttete e ettttetteee it the etee et eteegs eeueetete t lte Sezett eee Ret eee ttetze eetttettstteted ttzet eti ehtietett ttetze ttteeteei t tt ftt this tetetzt etteeie tee eeeelepee et eta eettgz ege eect tttet eeeeete et etttttg etlegteg eeetz ee tttteeettetz eett etetete eee ee teegttt etteetteefgr ttt greet etze etteete teeeeteg etteettette t etetteeetetje ttezttttg tee eeeegegteet ktteezteege te ee y ette geteee et ttte eezete quotte ee ett etteetttse teeettet ette meet ttet eeiy tetete tx t tt i tit te teeett teet etee tt tftf te eeeteeetz teeeetttg ttte ettet te tttmtee eetege quottee teeetzteg eteeeee ttee eetzetet eteeet eee eteeg ttte ere tttete ete eettetet eeeetteee tee etteetet eett eeteettzee ee teeettete o What am I going to teach Curriculum o How am I going to teach it Lesson Planning Pedagogy o How will l know when we taught it Assessment o How can l teach it better next time Reflection SelfAssessment Improvement Entering ttte e teeehitzg e tuet ett xehete eee eees net eek ALE et these eeeettens wit meet littety teeett rt e eteetteewe it the teeettteg ereeees tr any ceee ettheet eekteg the test tee eeeettees the teaching ett be eheteetetizee by gett tzg 33quot ttyteg by the eeet et greet petttei quot e ttg tquott it eta it otte eeee mt esk the ttttte eeeetten there e ee wet to know if the teeettteg is ttety etteetiaze eett g the teerth eeesttee e ttze key te staying ee eet treat em enthesiaette eeeet teeehieg Every teeettet see became e mete etteettxze teeehet it e teeehet eees tzet eete tt they ere etteettaze or met it ts ttttte te eeetlt enetttet pteteeetee e ei e iieeeiee H Wiiei ere tine eitereozienetiee ei efieetiee ieeoiiere o Enthusiastic Warm Positive phrasing a Make eye contact while delivering content a Know students names and background information a Relate to sensitive to students needs and interests o Anticipate events in the classroom a Love working with students a Organized in planning curriculum and objectives a Know how to pace a class a Deliver information in a concise and clear manner a High awareness monitoring of students behavior and response to teaching initiatives e Always in control yet know how to access the full range of their emotions quotiquot39ne meet ei ieetiie 8tquotiquotii eernbiee titeee enereeierietiee eiiige etiorig iineeieege ei eeeieei meitez and nigii ieeei ei meeieieeeieie Eiieetixze ieeeneie geiee ine eiiidexni ite eiei e eiogreee ijiiieieteiy ine iteeenei eeeiie e eeii diiectee ieeeenee iiem ine eteeeni An eiieetiee ieeeiiei will teeeb tneineeieee eet ei e gee p e if i e e ee gee J w 2amp i 5 w z 4 e egg i G Eiieeiiaiie iteeeeere neee e eeee quotio iineiiquot teeening inie ie eeeeeieiiy in 2eeeeei in e eieeereein teeming eiieeiien fie re ie eeee e eieee ieeieee e Use of the voice a Modeling or Rote teaching l play then you play o Predictable routine a Media such as background tapes CDs or Accompaniment Software in ieneereeie belenoing the ieneereei between pieying end iieiening ie very impeeent iiere eie a tee exerneiee feet ezreaia irzaeee en easing e Too much iaik earn the podiem a Strange eeienee between teik end pieying ie the eendeeter ezno keeps eetting the oreneetie eii eitei 2 bere end iiiee taiee ioiquot 2 minutes The ieeener meet Gii ii Qi ine eeee ei the eieee The eieee ewe eegin pieznetigz with an iniereeting zearrnee eetieity which eziii teed inte the eedy oi the ieeeen Excessive teeone teik ei tee eeginning et rehearse eziii stew the pace Quring tire body ei tee iessea the teaeiier siioaia P t nee eencepis and ideas quotthe pace ariii sine eaten during these aetivities iiie teaener sneuia teen isegin seeeaing an the eace as the ena ei tire eiaes aeereacides ihe and ei tide ciass sireuici inciade serne tyne at activity that eerie tine ciass en a iiiga energy ieeei res eriii iniiuence the attitudes oi the students as iiie cerne is ciass the next day There are three modes for the delivery of information in the classroom They are NonVerbal CoVerbal and Verbal eee aereei Nonverbal teaching is the most effective with beginners to present musical information modeling and demonstration yet teacher must monitor closely and be willing to use verbal interventions when necessary for clarification purposes This is by far the best method for assessing correct student responses iiewaereai Including brief verbal descriptions in the teaching process is referred to as co verbal delivery Coverbal is also effective as long as the verbiage used is necessary to clarify Excessive verbiage in this delivery mode tends to confuse or distract students and is often completely unnecessary Often the excess talking by the teacher is just being used to buy time to think itierisai The least effective teaching strategy is the pure verbal approach In music verbal instruction at any level takes most amount of time is the hardest to control pacing presents the least amount of musical information and it is often impossible to assess if students are ontask or off task When students are actnreiy eariicieaiing in the rehearsai tiirough eiaying singing i39i i ii i iistening etc students are cntask Ween students are net paying attention taiieng unreiaied te ciassveoriti er disrueiing ether students they are ofiwtask it is eossible te run a step viratch on a class You vviii find that in music ciasses where the teacher spenes s Eat at time iaiaing the students eriii eiien have eeharrrer ereeierns rnsraie ereeierrrs and tree ereeeat rate reel be rage eesaese the stedents seend meet at tne r tires eitwrask E sees eesenred a sredent teaener and see trees at tree erase area the staeents spent staying their nstreezertts Bering the first 28 rninetes at the class the stadents spent a tetal at 2 rniaetes e ayingt f seurse the staeieet teasner eras sen eeset after rehearsai sernelaining ease the students eenazeer l exetainee ts ner that the reasee tees are seine ss disreetirre is eesaase nay are ettwtask and eeeerne bered ans d straeted when teas are net actively eart sieating in the renearsat asked her a srrnpie eeestien r ezrr mash tirne ear yea eaeect arr err grader ts sit still ans de netn ng arittr an instrernent in their bane esters tney start te bescrne bares distracted and disreet eei She answered Z rninrtesquot t teen era her she snseld else her rehearsa s as that neeedgr staes el eieg fer rears than tare minutes in the afseve exameie are knee meet at the steeients sseet aeeet i9 at the tires enwtasis The rest at the time are sirnery dent trees it they were entasilt er net We denft knew it they were f stening ts er39iat ne teaener was saying easing air students eretas r ESQQ er the tires is the great if a teaener ean ireee er their stadents antas lt fer at teas 85 et tee erase tee etass erirl generatly ee etisetrare and there erili ee fee elassreern reanagentent ereeieres there are ntany ways is insetas stadents ie ret e arsa sea trees tnerrr earaslr ern e they are est eiay ne tneir instruments easing students was are resting ta listen ta the arle ins eiay tn s eassage is feetter than ignering trrern white they are resting Ass thern ts e raate tneir eeers eerferrnanee tare tee rr eiins elagr ng ieud erzeegn are tee rrens in tens Are tney rnytern ealle tegeteer Ef deetaee yeerse t teaching a erase er eendecting a renearsal Gaunt new reuse tires the steeents seend etaying eent nee reset time gee seend tatieng increasing the areoent at eiay rrg tirne in renearsai is a sirneie and effective way ta reeuse ciassreern management ereelerns when yea step the students tc erstriae instrectisng try these strategies is increase en taslr eenatrisr o Modeland demonstrate for students by playing your primary instrument a Demonstrate on a secondary instrument a Use your singing voice if an instrument is not available a Ask an advanced student to demonstrate a Play a recording a Fix one problem then have everyone play again a Instead of always rehearsing just one section alone combine two or three sections they can hear how their parts fit with other instruments and you have three times as many students ontask e Ask individual students questions about the music Avoid asking questions to the entire ensemble Er ifac azce rgaw csrsaspis afie quot g waziez x 9 am szzipp riimg maicafiai quot a3r axamg ea if gm age ga ng 0 niradzme ssg csaim bgzaz sagg bag se zzaxii 3 rwievg 9 mass m d de gsfz 3523 mafiei bssss g s zimd1ae ma new cmztep at a iirrze if yam am iz irema ng sp caaia bewirzg aw sz squotdLzc 392g 3 new 53 iwasz achnique 3 wsa sam iima Break the camepi mazn rz e gm mmpaneni ga s Far axamg a sga ccaia f EfQ E33 a clt 2im e 3 3i quot2G8 SQ gzacf ce in mst 3 2 g 5 8 me we iuieriai 0 a rc uc ng sgiccais bafeie s39zr 2 g ay we arzi fe msaage azg ag sgiccgam smswsg Ef there a i c m c3 pm am 523 gaasagaae 3 quot 39 5E Wm is gassing iha mizbiem am fy 3 smla a the agga fia lt mxzaizfed 18 39 g e 2g a 2 z quotz ma2 g am 1 aiquot quoti iquot 3amp gsmb ems can be mse m e E Q quot 39seai c 5 m am effeciizze amamp 3i 392 Gf en a musiaai pmmem aasmad my 3 eltzquotsa 39quotlt3 ss r Mara we 92333 X8 39 quot 8 I Pam inierza im caasad g a ma fi geriizg g am ssh fi 3 bad Ea ham Q J quot andias fir ger mam Pass fame p xrasir g aw yzwamiag mzggea 3 ma mam a bawirsg quotfhe sfgmgrnicm is ihe ad mzgsiazgi i d quot quot zsz sa a ma m e 5 ieac ai arzs w addreasas wages zzsiead af sy39 p ltgt39rs 3 aa aazsai mi g E f 39 mage zlt ltas i quot ealt 2 zg is 3 g v and ake grzsscess 83 elt e am 553 ms i 39 quot 3 E amp 3 W 5 quot5 Praciiaing s se 2 drec ed iearn zzg Many teachers emphasize me mparimcg Q fine QUN39 quot quotY of time 3 sizasdeni spends f quotg ziany pr vaie teachers axpecf heir siazdersis ta p alt2 lte me or mm hltgt2r gar jay G mare if 3 student names for an how lessen arses my week 318 mi be sgerzding quotE is 4 hears in 91direciad ieam zg fa every hem spam with has feas aey Omxiwsiy ii is criticai ta spend iesson ime teaching siu erajfs HOW is pquotac tEsa Ail a her ihirags being aqua ii is me QUALITY sf wasting ai me that mi dampe39m r2a sagccesw at aarrz rzg 3 mus aai rsi umenf ii is may i0 ask yam beginning siu ez is is 53quot pmci ca amne Lmiif gas ba iezze may Ezaaza 3 ey ab ished iscfmisai fezmda iwz and are awe is with aren39ia asrtisiama agsasme ihe z e m b iiy fa se irectaci ieamirzg Yea ME new fa ieach le s udeni ar 38 amp 3 mw in M19 ne ns rumeni bafsre gm can assuma 33 323 maanfngfui graizi ce wiii semi away frem re Qesam E30 i gtamp quot i ii is E6 2i 3i iii iai an quotE ltr Z3 quot 3 lt sm maciim yam asa za quote ham C f39 gm quot39 3 E hem is gzac azta s3e 5 quote bag smirzg sf eas z quot3 Clt i sess m 3i 3 fag w af iem e mud 2quot 9 aways siari ng rem ms miism C1 lt g inimmffmz with 2 Z 28f E sgiriyzgs W wih 9 wii eui xiibfaic fquotai mwn 3 e use a fhaf am ihe mzs lta Q j L z 9 scaie mac ica Ewe iniarsa iaiz 3amp3 3quot ma Eesgan mach siudmis w z mg2 ih if music fa fir gemg aaaszx ng gig nsiead G a yagays masquotmg ii fa mam Y ach imam how Ea ih n q mi m iy abmzi amaa ng a gmd fiz gar ng am Equot i it a mrszzs 85 they quot ampgtlt quot Z lte graci m i me Effisziam maciice hams msi be iiaz ghi Eizzmg the assm xzzzs ia swr mzizai gym amt yms gizsdamia is Qrazzi ce am ms yaw war ham fa pygc m ii quot quot e f f am yaw p ltxg e w heip yaw s az eizia e E ihey practice ai mama 36 ff e39z atmarzis practice 3amp5 s amp 2mie am fafiaw ng 1 3 geizc i is mgrk mieg an quot am bgwing Er t xa i mama 33 Em graa icg 2 A maimname 3 gfazf gi p icia ea as 39s gm 3 gt 32 z zeimzquot20 a am gtg quotaquot lt ltaquot gt2a quot gig zit if izm amefma iy 3 asggii 5 39 Gi f 3 ihay ms stwy i zeig bmxr ag gasiasra as Eefi Z 3 E 2E quotSka slt3f e mam s sazgm 39 e 39392quotquot d s i cti fzg S udasm s aag d haw 3 33amp quot m i e mm ltir3lt 5 GE 93 m39 3 haw Ewary 233 2 giaz gai af mz fake 3 2 iquot ii amp break ta 3 any iags zers aasc azzage iha r simaa s m image 3 aigatm ng rauiiae bafara i my giaciica S e s z rzg magmas rgwziaasas iansian am can presiaixi rzjazry s mmg a E amp a fm gar ae a amp g gg m E Pareni hams siuder i tum me instrument and makes giire ne bean hair is tightened rmin is appiied 8SS3 f and he siwu der ms is aiiache ccrreciiy 2 Parent h 73 have 39 e afudersf Wings iaairumen irsia msii m see mfariel Parsrzi hands haw 9 stazdm 3 am mw 2quot tquot ng3 am c39aeltlt mars mid 4 Bezazing gract sze an apex szyirzgg teacher shmiid assign spacific rhythms ta practice Praci ce ii achiave 5 gsm time and cm aziicuiaiim ay w ih a fasii Ewe fam 53 P a g Camp 8 quots im quot2iquot z 3 am ms Q tquot S E graiti aza Pmci ca ii b a hiaxze ggssd ir a ai as ltquot2esElt gs tah sxzi z mi3 m ssgsgg gem ism am 3 amp i sua m ag with a ms ias e fem 1 Pma ae re2g y asaigned piece J sf 2ezquot aafn izg 3 253122 giace a i afar at ihe bag mz rzg sf 3 piacg am may G g 59 iha end Emiead iaka ize mam phrase by ghzase Praciiaa Em s3 z phrase amii gram ear amp E in fumes ms i s a gem smmd exmesaive y w ia gii marke d 2 2a392 2c3 g gke magic mi 37 we firs p z ae T quot E ieam zine secenei pizraw Xfaf wen mi p msa seams as gaad as the f rsi gag mm agaihef and make ii musica Yaaz w i iaarrz the giace faaiaa and a 3 quot yea g get is im em ma er iize wage mi mgiy be eamad 17 Praci sa am 33 p ew iaained 92 mview irzsiea lt3 giar izzg a he Eegirzn ng am pmgxiizg fhraugh m we em mg giari fzg 3 lt eaz3 yaw every ay E33 mm aim mIfmzay 1msgz gfgiagz far 8 3 3 2313 9 i sg gmi af 3 325 rms wing is make ii e er gash me Be cri aa lt32 yam mm p ayirag amps lt gxauzsaif Wm cm E is it m lte ihis gswua s S iid efier 2c zz e by g aying Em Qiace ihf g fmm egr2392 z g 9 end 8 Cc r Em gcaraci ce aaa mz 3 piagxirgg 3 p asag yam kasw aigaif fmm me 3 i ii iha ea 11 vzsii eag quot G I pra er gzg f is 3 Q f39 I3 C cze ymzrse f as ci gpeazi a few s39 ma gs ng back we my lt m3 3 gm 323 r ffizraz iy wiih 0 3 j z F aim B5 g sga Ba lt de s ghai yam zar grac ae m aag mi ywz gmig we afere gm egia ymgr amp E 2 quot as s 2 J3quota s2 raia ted is wag T quot i C gtamp S fa agz ii quot39 quotamp i nm zge mama az mgg sa a iag as m2 13 Sf 39 quot g g3 cfr 523 mga va gt quot a piaeca 352 a ead Eltma zzaga 3 3 2s 9 quot a afg 4 R waz may samaih ng gmqltmxn am iike 9 may far m When 3 quot quot 3 quotew Q ece as star at m egimirzg 9 a piece and may iftfwgfz m m end msiegd ia ie the esa Qixraga by 7 a3 3rac ca ne fiisi gmage zgrfi f was ms may i in iazrze wiih a gmd mr exmessiezeiy w ih 331 mgr aed yzames Mam music mg 9 ihs firs quoti 3E gt Sher Ema me secersd phrase Wh that h asa seams as good as im f rg put mam iageiher and mam it muacaf ms w ii Eeam the mace fasias arz vman yau da gei is the end ffhe entire piazza w i m iy be ieamed Amiher effac xze strategy wmr ieamirzg a aw g ace is is mg zz by Ieamirzg he mas eshiz caiiy diffiw i pa3ages in ihe eil zm if iizey are magieredg than eam the ms 0quot firm Qi S prefer ag term classmom mmagemam ta sc giine because if we s an effeciiva ciaggmam mmagarg d c p2i a gamb ems 32555 rarefy ltltz Q z quotS they eziit eaeeee bet eatt ei etteetiee eiaeeteetn eteeageteeet ie itneteieg ttee te aetieieete and deei with eeteettei eteeietes betete they get eet et hand tee eejgte te etteettee eteeeeeeee teeeeeeteeet o Gain students respect through demonstration of musicianship o Have an established classroom routine o Use effective pacing o Energy cune especially ending on high energy so students will come back the next day with a positive attitude o Delivery proportion of teacher talk small 15 or less a Use of strategies for keeping all of students on task all the time a Know the students names o Make eye Contactlook at them and what they are doing o Monitoring get your head out of the score Don t do something that you could get fired for etete tee eeee etttttg ttietetieeiiy ttze meet eetneiee eeeteeeh ie te beget tteet tee eeee ettittgs ie titet eeeittett aed add eae tieget e titae eetii eit tee ttegete ete pieced g gteae teettteae tee titet ettieg ti ti iquotquot 39ttt ie tzetietiy a ettieg tttat te e etitrieiie ettittg tet eti tee inettmneete tie it ettiee Saee tee etaeettteet et the tiegete nee eeee ieateett ee eee ettittg tee etttet ettiege ate iettedeeee amp X 3 3 Vise ie5it iieiteectito lilam ie Ewe As yet can see the ptepiem tet the greets teaottet ie that te stay in first eesitiee the Detsele Beseee meet image to tee next ettieg te may the mete quotGquot The eeiies must tneve te the text etting fer the e it yet exemine eegienieg elaeeteete tnethed beaks yea seiii tine tttet the euthete eeteetintes delay the eiaeemeet et the vieiin eed vieia etti tinge its the eeeit ee the eieiitte tzielaeg awe ceiiee een at eiey the A epen The detteie bees ie seteetimes eteaeeted with the epen 3 etting 3 P4 teeter in eiteh thee the 8 rather thee eiayieg tee A with iet finger en the G etting Rateiyg it eater ee yea tine e ereseetetiee where tee aetnete aeit the eeiiee gt 1 I I i 5 4 3 Il I L1 1114 I r pB atl u1 lHn 1 n TI I 3 Ls 39lii39l 9 L Q u Place the mme of tag stringsinpromror T 39 V over the appropriate bridge Gfrcm flaj r gter39fe W gt Placenoiationonmesta of I Pj 391 1 theopen stringsforeach f0 Q 39 instrument quot in 39gt 1 rEm rsjrch P u 39 39 39 39e1 L R c 1QquotD Vlcui fs F rsfccfrvg Vi0ii A D 3 395 pW 39 E I5 2 4 I Ir if I it ll 11 1 E 33 I 5 ca 1 4 W 54 was 2 Ce K5 3 Z X an Q rg x rg w Qu w w 0 a i a15 391 quot14wnIunhI0ltIltI quotquot 4 ugun u n39v I 1 L a L 1 z 11 x 1 h IA1Iq iIrILF u M u 1 Q 1 n n r u 1 i a 11 l W sI ca nh uahunnrIa M 3 a u 1 um I lrluhxn M rs I ru 4 I 1 IzIl 3u ltlzl1 EH 1oWrmmnA w 1 air 7 Hlnlnu1 alas I u 4 c I c I wars s r 4 7 d C 3 o I 5 W rquotrquotquotquot quot39 quot D 04 E us cJ r C fquot3ru mass in SIC quot 39quot C pC 5 nrrquotS3wquot39 2c 2 9 quot24 rrr r rltquotgt Pgt 1 ever n he ap JTGP lt 9 1 1533 ECTEECH on EI L quot quotquot quotquotu a the ccen squotr 3 fox aacn I I x1 1 r 1 et 393939 quot L sf r U3f HTquot3 ifs vii A m L z 5 rs x 3 quotc39 quot39fquoty3 54 4 39 quot39 V i E if s39 3939393939quot39 39 violin I J F f I a D853 5 V Holding the Instrument Figure 36 legs crossed It interferes with proper bow movement and body balance See Fig 36 VIOLONCELLO To acquire the proper playing position for the cello proceed in the follow ing sequence 1 Select a chair with a straight level seat that will permit the performer to lean forward slightly Avoid chairs that slope backward for example folding chairs 2 Adjust the end pin so that when the instrument is placed between the Steps leading to proper hold knees the upper rim of the cello at the neck block restsagainst wtheta nd balance on the lower player s chest just where the bones of the rib cage part see Figs 3 7 Strings and 38 The corner of the lower bout is in Contact with the left knee while the right knee braces the instrument on the opposite bout as it is tilted slightly to the right see Fig 39 Both feet are generally flat on the floor however tall individuals with long legs may choose to bend the right leg behind them 3 Check that the end pin rests on the floor in a line with the center of the body The scroll should barely clear the student s left shoulder It should not rest on his or her shoulder A good reference point is that the bottom tuning peg is at about the left ear lobe when the head is held erect Be careful that the instrument is only an inch or two from the left side of the player s neck Le hhand position The fingers of the left hand are virtually at right angles with the strings They should be arched with the thumb opposite the sec ond finger The thumb acts as a natural support for the arch of the hand and its tip should be at about the middle of the neck of the cello To find this position use the following sequence 1 Raise the left arm so that it is parallel to the floor with the palm facing down and the fingers and wrist relaxed 2 Bend the elbow bringing the ball of the thumb behind the neck of the instrument and the fingers over the string in an arched position Roll the thumb slightly on its side opposite the second finger to give sup port to the hand 3 Check the following a The elbow and wrist should be in a straight line with the fingers b The thumb should not grip the neck but should form an open C with the second finger see Fig 3 10 Figure 81 0 Holding the Instrument The cello left hand 53 5 4 Early Instruction c The fingers should be in an arched position just over the strings ready to play each note d Since the level of the strings over the fingerboard varies the left elbow and forearm will change level as the hand moves from string to string higher for the lower strings In addition as the hand moves to the lower strings the thumb will also move slightly to the left of the neck of the instrument STRING BASS The perforIner s body should be against the instrument in a manner that will permit the most durable position for bowing with the right hand fin gering the strings with the left hand Neither hand should be favored when establishing position It is of utmost importance that both hands be able to function appropriately without handicaps from inappropriate pos ture Standing position To acquire the proper playing position follow these steps see Figs for the string bass 3 11 312 and 313 The angle of the body in relation to the instrument will depend on whether the student is playing a French or German style bow Figure 8 1 Figure 34 2 Figure 318 Balance the body so that initially the weight is 39gli1i bmt1 ted on both feet Hold the left side of the instrument with the left hand extended straight out in front and center the instrument in fW1 Turn the bass a quarter turn to the right and bring it toward the inside of the player39s left thi h and knee The left foot may be placed on a rung of a chair or stool At the same time turn the left foot at an oblique angle and bend the left knee toward the back of the instrument The back edge of the right bout should rest against the perforrnefs left groin Note that the bass is brought toward the player so that it leans against him In this position it is balanced between the knee the left thigh and the abdomen leaving the left hand completely free The weigh should now be shifted to the right foot Many professionals use a stool when playing as is shown in Figure 314 However students should learn to play standing Once the proper playing position is well established they may use a stool in lengthy rehearsals however when doing so they must employ the same principles learned when standing Incidentally the stool may be useful in teaching vibrato and shifting since it con tributes to a more relaxed left hand Holding the Instrument 5 5 Sitting position when playing the string bass 7 56 Early Instruction Figure 314 4 The nut at the end of the fingerboard should be approximately at the student39s eye level and the right arm should be able to reach comfort ably the proper bowing position This will vary according to the stu dents height and arm length 5 Adjust the end pin on the bass so that it is at the appropriate height for the student Another aid might be when the left hand is in half posi tion it will be approximately opposite the perforrnefs cheek The right arm should be fully extended when drawing the bow across the strings It should be straight but not rigid See Figs 3 l1 and 312 Leftlirmd position The fingers of the left hand are Virtually at right angles with the strings and are slightly arched over the strings in such a way that the fleshy pads of the fingers will fall in place on the strings The inside corner of the thu1nb39isquotquotplac39ed against the neck of the bass opposite the sec ond finger The left elbow is slightly below the hand s level with the first finger acting as an extension of the forearm see Fig 315 The distance be tween the first and second fingers is the equivalent of one half step while the space between the second and fourth fingers is an additional half step P x P x 1 f quotquots if 1 mlr 5 ll 3 l l L 43 435 it it Figure 315 To acquire the proper posture proceed as follows 1 Raise the left arm so that it is parallel to the floor with the palm of the hand down 2 Bend the elbow and without dropping the elbow turn the hand and bring the ball of the thumb behind the neck of the instrument with the tip of the thumb at about the middle of the neck of the bass and the fin gers above the fingerboard 3 Roll the thumb so that the ball rests slightly on its side opposite the sec ond finger 4 Align the fourth finger so that it forms a straight line with the elbow The first finger is pointed upward so that it appears to be aimed at the nose The finger automatically moves down with the fourth finger Note that the thumb does not grip the neck but rests on it opposite the second finger forming an open C Since the level of the strings over the fingerboard varies the left elbow and forearm will change levels as the hand moves from string to string The thumb will also move slightly to the left of the neck of the instrument as the fingers move to the lower strings Holding the Instrument String bass left hand 57 Bowholds for Young Cellists Page 1 of 2 The bow hold a 1 Dip your right hand in an imaginary bucket of water There are no towels you ll have to dry it by shaking off the water Look how your hand is hanging l The space between each nger is the correct spacing for your ngers when you hold your Cello bow Notes When you shake off your hand the ngers fall into the most natural position possible It is important that the fingers on the bow are not stretched too far apart or that they are not too close together this could create tensions in your hand U 2 Pick a juicy strawberry Pretend to pick some imaginary strawberries using the thumb nice and round and the second nger The strawberries are ripe and soft and you are holding them rmly but you are careful not to squash them This is the way you feel when you hold the bow properly Notes Try not to squeeze the bow too tightly with iron ngers but do not hold it too softly so that it might fall over 3 A little help from the left hand When you practise at home and you feel that your hand has slipped out of a good position holding the bow don t try to change it while playing instead stop playing entirely Leave your bow on the string and with the left hand support the bow some place in the upper half Now shake the water from your hand pick a strawberry with your second finger and thumb and try your bow hold again Notes When you shake your hand tilt it slightly to the right so that when you try your bow hold again the little finger will stay on the white dot you have on the frog and will not go too far down away from the dot b 4 OK Guys l Apart from the strawberry picking there is another good way to show how nicely thumb and middle finger go together Without the bow make an quot OKquot sign in the air with the tip of your thumb glued to the firstjoint of the middle finger watch out Your thumb has to be really round and make a nice 0quot shape Notes Our hands are naturally round so if you keep them round your playing will become more flexible and your sound will also become rounder and smoother This OK sign is also good for your left hand around the neck of your Cello httpwwwusersg1oba1netcoukleonidce1lobowho1dhtm 772006 Bowholds for Young Cellists Page 2 of 2 5 The upside down bow hold quite a technical explanation Follow these instructions 1 Make your hand oppy and relaxed with the palm of your hand pointing to the ceiling 2 Your left hand holds the screw at the end of the bow 3 The bow hair points to the ceiling 4 The tip of the bow points to your right 1 First put just your round thumb between the beginning of the heel and the leather the nail should be pointing to the tip 2 Then put your middle finger opposite the thumb on the metal bit 3 Let the other ngers take their natural place next to each other wrapping the bow as it where a Christmas present 4 The last joint of your little nger will be on the white dot you can find on the frog of the bow heel 5 When you feel that it is all nice and round and all in placeCAPSlZE the Bow and you are ready to play i F2 6 Super Glue l When you hold the bow imagine your hand sticky with glue feel your ngers wrapping up the bow without leaving any holes between the wood and the ngers If someone tries to take the bow off you the super glue will not allow it Notes You don t have to squeeze the bow too tightly your ngers are already glued to the bow Send mail to ieonid g obainetcouilt with questions or comments about this web site Copyright 2000 Westbury Park Strings Last modified February 26 2000 8 E httpwwWuscrsg1obalnetcoukleonidcellobowholdhtm 39772006 raorsa was r sramo P 8 A fine string instrument is not made in a day meet in the best playing condition ENTS A Most Important Rule Always keep the instrument in its case when it is not in use REPAIRS Never under any circumstances allow anyone but an expert string instrument repairman to repair your instru ment More ne instruments have been ruined by inexperienced repair men than in any other way Even though the repair needed seams of a minor nature be sure to place your instrr ment in skilled hands TEMPERATURE The instrument should not be subjected to rapid changes in temperature so far as possible When taking the instrument out of doors it should he kept in its case particularly in extremely hot or cold weather Also the instru ment should not be exposed to the hot sun Care should be taken to store the instrument in a place with moderate humid ity away from radiators 39 CLEANING A soft cloth preferably annel should be used to remove the rosin dust from the instrument the strings and from the bow stick after each usage An excessive accumulation of rosin dust on the strings can be removed by lightly scraping the strings with the thumb nail When rosin becomes caked on the instrument or how stick one of several cleaning prepara tions listed in the LEWIS CATALOG may be used for cleaning and polishing Vapor touch the instrument varnish with alcohol Alcohol is a solvent and will damage the varnish on a string instrument beyond recovery W hen extensive cleaning is re quired the instrument should be placed in the hands of an expert repair man THE BRIDGE is normally positioned between the inner Fhole notches and the feet of the bridge are fitted so that the back side nearest the tailpiece is perpendicular to the top of the instrument The pull of the strings constantly forces the bridge to incline toward the ngerboard For this reason the bridge should be checked frequently and returned to the proper position thus minimizing possible warping and even breaking This is best done by grasping the bridge at both upper corners with the thumb and rst nger of each hand while holding the instrument rmly braced and gently forcing the top of the bridge backward to the proper angle To maintain proper adjustment string instruments require bridges of varied height according to the di erent seasons In the summer when the climate is more humid the wood in string instruments expands causing the ngerboard to lower and the arch of the top to increase These conditions require 3 lower bridge in the summer than in the winter when the reverse is true Most players provide themselves with bridges of different height for winter and for summer THE SOUND POST The length tting and position of the sound post require individual adjustment speci cally for each instrument Like the bridge posts of varying lengths may he needed for the instrument from one season to the next If the post is too short the pressure of the strings will in time pull down and warp the top if it is too long either the top or hacl or both may warp or even crack A sound post of im proper length can sometimes be detected by the level of the Fbole wings in relation to the instrument top In any event the tting and adjustment of a sound post should be done by an expert THE BASS BAR like the soundpost has two functions to aid in the ampli cation of tone and to help support the top against the string pressure its proper proportions and place men mean 1 great deal to the toneand general health of the instrument If the tone of your instrument seems to be suffering from some unknown trouble do not allow an inexperienced repair man to lay the fault to the bass bar and proceed to replace it Seek expert advice in every case THE FINCERBOARD even of the very best grade ebony will develop grooves under the strings When this happens it is necessary to have the board planed dressed This must be expertly done so as not to alter the arch of the ngerboard A slight concave dip extending the length of the ngerboard is required for proper string clearance The ngerboard nut should also be checked occasionally and replaced when it has become too deeply grooved STRINGS In general strings are replaced one at a time To replace a complete set of strings remove only one string at a time Start with the two middle strings removing the old one putting on the new and bringing it up to pitch for violin the A then the D then the outside strings violin E and G Caution while tuning the new strings guard against the bridge being pulled forward at the top or the position of the feet being changed By having only one string of the instrument at a time there will be no chance for the sound post to fall Every player will do well to carry a complete set of spare strings for immediate replacement in case a string should break or become false Strings should be stored in such a manner as to preserve their original freshness Metalwound strings are host stored in straight lengths and a special string carrying case listed in the LEVFIS CATALOG provides a simple solution to this problem One small but very important detail involves a frequent check that the string tuners used for metal strings have not been turned down so far as to scratch the top of the iostro merit This also prevents tuning the string properly ARE l LBOW The bow is very delicate and must be protected against falls or bumps keeping it in the case when not in use In shipping only a sturdy wooden box or how case should he used and both the head and the but end should be padded Once the stick of a bow is cracked or broken the desirable playing qnalitiesmbalonce elasticity strengthwcannot be re stored by repair Equally important are the fine adjustments of the tting oi the frog the screw and screweye the slide and the small wedges which hold the ends of the hair Improper fitting of any of these may not only cause damage to the stick but also interfere with the playing qualities of the how The hair expands in hot humid conditions and contracts in dry cold conditions It is important therefore to loosen the tension when putting the bow away or before shipping Never touch the hair with the fingers nor permit oil or grease to touch it 39 Use of the best grade of rosin applied sparingly the full length of the hair is important After applying rosin the excess dust should be wiped off the stick after playing also wipe the stick with 3 soft clean cloth NOTE For more complete explanation zine book BOFquotS FOR 5lUSlCA39L INST Frequency oi how re hairing depends upon the amount of use Playing causes the hair of the bow to become smooth and to break Smooth hair does not produce a satisfactory response from the strings A how may become warped or damaged if used when the amount of hair is considerably reduced by break ing especially if this occurs mostly on one side of the ribbon of hair If the frog does not t snugly against the stick the difficulty may be that the threads of the cycle have become worn so that the screw action is uneven This may damage not only the screw but the frog and the stick It also impairs the playing qualities The ivory plate or tip which protects the head needs periodic examination Tiny cracks often appear at the sides of the monies where the hair is inserted and where the ivory may measure only 116 inch lvllftn the ivory plate is cracked the head of the how is in dangerof cracking and pulling away at the back a cracked plate should be replaced immediately All how repairs should he done by an expert including pg noiring as the proper fitting of the small parts is so essential refer to the chapter Core of the How in RUMENT3 by Joseph Roda X3 mu u3 vumzmzw m 3 BEES a m E uma 3 8 E mz m 58 u3 mgtm mum 2 E E E SEE EuEmE at we 93 2 we m s Empsso ME agtEn 3 533 muuw umugh m5EhmE muzuum Bzm do vumt m ma 55303 wa uum an we on E3 53 Emma 2 2 How 2 Emma 3533 c uc us m mE u3w Eou hm 5Dm 2 32 c2 mu ouua awn 3 at 555 mom U 2 gm m u m uum m u Bog mm 95 mm 33 33 m 25 88 3 29 xuu Eu swnm cm gcu wbm up 3 93 S 2 wnC uuo cospo xg mc ukm 2 3 E est m mu uEm 2 332 3 nv uEgt zouuuwoa g mm E2203 uucmcuzzm mo ou lt 4mm m wmuwwm dcosussw m5mouuu ma 3 mm 555 mm muium 55gt mmntsm as 3 83 no vugt5mm um 23 2 2 as ampumm Jnu zhm 3 me away 2 E Bm mzo nmt mxumuu umudouC 3amp2 335 m uxm 2 35532 as mm 22 m 33 mom vzmom u E 326 32 E a u 55 mxu u uu5ku mmm su Aa u 33 m 53 Bmnohm sum BEBE 3 E59 o amp Hang a Emuxm cu 8 mEmgt 5923 wag Em E38 om8moum umsmu Emu Ev mam mag 3 38 u E Em sbm aw ms mzca S ms umow Ecgtw Enopm use uEmE an E m u ma ao S numb a 523 mw mmampC aw mm mmu ummzwuh wuxumnu Ea ucsom 2 Ms E 23 3 8 omE 2 ugtu E n mam E waa m mcmau mwum 3 emu unr m uwnmmu nu mbm uu m EEEmE am we go 2 2 u umsmu 3 umom wuss mix 53 n ma Eunbmnmum BE A33 mum uumm o um mwcu shm on E 5oEw Eu usxu m E 3933 mm aEEmE 9 yo imam at mm 9 wuh 83 was 333 321 Am m am dumm ugto uzu USN w 3 3 xw autumn mac u o am 0 Eu uu m mm mho mw GOZudZmGGU unu s m zunm 5 Eamp 35 ozuu nan 22gt Sm 33 as uuwosu Em wzm Ea 55 m Emma 23 wgtm om mummum ozuu mE umg u3 a 5 but m Ens mmor mm wuumuumvzna 33 En 532 328 was 32gt musmoB we mszunsm 43 can wE 8m259 m uEUB m we zsm 2 E uwmtn 3 lt wEumoE we m mamu 5EmE cm venom Es smo E wa E E nmw mu au SEQ Em uru S m muom mm new bmo Em u 26 gown mwwcs 4 wwQWnmmw qMm umw m 3 Emg mam Ewgamawm 3 23 93 5 sm nua F8 wEuM um m 3a 22 3 mm 35 mEuEo mmuu u2 m We m wram 2 9268 bun 888 was 25 We zoumuamcu wrE Sam EuSE E 3 m nmuwu 5 53 9 3 causes up ENE SEEU 2 w 8 a uuax m ve Eu mbm 2 we 2amp3 M5 mmnobm Fain b uw 3 933 3 Ea gums mam 3 2 2 cuu mn mEa3zMm 5amp9 dmc am 3 E53 ant 03 wzmm Hus 32 me 835 m we 53 mam izmo umnm E93 3 33 mxumb 353 Em 5 3 ummsmu mu on Em umm u ohm 20 mun3gt 353 w rs mm u mu u Exam wan ampE uu m Emmb 8 2 23 Baum 53 BE 3m353 xmmxu nmu mhn ouu m u r 5 S cau SE 965 ugtwx 5 umoo u ou quotEda Ens 533 muuc u mam mmEE mcwsm 32 Eu3 35 manna wu u mm oc wu ugxmmmu moEEou mo muu5m 0 33 wxa 2 u omimumumu we 9wmgt a 59G 28 8 mummam EumEcZ mwmEwmM wdmmw mw m wmmmmu mnm Emma 2 u mmmnw Ea xwu Son um umu 533 mwm mm Enos mums mzouum 53min 3 m uEE uv usmsm any Em wxu u mum mEmom 5 umE5 m zm MM m uE uu m 3 vuhnmuh aw 3uuQmE aEoamp M5 250 mxu u vzm 25 5 mEu3oE Ems m mm Ea 3 mumsmzu uauzxu mam Em Eu mouumEm Hum 52 uwEE 2 we Eu uum m m w u mn w oum o 92 m 3 uptmuz an 58 wx Exam a E 2 a uuusotmaxu 3 mucu w hm an E3 mumucn M553 uuxa E E wmwamsu up Emma 3 mm bm um6 was 55 u w 5 Em m hm BQQEEW 25 ma a wE gt man 2335 mm m u c usm ha xuuw w uuuo Eu 2 su sbm 3 ma E we 93 3 Escnm mkumm maSuuampmmm w Enam ou Bade E M885 Em E ma a H ma 2 mm Ema 9 BE u8m uE mv zm wE mm mum E Smgt 9 ma a Eu M3 mm 8395 ma 2 E3 xmmm 4 m w mama ma 2 9 may 5 as 8333 an E mama Ea m 2 E uums mm mw bso au 23 Sn 2 aa 3 m 23 twang 3 bE3m v825 Eco EEEE8 3558 m 332 5 u3mm E8 m 5 E5 on was ma an o 53 Eu Emma 53 3 us ma 2 amza muuw m E E2 ma a 2 Ho muum Q5 mnumnmum 3 amplt 233 ma Bu m ssoc gnaw Em MB man 65 us so ma 2 ugt Enema mwm m E oo m zomua 9 mum ya how ampE bu em 3 uuou mm M5 no mw b E m nca M693 mag G ltrFlIIlI 8owum E E mwa 33 bm 56 Ema 83 353 a muwmsm woz on E 5o w2u Eme E o a E aw mma m uEE Eco v o 5 1 m 5 no maznoa mzscm cu ma Emm we as E uuaucnmm B Ezocm mu E 535 5 53 Ba mzma aa u cam muzsmcou an 35 uEuB m 533 u o u a 3 ME Esosm ampugtuumu mm xoamum 9 638 Sc ow mmum wE5 o 0 z m 5 xnnnm 3 auga vie Bnouun 2 max mg mma U003 Sum Eu m mg w mzmu E 3 uwzm m 93 35 3Em m5 m u mmuuxu B mmu um m mmou 8898 lt 53 Ba Ho S uapcou 32 ES Eu sbm 2 0 E13 2 3 2 EsBmE mma 2 6 sauwamo 3 5 Eva EH mum w5 ms m bmmauun SEE wag 838m umwnm mam Ea Ma 83 533 Ezogm cm Euz m xwmsosuwcou xmu manta uu mag mgmugoa wax comma mEw mi 333 E2 2 mm nm 5 ns E 35 55 EE 3 Eon 9 33 mucum w dam m Soc 2 m mmmSm msma cue 33 Eve Swans gm 8 3a 2 3 2w omw 9 win new 3 53 age Bu 5 8 an Enosm Bnoohm 9 aE m Eo t mma Bu 9 Eu 2 35 32 E mm mm E 39 9 amaze ant 3 E22 3 an no 889m 2 2 SE ao uwam 2 Sea 98 53 oosa M BE 2 warm x Bozm Euoam 3 ma ampoa q 2mE 25 2 E u zu d uu S 3 on E 35 w mc 35 umu Jm mu 332 Eugt2m Ami 2 Emma E uuuama Ea 35 05 923 Ea 35 ES 5 5 5 yogma 95 E nmmomuum mE gt 33 95 mma m mm mm uEoEm cm U5 scu tmm ou ammwma S 55 23 353 E uuncuumzs o 33 m 8 33 55 32 E E uwmu u ms 3 338 mean 30 Pa mam momma mum 3 2333 E3 was ma a no mouq m 28 u mo u u 3 rm 9 Eu sbm 2 38 5 om E B u ubxu 5 no uv ma a 38 wax EB S sonm we mmommua ms xu S8 33 23 u cuuow 5 mos wwuuxm ammo B uEE osEumE8 E08 2 3 55 2 Eusn m cm mcwsoam E wuzmmm ouum on macs min u om 3 2m mm W umcazu ubdwam a mo BE u E5 m ou SW5 2 cSHcnmE mm mEEm5mEu 32 9 E98935 ca mnuuu zm E98 2 omE some x msm au 833 E 333 u5EuQE2 E mconaz zm man 3 vuwsmu uwm mw Q uEmmuu can mum Bcu zhm sm EEEEA uumman E 338 ummnam 3 cowm m 3 u mmamp uH BBw8E we E5083 M325 an 2 3 memo moo u Eamon bEEnE a E 5Ea9 5 am 9 BEBE m EuEbwE 2 mm mac mm 52 o anew um 56 mum uEn E mwotum u unomuuw SM 33 3 2 Hana E 35EES mumxxesm ua mm E93 E33 3 Jemou mo E mau nbw 56588 3 man Bahama Em mw 5352 omumm Em azm ua mm as 8 mma mwczu z 5 5 d mm m pa m2uEBmE Zzm m oa aw 5EmmE u 33 E E2 Baum an E aux uEBmE oEm a any wwam 358 BE amp b sz wE gt um Em sa 2 mo mm 339 9 8 95 80 a8u 5 38 E 523 uz uuw hue am EuEhmE 5 was 2 mama mm 5 EuEEE 3 umEuEE 2 Emuom w mw uEm at Mo bcomm m 58 mm Eu sum Ba 53 E EEB3 u mm snuw 6 ampmEE E 2 un mom m x uEmmna as Bua sa 2uEuE mE 5 38 Eutm ans xms 3 m 3 8 mucu mcou mE sEmE mmou bmyn i Ea Eszmum s Emommum ma a 55 mzm mu E a neumo wag man 53 as 383 u5mE 002 Eupz 3 mEu EmE 3 ma 3358582 Eh mEuEoa has baa Ea Emu 5 88 as ea ma a mmoumamom ampo 5 3 2 am 33 mmcEm wa aa 59 Em 2533 o a e uSu ouoEu mc us we 38 2 3 3 3353 um 2 c2 8 528 com E ss E wmozmnamn 3 u ampuusm up 8 53 ucuu au sew ES 393 Eu mo mom 3 33 3 Baas a mo uu c Em aEamp E m u sbm ma a uukom mEn5mE umo9o umumm 2 Euunou 8a 3 we Emoxm EE8 bm zzm m mEamm muotum ummmu Eu mom Eu 5 wum 28 5 93 mu o E 2 mm Eu shm 5 2 m uzom Ec mnos 8 E u ou ws 56 328 0 EuEsmE 22 5 maozuamcou 3 a 5 EEE at E b mm ou MB is mFEm um u 5 Ea ma a E svmmmuuum 3 Eco Sm 23 Susana umu xE mE a m 32 335 an m ma acm mEuEEE uumcEm 3 u mm a aucmumu mam mu mom we hung Bu m m 33 u3mmEwco um E don Eu 5 muu oa mum 3 am 52 ma a 350 R 3 E has 3 has am 3 mm zm at ca 2 um E E E3 23 5 Euoam 25 6 mw 593 Bay m m mEuE mE w m wu 3 E wum uha 3 35 mien muwmuman 5 E23 m uumm am 33 tag 33 255 Eu abm 3 Eu Em Ea c ism Em 9582 2 Ea com a mm 9 u 35 8 uo u uumza ou quotEH w m Mu was Eu shm 5 Uumu n a man 3 5 usmmom Hmmamm tsunami B 293 e wan mama wummu L65 5 u wam cam 32 9s 3 uwmeaw Ema EuEE 2 6393 2 cams as Euo 8 9 433 33gt u mamp ucuE Eu nbm 33 mo amm m 5 no muuuan mmn 5 ma a 29 E22 mB m umwE bu mm mmmm 6 68 ampoS cmo5 wax u 8 smut Em 22 395 3 munsmuou Enos use EuEEwE 333 m E cu mm hmm mm mmwmmwmmwm unmE was 3 uudmmuz m aw Emu Q mag g m wmm gag Ewgg The form of the string player in action as in any sport or other physical activity requiring coordi nated skill and strength is vital and can either help or hinder his advancement Yet how can one explain the disparity of positions of the instruments exhibited by professionals Even the concern going layperson can discern ob vious differences among the cellists within one symphony orchestra By stressing the dominant unw derlying principles which charac terize the approach of most ne cellists even though it often ap pears that they have little in com mon the following rnini games are designed to help the teacher and the student discover the best posi tion for the individual player Many of the ideas are transferable to the violin viola and string bass as explained under the heading Team Tactics A list of check points for home practice is given at the end of the chapter INDIVIDUAL MINLGAMES The Elegant Horseback Rider lVlini Game 8 Outer Game The teacher gains the concentrated attention of the students by an nouncing lIonkey see monkey do and proceeds to lead them to a good sitting posture for cello playing As he sits on the from half of his chair his body will be leaned slightly forward and his feet will be placed apart He re peats the process with his chair turned sideways to the class so that the students can see the pro le of his body Notice we look like elegant horseback riders on a fox hunt Our backs are straight our heads are erect and our weight is dis tributed on three points the balls of our feet and our seat Take a photo Click MiniGame 8 The Elegant Horsehaclt Rider vlflzen to Use 3 At the first lesson followed immediately by iVIiniGame 9 Jacki72 tlieBox and Mini Game 10 Fitting the Cello Anytime the teacher thinks a review is needed 39 ls Inner Game The teacher knows that it is de sirable for a cellist s body weight to be both balanced and leaned slightly forward In addition he recognizes that a person is less likely to develop lower backaches after long sessions with the cello if the body weight is distributed on three supports Furthermore he knows that riding a horse is an appealing image to a youngster Team Tactics Good posture is important for all members of the string class The string bass students however must often lean over their instru ments in order to reach notes in the higher registers Though The Elegant Horsebaclt Rider is es sentially a cello minigaine the emphasis on the body weight being balanced on three points also ap plies to violinists and violists when seated Besides how could anyone slump in the presence of such an example J ack in theBoX MiniGame 9 Outer Game Teacher Sit in your chair in such a manner that it will be easy for you to stand up quickly at any moment Now you will act like a jackainthe box Stand Sit Stand Sit The student will automatically find a good sitting position for playing the cello Her body will be tilted slightly forward with its weight balanced on the balls of the feet and the seat The feet will soon shift to a position so she can rise quickly without moving them When to Use 1 At the rst lesson followed im mediately by MiniGarne Io Fitting the Cello 2 Whenever the teacher notices that the students body appears to be ofbbalance slumped or leaned haclltward or in a sprawled position I mzer Grime The teacher knows that this mini game forces the student to assume the correct balanced position for playing the cello ln fact it is im possible to stand up quickly if the Si lVIini Game 9 ack i39ntl39zc Box body is slumped or leaned back ward or if the legs and feet are sprawled out Team Tactics IcicleintizeBor is for every mern ber of the string class seated in a chair Fitting the Cello MiniGarne 10 Outer Game Teacher Continue sitting like you did in Jaclt inthe Box while I fit the cello to you Don t move The teacher then proceeds to place the instrument in the proper posi tion adjusting the end pin as nec essary for each student lWren to Use I At the rst lesson iininediately after Mini Garne 8 The Elegant Horsebaclt Rider and Mini Game 9 acItintheBox 2 Anytime the teacher thinks a review would be bene cial I mzer Game The teacher remembers that the axiom Fit the instrument to the playeiwmnot the player to the in strurnent can prevent many prob lerns Although the teacher s mer1 I4 iiini Gaines for Posture and Instrument Hold 9 tal image of a professional cellist will serve as her chief guide while tting the cello to the student the following seven checkpoints are helpful 1 Is the C string peg somewhat near the left ear See MiniGame I4 Tickle the Ear 2 Is there some space between the neck of the cello and the stu dents left shoulder See Mini Game 13 The Chipmunk 3 Does the ngerboardlook like not like when the teacher faces the student directly Can the 39 student s left hand reach both ends of the ngerboard with grace and ease See Mini Ga1ne 23 The Skier 4 Does the student appear to be cradling the cello rather than clamping it with his knees See MiniGarne I I Cradling the Cello 5 Is the cello turned slightly to the right so that the front on the A string side is exposed to the player 6 Is the route clear so that the student will be able to bow on the A and C strings See MiniGame 1397 Clearing the Air Corridors 739 Wilil the student be able to bow without straightening his arm Aware that she cannot boni bard the student with allthe above details at the first lesson the teach er primarily wants the student to take home a clear rnental picture of himself with the cello a start on a good position and a feeling of success The teacher should not be sur prised if the student veers his neck and head to the right while the cello is being tted to him This feeling of the need to dodge is commonplace Whenthis occurs the teacher simply removes the cello and begins again making certain that the end pin is to the left of the centerline of the play er s body If this minigame gives dif cul ty it is possible that the students cello is not of the appropriate size and it should be changed if at all possible i The teacher may wish to intro duce MiniGarne I 28 Handle with Care at this time Team Tactics Though this is de nitely a cello minigarne the axiom cited in its inner game applies to all stringed instrurnents Cradling the Cello lIiniGarne I I Outer Game Teacher When you play your cello it helps to think of it as being cradled gently with your legs This will keep it stable yet you will be able to turn it when necessary Wlteii to Use 1 At the first lesson to help estab lish a good position and ap proach 2 Whenever the student appears to be clamping his cello with his knees or if it looks unstable Inner Game The teacher recognizes that clarnp ing a cello is an unnecessary waste of energy and that the locking of thelltnees can restrict the freedom of elbow rnovernent In addition many cellists believe that it pre vents the cello wood from vibrating as freely as possible On the other hand if a cello feels unstable the player will tend to grab it with her left hand a habit detrimental to building a facile and expressive technique Also it must be recognized that a moving target is more dil cult to hit The word cradle seems to have a magical effect on most students and helps them achieve the desired balance This approach also aids the player in turning the cello Slightly when playing a lengthy passage on one of the outer strings Team Tactics Time out for all players except cellists Hmrn ni lvliniGame I 2 Outer Game The teacher overlaps his arms on his chest and breathes out a deep sigha symbol of great comfort and relaxation The student imi tates him by hugging her cello and sighing audibly llusic making is resumed immediately unless of course it is the first lesson When to Use 1 In a beginning lesson to help establish a good position 2 Anytime the teacher perceives one of the following the stu Mir1iGarne 12 Hmmm 15 MiniGaines for Posture and Instrument Hold dent s body appears to be off balance there is a lack of unity between the player and her in strument the body is twisted with one shoulder farther for ward than the other one or both shoulders are elevated or there is a hint of tension in the student s body Irmer Game The teacher knows that this is a relaxed and balanced position It automatically eliminates any twist in the body lowers the shoulders to a natural position and throws the body weight slightly forward which will help in tone building and preventing tension in the hands and arms Also this gesture gives the stu dent a feeling that her body and her cello are one unit and that the instrument is in no way a foreign object Team Tactics H is for cello and string bass students only The Chipmunk lVIini Garne I 3 Outer Game Teacher Is there room for a little chipmunk to walk between your shoulder and the neck of your cello Without moving his trunk the student waves his right hand be tween the cello neck and his left shoulder to show that there is clearly enough room for the chip rnunk When to Use 1 In beginning lessons to help establish a good position and to serve as a checkpoint for the student in his home practice 2 Whenever the teacher notices that the cello neck is too close to the student s left shoulder the left elbow is folded at an acute angle or the left shoulder and upper arm are pulled back Inner Game The teacher recognizes the im portance of having some space between thecello neck and the student s body If the instrurnent is held too near the player s shoulder his left elbow will be forced to fold up at such an acute angle that it will feel tight and uncomfortable Consider for example this posture without an instrument No one would choose to place her left hand on her own left shoulder or even an inch or two from it for more than a few secondsi Since it is the nature of human beings especially children to seek comfort the student will uncon sciously swing her left shoulder back in order to widen the angle of her elbow Although this incor rect position provides instant relief and may not hamper the perform ance of a simple first position piece without vibrato the player is twisted and of balance Thus many technical problems will manifest themselves later par ticularly those related to shifting and intonation When using this faulty posture the player will produce a sound which falls into one of two cate gories I A weak tone which results from a restriction in the flow of energy from the body s trunk See MiniGame 62 Pulling through a M illtshelte 2 A harsh tone which results because the player in an effort to achieve more volume will exert the wrong kind of pressure on the MiniGame 13 The C li U39 u392k The bow is the magic wand of the string player With a hank of hair and a stick of wood from a hol low cavity formed by pieces of wood glued together over which four strings are stretched he is able to bring forth some of the most glorious and expressive sounds known The teacher s goal is to help her student discover the enormous range of expression available through this fantastic tool and learn how to hold and move it so the potentialities seem limitless The mini games in this chapter are intended to serve as a supple ment to the students method book and the teacher s own pedagogical devices Again the cello has been used as the teaching instrument with Team Tactics included for violin viola and bass students It is assumed that the string bass students are using French bows For the most part the minigames may be used in any order and are intended to be meshed with the rnini games for building left hand technique presented in chapter 8 39 and those for varied purposes de scribed in chapter 9 As always the music itself must play the dominant role throughout every lesson The second section of this chap ter provides approaches to estab lishing the cello bow hold by com bining minigarnes and examples of checkpoints for home practice are given at the end INDIVIDUAL MINIGAMES The Dripping Wet Hand Mini Game 24 Outer Game Teacher See this imaginary bucket of water I d like you to dip your right hand into it Since we have no towels I guess you ll have to dry it by shaking off the water Freeze Look how your hand is hanging Notice the space between each nger Remember how this looks and feels because it is exact ly the correct spacing for your ngers when you hold your cello bow Notice how your little nger seems to grow right out of your hand Take a photo Click When to Use 1 At one of the rst lessons when introducing the bow hold 2 Anytime the teacher notes one of the following the student s ngers appear to be stretched far apart on the bow stick the students ngers appear to be squeezed together the student fourth nger does not seem to be a continuation of her hand and arm that is it juts back toward the frog end of the bow stick and looks angular or the students first nger does not seem to be in alignment with her hand and arm that is it seems to jut toward the point of the bow like an awkward hook l28 Game The teacher recognizes that when 39 shaking off water the hand auto matically falls into the nger spacing most natural for that in dividual student In this motion the hand moves as a unit yet eacl nger is relaxed and exible MiniGame 24 The D739ippi7g Wet H cmd EE The teacher had previously ex perimented by holding his own right hand in two extreme posi tions First without a bow he 39 stretched his curved ngers far apart and discovered that they be gan feeling tense within only a few seconds Next he tried placing them close together and observed that they soon began feeling im mobile and clamped He recog nized that both positions were un natural and a great waste of energy He further discovered that neither produced the best results when he played his cello over a period of time The teacher is also aware that as she progresses to more ad vanced literature the student will unconsciously adjust the spacing between her ngers in order to produce the various tone colors conceived by her mental ear How ever the teacher considers this to be a good allpurpose position for the early stages of training The reader may wish to refer to Approaches to Establishing the Bow Holdby Combining lVlini Games before continuing Team Tactics Shaking imaginary water off the hand before holding the bow is helpful to any beginning string student However the ngers of violinists and violists will appear closer together on the bow than those of cellists and bassists since the placement and angle of the ngers are different TwoHanded Bowing MiniGame 25 Outer Game Teacher Before I show you how to hold the bow correctly with your right hand let s hear you bow with two hands Hold each end of the bow any way you choose then pull the bow back and forth across the D string so that the hair touches about halfway between the bridge and the ngerboard Listen carefully try to nd the most beautiful sounds your cello can produce Now let s play on each of the other Strings Watch the string as the bow hair crosses it See how big you can make the vibrations 23 MiniGames for Building Bow Technique When to Use I At the first lesson after learning how to sit and to hold the cello 2 Whenever the student is not getting the string to vibrate freely while he uses his bow Inner Game The teacher wants the student to discover for himself the tone his cello and how are capable of pro ducing Since there is no attempt to teach the bow hold in this mini game the student is able to con centrate on the string itself and 39 on getting it to vibrate Care should be taken that the students right hand does not hold the bow in any manner resembling the traditional bow hold By setting up the goal without presenting rules the teacher has created a situation in which there is no danger that bad habits will be established The accomplishments are threefold rst the student is able to produce good sounds al most immediately second he dis covers for himself the function of the bow third he is establishing a model of a good open string tone which is readily available for his home practice Team Tactics Noncellists can take a breather Finding the Balance Point Mini Garne 26 39 Outer Game Teacher Every cellist should know exactly how the weight of her bow is distributed Now if we were examining a piece of lumber we would expect the balance point to be in the dead center Right But a bow isn t symmetrical and no twoare exactly alike Let s nd where yours balances The balance point will soon be come evident as the teacher and 39 the students place each bow upsidedown on the index nger They will then proceed to learn how to hold thebow at the balance point When to Use I In one of the beginning lessons when the bow hold is intro duced 2 Before introducing spiccato bowing if the teacher thinks a review is in order Inner Game 39 The teacher knows that in every day aifairs it is far easier and more logical to pick up a long horizontal object at its balance point In fact any other approach would seem unnatural This advantage is not available to a cellist By holding the bow at the bal ance point the beginning student will nd it lighter and more man ageable Also less strain will be put on the fourth nger side of the hand Ideally the player will feel as though he is holding practically nothing at all and his hand will remain supple and exible After he gains this feeling and has a good start on bowing the student can gradually slip his hand down to the conventional place on the stick with some adjustments in weight distribution The reader may wish to refer to Approaches to Establishing the Bow Hold by Combining Mini Games at this time Team Tactics 39 This minigame may be played by all beginning string students Pick a Ripe Red Strawberry Mini Game 27 Outer Game Teacher See those ripe red straw berries hanging below your hand Pick some As each student picks several imaginary strawberries the teach er will note that some students are using their first ngers and others their second She suggests that for this occasion it would help if each person used his second nger and thumb for the strawberry picking Note how sensitive your fingers are The strawberries feel plump and soft You re holding them rmly yet you are careful not to squash them This is the way a ne cellist feels whenshe holds her bow Let s play your piece again with this in mind When to Use 1 in one of the first lessons when the bow hold is introduced 2 Anytime the teacher notes one of the following the student is squeezing the bow stick and his ngers look tense and hard the students second nger is not opposite his thumb or his thumb is caved in and clamped Inner Game The teacher recognizes that in the very act of picking the ripe straw berries the student s hand will shape itself into a gently rounded contour desirable for holding the bow Also she knows that the stu dent will instinctively guard against bruising the strawberries This feeling is easily transferred to the cello bow and will improve the beauty of tone The greatest bene t of this mini game comes from increased sensi tivity in the bow hand which will result in more expressive music While the human hand has this miraculous inborn quality the teacher has observed many cases in which a person s manner of approaching the bow appears to desensitize his hand MiniGame 27 Pick 11 Ripe Red Strawberry 24 MiniGarnes for Building Bow Technique Team Tactics This mental image will trigger the desired physicalresponse with violin viola and string bass stu dents as well as those studying the cello The teacher is advised to vary the object depending on the size of the bow In many cases raspberries or grapes may prove more suitable The Bow Arm s Trusty Aide Mini Game 28 Outer Game Teacher When you practice at home it s a good idea to watch yourself in a mirror If you see39 that your right hand has slipped out of a good position while hold ing the bow don t try to change it while playing Instead stop play ing entirely Leave your bow on the string but let your left hand support the stick someplace in its upper half Give your right hand a short rest Shake the Water off your right hand let it hang pick a strawberry with your second nger and thumb then take a fresh hold on the how If the hair makes contact with the string in its upper half near the tip add one more step after picking the strawberry tilt your hand slightly to the left so that last drop of water will roll oil then take a fresh hold on the bow No wonder we call the left arm the bow arnrfs trusty aide When to Use 1 In one of the early lessons in order to help the student estab lish good practice habits 2 Anytime the teacher observes a faulty position of the hand or how and wants the student to make a fresh start Inner Game The teacher knows that it is almost impossible for a player to adjust her hand on the bow from an un desirable position to a desirable one without the help of her left hand Unless this is explained to the student she will probably con tinue to play in a faulty position thus reinforcing a bad habit This mini ganie is especially useful in correcting a habit which sometimes crops up among young cellists being taught in a hetero geneous class Since these students are usually surrounded by violin students occasionally one has a tendency to adopt the violinist s manner of placing the bow on the string so the stick is farther away from the player than the hair In correcting this fault the cello stu dent s wrist will usually fall too low unless he removes his hand repositions his how so the stick is directly above the hair or is closer to the player than the hair de pending on his teacher s viewpoint and background and makes a fresh approach with his right hand Team Tactics The principle of supporting the bow in some manner with the left hand while reestablishing the placement of the right hand on the bow is applicable to all begin ning string students QG The left hand is the acrobat of the team Appearing to be in constant motion even in the slowest pas sages it glides soars dives dances stretches shakes walks runs and leaps The teacher s goal is to guide the student toward es tablishing a basic position and approach that will later allow him to perform every trick required to interpret the composer s music The teacher has in mind not only the demands made by the existing iterature but also the challenges 39 that could be presented by corn posers as yet unborn The rnini gan1es in this chapter 39 may be used at the teacher s dis 2 cretion to serve as a supplement to the student s method or solo book They should be interspersed with F the minigames for building bow technique in chapter 7 with those quot for varied purposes in chapter 9 and with the teacher s own peda gogical devices For the most part 39 they may be used in any order she 5 39 deems appropriate As always the jhusic itself must play the domi 39 nant role Approaches to establishing the left hand position by combining minigarnes and checkpoints for home practice are included at the end of this chapter Throughout the text the words 2 tip and pad have been used 39 interchangeably to refer to the part of the nger which makes 39 contact with the string Since much depends on the shape of the stu dents hand the passage being per formed and the individuals de nition of the terms this choice of words is left to the teacher s dis cretion INDIVIDUAL lVllNl GAlIES The Cellist s Freeway g MiniGame 82 Outer Game When the student has assumed a playing posture the teacher quick ly traces a line with her index n ger on the students left arm The line runs from the elbow to the base knuckles Remember the cellist s freeway has no hills valleys or winding curves There is a direct line from the elbow to the base knuckles Then the ngers curve to the fin gerboard When to Use 1 In one of the 1 St lessons to help establish a good position of the left arm Whenever the teacher sees the student s left wrist protruding upward his left wrist sinking inward or his arm out of align ment with his hand Ex Inner Game The teacher knows the importance of establishing a position of the left arm and hand that allows the free flow of energy and weight from the player s back If the wrist is arched so it looks like a hill the ngers will move sluggishly If the wrist sinks in so a valley is f orined in the highway the weight is di rected to the underside of the wrist The result is a loss of direct energy flow to the ngers which can cause a grabbing pushing or clutching action thus the stu dents tone and technique can be adversely affected In addition the teacher is on the lookout for any kind of twist in the student s hand or arm which could be termed a curve in the road or a detour As an extension of this mini game the student can hold his bow against the highway to show that the road is straight and direct The reader may wish to refer to Approaches to Establishing the Left Hand Position by Combining lVli niGarnes before continuing Team Tactics Though the position for holding the violin or the viola is differ ent there should always be a di rect freeway between the player s left elbow and her base knuckles Airmail Special Delivery Mini Game 83 Outer Game Teacher Let s see how fast you can move your left hand Touch the nut of the ngerboard Now move your hand with its curved nge39rs pointing down toward the ngerboard as swiftly as possible through the air slightly above the strings and stop on the bridge Now speed hack to the not using the same direct route Airmail Special Delivery Wlteiz to Use Frequently throughont the early training Inner Game After this minigame is repeated several times the students left elbow will gradually gravitate into a position that allows her hand to move quickly from one extreme lo cation to the other An additional bene t isthat the speed forces her left arm and hand to work as a unit thereby keeping a good align ment Naturally the wrist must be exible This speedy action helps establish a feeling in the arm that will make shifting to and from thumb position much easier It also prevents any tendency of the be ginning cello student to twist her U left shoulder back in order to watch her ngers This bad habit is costly it can cause back pains later make shifting awkward and weaken the tone by inhibiting the pulling action required in bowing Team Tactics This minigame is useful for vio linists and violists as Well as cel lists in the early stages of learning to shift A Handful of Fruit MiniGame 84 Outer Game Teacher Look I brought some fruit today Hold out your left hands 39 The teacher proceeds to hand imaginary oranges peaches and plums to his students carefully selecting the appropriate size for each student and identifying it Don t eat it yet See how you re holding the fruit Your hand and ngers are gently curved just like a good left hand position for cello playing Now let s see you place yourhand on the ngerboard keeping this in mind Of course your thumb will go under your sec ond nger and will be straight When to Use I When introducing or reviewing the left hand position 2 Anytime the teacher observes the student playing with straight stiff ngers resulting from the base knuckles being too far out from the cello neck or with extremely flexed ngers resulting from the base knuck les being so close to the cello neck that they are either caved in or completely flat Inner Game The teacher recognizes that the terrn curved ngers does not help all students because some curve only the first and second joints This strained position does not pro duce the best tone hampers dex terity and can actually cramp the hand The mental image of the round fruit helps shape the whole hand and thumb as a unit An added advantage is that most people tend to hold fruit with clinging ngers MiniGame 86 What the Fingerboard Feels 50 lVIiniGan1es for Building Left Hand Technique not grabbing ngers The teach er can point this out if he chooses Team Tactics This minigame as stated applies primarily to the cello and the bass Rather than having a violinist or a yiolist stand on the sidelines the teacher may wish to place an imaginary egg between the instru ment neck and the left palm of the player The Leaning lndex Finger MiniGame 85 Outer Game Teacher A cellist s index nger is curved and tilts slightly so its sec ond knuckle is closer to the scroll than its ngernail That s why we call it the lean ing index nger like a church tower in northern Italy is called the Leaning Tower of Pisa lVhen to Use 1 Early in the training to help establish a good left hand posi tion Whenever the teacher notices that the students index nger does not have a slight tilt Q Inner Game A slight tilt of the left index nger eases the hand into a position which allows a more beautiful vi brato and an agile technique It 2 also makes it easier to adjust the spacing between the second and third ngers thereby improving intonation By drarnatizing this tilt with a name like that of the famous Ital ian tower the teacher hopes the chances for her students remem bering it will be greater Note should be made that this outer game description does not apply to extended position The reader may wish to refer to Mini Game I I5 Stretching the Elastic Index Finger at this time Team Tactics Though this Inini game is intend ed for cello students the principle of a good left hand position being dependent on a wellshaped rst nger is applicable to all stringed instruments What the Fingerboard Feels MiniGame 86 Outer Game The teacher places his own left hand on the student s arm allow ing his strong but exible ngers to sink into the esh This is how your ngerboard should feel if it were alive The teacher immediately follows this with a demonstration of what the ngerboard should not feel He tightens his ngers and pushes down into the student s arm When to Use 1 In one of the rst lessons in volving the left hand 2 Anytime the teacher senses that the student is pushing down on the string with rigid inflexible ngers 39 Inner Grmte 39 This mini game provides instant communication between teacher 39 and student concerning the invis ible flow of weight through the nger pads which is a crucial fac torin determining tone quality Team Tttctics Although all string students can be involved in this mini game it is most bene cial to cellists and bassists Because of the thickness of their strings and the greater dis tance between the strings and the ngerboard there is an instinctive tendency for these students to push down hard with their ngers there by tightening them For this rea son it is especially important for cello and bass students to discover early the feeling of a flow of live energy from their backs down through their arms and ngers The Butterfly Tunnel i MiniGame 87 Outer Game Teacher Let s check your left hand position Is there room for a butter y to fly through the tunnel formed by your hand and the neck of your cello Wheit to Use 1 In one of the rst lessons to help shape the left hand for playing inquot the neck positions 2 Whenever the teacher notices that the student s left hand when she plays in the neck posi tions is collapsed is held too near the neck of the cello or is not rounded Inner Game The mental image of the left hand forming a tunnel is effective and easy to remember If the butter y does not have enough space through which to fly the student 51 MiniGames for Building Left Hand Technique will quickly adjust her hand and wrist position thereby making it easy for her ngers to lift and drop from their base knuckles Team Tactics While The Butter y Tunnel is de signed for cellists and bassists the string teacher may wish to con sider using an imaginary bumble bee to help check the left hand position of violin and viola stu dents The Tender Cello Neck lIini Garne 88 Outer Game Teacher Treat the neck of your cello as you would like your neck to be treated Don t squeeze or strangle it Touch it tenderly as though it has feelings Wlteiz to Use I When the left hand position is introduced 2 Throughout the training when the teacher perceives that the students thumb is pushing up against the cello neck Inner Game The teacher is aware that all stu dents tend to push up with their thumbs unless they are constantly alerted to ward off this harmful in clination A tight thumb restricts the power flow from the trunk through the arm as well as the ma neuverability of the hand and n gers It is also the surest way to create tension in the wrist The thumb of course is useful in offering a very slight counter pressure when balances are changed however it should never push tightly against the cello neck Also the thumb should not extend farther than the centerline of the neck Since tension is often not vis ible the teacher s tapping on the students thumb from time to time can both detect a problem and serve as a reminder Should the student persist in squeezing the cello neck the teacher may recom mend that he practice for a lim ited time without touching the instrument with his thumb Team Tactics The neck of any stringed instru ment should be treated tenderly Four Mountain Peaks lVliniGame 89 Outer Game The teacher sits to the student s right When Ilook at the pro le of your left hand I d like to see four mountain peaks above your nger board The tallest is formed by your second nger Whhiz to Use I During the first few weeks of lessons in order to help estab lish a good left hand position 2 Anytime the teacher observes that the student is playing with straight ngers with her left wrist so low that her ngers show very little curvature above the ngerboard or with some ngers tucked under the neck of her cello Inner Game The teacher recognizes that it is much more difficult to develop a facile technique when the hand hangs so low from the ngerboard that no mountain peaks are visible The resulting faulty position can be the equivalent of the violinisfs pancake hand since it prohibits nger action originating in the base knuckles thus forcing the ac tion into the rst or second joints Care must be taken however that the student does not exag gerate by trying to make the moun tain peaks too high when playing this minigame because it becomes more difficult to spread the ngers apart Neither extreme is desirable It is very important that the eshy tips of the ngers contact the string rather than the extreme tips except in very fast passages Team Tactics Although a wellshaped pro le of the left hand is equally important in playing the violin or the viola this description applies only to the cello and the bass aw PRINCIPLES OF SOUND PRODUCTION by James Kjelland Contraction of Intervals Whenever one finger is resting on the string the next whole tone higher Mznd in pitch will be located approximately 19 of the remaining distance from that finger to the bridge ie the fingers must be placed progressively closer together as they move closer to the bridge move proportionately closer to the bridge THE BOW must also h of the string gets shorter as the vibrating lengt String Resistance to pressure increases as the bow nears the bridge and vice versa As the vibrating string length is shortened the resistance points get proportionately closer to the bridger Resistance also increases with the increase in string thickness for any given volume level equals the Maximum Tone Quality gstring vibration maximum amplitude of the that which is applied perpendicular to Effective Friction is resulting in maximum efficiency in tone the string therefore production Bowing Factors Influencing Tone and Volume Speed of the how the amount for a given time value Pressure or weight of the bow into the string Placement of the bow distance from the bridge Friction applied perpendicular to the string effective 39 ao quotrC39339quotT I F33 JJ Pa 1 xr2 r Gther Factors a Thicker strings require slower and heavier bows h Shorter string length requires how placement closer to the bridge to maintain tone quality and volume c Using the hair flat on the string produces maximum tone production and projection as well as most efficient bounce of the stick spiccato sautille etc The left hand must completely stop the string for clearest tone Change of Bow Speed to maintain a given volume level SLONER BOWS ARE HEAVIER AND CLOSER TO THE BRlDG DGE F R BOWS ARE LIGHTER AQD FARTHER FROM THE BR T3 3 Cf quot 3 Ti uncut 3 kt 39 39 g 2 Kjelland 1 Sound Production Principles Continued String Vibration On a down how the string Vibratesin a clockwise direction from the player s point of view b The reverse is true for the up how The string must stop spinning in one direction and change to another when the bow direction is changed c The sound quothappensquot between the points of contact with the bow hair see diagram ea action of a vibrating string net or finger rs string at rest K2 T1 is clockwise Vris counter clockwise The string vibrates or spins essentially at a right angle to its length Changing Bow Placement in order to change or maintain volume during changing conditions 1 To move the bow closet to the bridge while it is being drawn in oeJ a angle the bow in the direction you want it to move on the string eg toward the bridge shag C9 b still draw the bow so that the friction is at a right angle to the string friction 13 independent of the angle of bow itself c gradually increase weight pressure into the string as the contact point moves closer to the bridge d when the desired placement of how has been teached resume the right angle position of the bow to the string to maintain placement 2 To move the bow placement further from the bridge T the above process but with the angle of the bow reve 0c H1 bans an3ta 35 Jfbe same See Diagrams p 4 Kjelland Sound Production Principles Continued Change in Volume 1 2 increase bow speed andor weight pressure andor move placement closer to the bridge To increase volume decrease bow speed andor weight pressure andor move placement farther from the bridge MB Eton Speed 2 aeivallsj 1V ampampPeV1Aampn4 at voiomg To decreasevolume Correcting Poor Tone 1 2 Chanvin Tone Color s 8 1 K3 J In other39words Too much whistle or squeal in the sound Cause lack of the fundamental in the string Vibration a slow down the bow andor V b move the contact point away from the bridge andor c add more weight into the string through the bow andfor d make sure the direction of the energy transferred to the string through the bow is perpendicular to the string effective friction Too much crunch or deadness in the sound Cause lack of freedom in string vibration ie the string sounds literally strangled a speed up the bow andOT b use less weight into the string andor mare the bow closer to the bridge Make sure the direction of the friction from is at a right angle to the string effective the bow friction Tone Quality and Volume Relationships Slow Bow Forte glue bow Use relatively more weight closer to the bridge for long notes or slurs There are more higher partials in this tone quality which give it more carrying power and brilliance Past Bow Forte feather bow Use relatively less pressure weight farther from the bridge for maximum string Vibration amplitude There 15 more of the fundamental in this tone which results in a deeper richer quality Slow Bow Piano same process as 1 above but with proportionately less of everything East Bow Piano same process as 2 above but with oroportionatly less of everything Bow speed is actually independent of Volume The amount of bow used can significantly affect tone quality within a given volume level 0 I 3 4 i cunci ua quot L39139339 FF iquotP1quotquot539 C T Q P R diagram 3513 393ha3 Sin 330W Place diagram C changing bow placement usinc bow angle Tone qualitv is pre 3193 Wh e k9 3Pm 5 9 b 39 at served because the friction of the bow is in 39 e with the wav the st11319 mam nght angle to the stung p stgntfh 1a1YVib1ate5 1 t 5 cant loss of tame occurs usmg ttus 1 t P 3 339mquot39 H 1 t method because ot the aiagonai ltn 1 39 m0V1I391 39 J 3 rectxon at the mctien across the 39quotquot j h t0W3139 e r St1i1 quot p e the badge V 3 a 39 yf placement awav frem bridge the bridge p 3 39 4 placement movmg V f fowdt r 5quot Jr the bridge 39 b IT 39 quotquot39Vquotquotquot quot placement i I aw lg 3 ram diagram D changing bow placement showing whole bow stmke The amount ant rate of eiacement change depend on the angie and speed of the bow When ta e desired Dlaeerrsent is reached the btnw returns to 2 right angle posi Q zzions A and C The dotted iirtee shew the path at the ban and if1EvfIiC iOE1 across the string I 1 1 I i I I 223 friction V K H R di1quote ti0n39 39quot 39 fI1C C 0I391 quotcu nnnvI39quot3939II quotquot39 f39 1 Ca 391quot11 1 I I NuL84 Li A i 1 3quot moves thteugh bgw positions A to B to C wit39n we ehttvest1re i239 ereasirzg q ti moves through bow pos1ttm5 C to B to A wtth weight pregame in creasing F1 Ct1 I QG friction 169 397 F movee through how positions A to B to C wiftz weig1tpe3sure in creasing V moveskthrough bow positions C to B to with 3939eightpr3SSu139E Pk Creasirtg B3737 String Class C12 String Class Pedagogy Sorne CommonlyAsked Questions and Answers on Teaching Tuning in the String Class gtHow old do you think the ensemble needs to be in order for them to tune gtthemselves they can start in the process right away by learning to discriminate pitches and learning how the fine tuners work the pegs take a while to learn and many are poorly adjusted and don39t work well Kids should be able to tune their fine tuners after a year of study but too often they39re kept dependent on the teacher who assumes they can39t learn it It will be at least two years for them to learn peg tuning and tuning double string bowing like the pros do When you teach peg operation it39s good to expect some broken strings but fewer breaks if you mind the following t use good metal strings with fine tuners on each string Pirastro Jargar amp Prim are decent brands turn the peg in a loosening direction first even if the string is flat use chalk on the peg if it won39t hold use pencil lead graphite if it39s too stiff to turn keep the string vibratin g as the pegfine tuner is turned so you can hear the rate of pitch change make sure the grooves in the nut and bridge are quotlubricatedquot with pencil lead to cut down on friction make sure the strings are wound evenly around the peg from the hole toward the head of the peg ie from the thinner to thicker part of the peg S but also make sure the string windin g is not squeezed up against the peg box make sure the strings go into the peg box over the nut in a fairly straight line Sometimes the low strings of the cello and bass are reversed for that reason really too simple but often forgotten make sure you39re turning the peg of the string you think you39re tuning always come up to the target pitch from below so you don39t over shoot the pitch and so it stays where you want it to gtHow does a string teacher go about teaching this Do they end up with a gtlot of broken strings for awhile or is it something that gradually and gtnaturally happens as a string player develops with good instruction see the article On Tuning Procedures for the Young String Classquot ASTA Jonrnal by Kjelland other resources Guide to Teaching Strings by Lamb publ WC Brown I think re kn 39 as 39 1 Emergency String Repair Manual for School Orchestra Directors by Nat l School Orch Assn should be available through MENC publications 800 number by now This is a great general resource Vl gtDo you have any suggestions for string teachers who have to tune the gtyounger ensembles themselves as a wind player it seems incredibly gttime consuming see the article for some ideas it39s a challenge to develop both speed and accuracy but the more kids you teach how to tune the more time you save for others Student tuning helpers are extremely helpful The important thing is that kids are involved from the tuning process by generating the sound etc I39m always impressed by how challenging tuning can be for even college students I work on it almost every class period for the first few minutes The good news is it39s easire to tune someone else when they39re bowing for you than to tune yourself Tell your students to hang in there Developing String Programs in Schools 3 from the ASTA Media Center at The Ohio State University School of Music Columbus Ohio MENC has published as a part of its Getting Started series Getting Started with Strolling Strings compiled by Robert Gillespie TwentiethCentury Schools of String Teaching SUZUKI APPROACH In 1964 at a meeting of the Music Educators National Conference in Preschogljnstruc on Philadelphia Shinichi Suzuki presented concepts regarding the musical education of preschool children in Japan that might well be called revolu tionary One of Surullti s basic ideas was that educators had been underesw tirnating the learning potential of small children He also contended that environmental factors are far more important in the musical growth of a child than is socalled talent Though the users of the present book may not be directly involved in preschool instruction all teachers of string instru ments should be informed and prepared to discuss the Suzuki method when they become involved in school music programs Shinichi Suzuki Dr Suzuki39s use of the word environment did not refer to a socioeco nornic setting What he suggested was a conditioning program based on a planned and supervised program of musical training at an early age He proposed that any teacher can provide a stimulating musical environment based on an earconditioning program that utilizes musical examples that have proved to be motivating for children On this premise any child can play the violin just as he learns to speak his native tongue Incidentally this does not disregard the talent factor the ultimate level that the child will achieve is determined by this factor 3 8 Developing String Programs in Schools Objectives Dr Suzuki has pointed out that a child learns to speak his native or mother tongue through the natural method of imitating his mother and other members of the family not by formal reading materials By applying this principle to violin playing he has proved that much of what we have assumed to be inborn genius actually has been developed by applying proper educational principles at an early age Basic to his method is listen ing to highquality performances on a recording or tape It is his contention that music should be learned from listening before music reading Each piece is memorized from listening to the tape or record for every lesson Another fundamental principle in this approach is the absolute Ihastery of each step before proceeding to the next One should not measure progress by quantity or speed but rather by quality The Suzuki method concentrates on fostering proper bowing the production of a beautiful tone the proper playing position and posture and good intonation A significant feature of this program is the inclusion of interested par ents and as always sensitive enthusiastic patient teachers Through parental involvement playing an instrument becomes a family affair a joint exploration into the joys of making music In addition by attending the lesson the parent becomes more responsible for providing the neces sary home environment and overseeing the practice period Lessons in the pure Suzuki schools are private although other students and parents are in attendance so that even a private lesson has an audi ence Periodically teachers will bring their students together at recitals concerts or conferences for playins where solo literature is performed en massa These programs are designed not only as an opportunity to culmi nate certain learning eperiences at various levels but also to inform par ents and friends about the progress the children are making A fundamental premise in the Suzuki philosophy is that a child should not discard a composition once it is learned It is only then that musical artistic learning really asserts itself By frequent repetition the child refines each piece Review reinforcement and play ins provide enjoyable experi ences and motivate students to retain pieces they have learned In summary the Suzuki approach is based on the following 1 An organized sequence of musical materials that follow an order based on technical musical levels of ability 2 Recordings by leading artists that provide models for students to emu late 3 Parents attendance at every lesson so that they may assist in the learn ing process 4 Games that use physical activity to free the body and remove tensions in playing and 5 A philosophy expressed in the text Nurtmed by Love The Suzuki approach is now applied to all string instruments piano and flute For more information regarding the Suzuki method see the fol lowing SUZUKI SHINICIII Nurtured By Love Exposition Press Srnithtown N Y 1969 KENDALL JOHN The Suzuki Violin Method in American Music Education Suzuki Method International revised ed Princeton N 1985 Originally pub lished by Music Education National Conference 1996 Wl ffWfflffl39i1l T Developing String Programs in Schools 3 9 LANDERS RAY The Talent Education School of Shinichi Suzuki Exposition Press Srnithtown N Y 1984 STARK WILLIAM 77 Variations on Suzuki Melodies Technique Builders for Violin Surnmy Birchard Music Princeton N 1994 The book is based on familiar Suzuki melodies and covers a variety of techni cal challenges involving double stop vibrato various bowing techniques shifting position studies and harmonies Included in the book is an exten sive study guide that offers basic information and exercises to assist students in developing speci c techniques SUZUKI SIIINICHI Man and Talent Shar Products Co Ann Arbor Michigan 1990 SUZUKI VIOLIN SCHOOL 10 vols SummyBirchard Music Princeton N 1995 The Suzuki Association of the Americas an organization that officially sponsors and approves many teacher training programs may be contacted at 1980 F01 som 1011 Boulder Colorado 80302 THE ROLLAND APPROACH Paul Rolland s approach was originally organized for the violin but as con cepts were developed they were applied to other string instruments The central premise of his approach was that movement training designed to release the student from excessive tensions could be presented from the incipient stages in an organized plan that would contribute to faster learn ing and better playing in all facets of instruction His action studies cul minated in a method book Prelude to String Playirz g published by Boosey S Hawkes and coauthored by Ed Krolick a bassist and Margaret Rowell a cellist A latter supplement to the Prelude is Read and Play which is essen tially a roteto note approach also published by Boosey 3 Hawkes With funding from the US Office of Education Rolland produced fourteen color films and with Marla Mutschler coauthored the book The Teaching of Action in String Playing In addition the project also produced music recordings and photographs illustrating basic techniques that were introduced by Rolland through his research Rolland believed that string teaching involved two important move merits the physiological and the physical He defined physiological move ment as the functions of the body in play Physical movements were concerned with speed weight of the moving arm and bow starting accel eration deceleration change of direction and stopping of the movernent His visual materials and other texts may be obtained through the Illi nois String Research Project University of Illinois Urbana Illinois ASTA has published The Writings of Paul Rolland An Annotated Bibliography by Mark Joseph Eisele 39 KATO HAVAS Although Kato Havas did not consider her approach to teaching the violin a rnethod she did look upon it as a systern utilized to organize the body s natural movementaand balance for performing on the instrument Her book does not contain music based on an organized structure of reper toire but rather it offers detailed information on the application of how to apply her system to all students regardless of their performance level Rolland String Research Associates 404 East Oregon Street Urbana Illinois zlvlarianne Murray Perkins A Comparison of Viol239n Playiug Techniques Kata Ilavas Paul Rolland and Slziniehi Suzuki Reston American String Teachers Association 1995 p 92 40 Developing String Programs in Schools 3 g F quot gr 39 E 39 39 3 339 quot5 asa P a x s W as 39 39 w 5 quot3933 39 I 39 39 x 39 3939 39 I a M 9 u o s r o 3 u quot39 N9m naL quot Kato Haves In her early work A New Approach to Violin Playing llavas identifies five areas that are fundamental to her approach They are 1 fundamental balances and movements 2 the principle of insideoutside playing 3 the secret of the gypsy violinist 4 the major causes of physical tension in playing and 5 the major causes of mental tension in playing Al though Havas s work focuses on violin playing she believes along with her followers that her principles and concepts of balance and mental ap plication may be applied to all string instruments Publications by Kato Havas are A New Approach to Violin Playing Bosworth and Company London England 1961 The Twelve Lesson Course Bosworth and Company London England 1964 A series of exercises for developing technique The Violin and l Bosworth and Company London England 1967 An autobiog raphy Stage Fright Its Causes and Cures Bosworth and Company 1973 The book con tains a thorough analysis of each of three factors affecting stage fright physi cal mental and social 39lquothe Release from Tension and Anxiety in String Playingquot in Tensions in the Performance of Music ed Carola Grindea 1327 Kahn amp Avrill London En gland 1978 In addition to these five basic books Havas worked with Jerome Lands man to offer a sequential series of music for string classes 3 F rm quotl3 aw we to U H H 7 F it ill W e e Developing String Programs in Schools 4 1 HAVAS KATC AND LANDSMAN JEROME Freedom to Play A String Class Teaching Method ABIAlexander Broude Inc New York 1981 For an organized indepth analysis of Kate Iiavas s system and her ap proach to violin teaching an excellent resource is DrMarianne Per1ltins s A Comparison of Violin Playing Techniques Kata Haves Paul Rolland and Shimichi Suzuki cited above It may be obtained through The American String Teachers Association 1806 Robert Fulton Drive Suite 300 Reston VA 22091 Her comparison of the violin techniques of these three seminal teachers is reproduced below Major Technical Features Compared Techniques Foundation Stance Violin Hoid Violin Level Bow Hold Flight Thumb Position and Function Right Arrn Movements Pronation amp Supination Bowing Actions Bilateral Movements Bowing Path Left Arm Movements Left Finger Placement Vibrato Shifting Tone Quality lliming Movements Singingvocalizing pitches Haves lnter reiated Balances Balance centered on third leg quotNo violin hold scroll pointed just left of center of body Slight downward siope quotFlying bow or quotno bowquot hold Russian or Gypsy style No set fingerthumb place ment thumb and horsehair iink to transmit energy Rhythmic divisions in the shoulder and elbow joints Some pronatlon and supin ation Horizontal swinging move ments Yes A result of rhythmic arm movements Left elbow swings away from vioiln Exclusive horizontal swinging actions Non traditionai quotnatural vibratoquot Interval Swings quotUnforced based on the quotinner ear and singing Yesfundamental Yes essential Rolland Balance amp Movement Weight shifts between the two feet Balanced between six con tact points scroli pointed in direction of left foot Eye level Traditional FrancoBelgian hold Across from second finger important for bow balance Upper arm initiates bow strokes Pronation and supination important Rotarycyclical Yes Varies according to music Left elbow swings under violin Vertical horizontai some and across strings Traditional style Traditional quotShutttes quotFuil singing quality Some bowing exercises No Suzuki Listening amp Imitation Weight primarily over left foot Supported by shoulder and chin scroil pointed in direction of left foot Eye level Old German Schooi hold Joachim Across from second nger Parade Thumb Naif Action initiates tone and articulation Upper arm and elbow initiate bow strokes No i3FOUE1 IlOTi notsunioation Convex arc patterns No Consistentiy on quotKreisler Highway Left elbow swings under violin Mainly vertical limited horizontal Traditionai style two tonedquot vibrato Traditional style quotDiamond Tonequot Tone With Living Soul Some bowing exercises No Reproduced with permission from A Comparative Study of the Violin Playing Techniques Develpeo by Kate Haves Paul Holland and Shinichi Suzuki by Mari anne Murray Perkins published by the American String Teachers Association 42 Developing String Programs in Schools THE BORNOFF APPROACH George Bornoff developed a successful approach to teaching strings that focused on the left hand through the utilization of five finger patterns When students became proficient in these five patterns they were capable of performing music in any key at an early age or early stage of playing Bornoff proposed that the entire finger board be learned as early as possi ble so that two fingered scales and other lefthand exercises were em ployed early in a student s instruction George Bornoff At the same time the student developed right hand technique through a variety of studies that employed many fundamental bowing techniques almost from the beginning These studies included upbow and down bow staccatos spiccato and d tach at varying bow speeds and utilizing the various segments of the bow The function of these exercises was to build a tonal base that would result in a beautifulsound The initial books were all technical studies but later songbooks were published to accompany the technical tudes The songbooks utilized all finger patterns in a variety of keys In addition they used the bow tech niques that students had acquired so that all their right and lefthand technique might be used in a musical setting amp ak k g amp F Z Wm W Wm Developing String Programs in Schools TRADITIONAL APPROACHES Probably the most successful of all traditional books are the ones that were developed from stringclass teaching by Sam Applebaurn The complete se ries of Applebaum books cover every aspect of string playing They follow all of the established pedagogical procedures and contain popular folk songs as well as early easy string pieces The series is published by Belwinlvlills In addition to his books and publications which ranged from the very begin ning stages of string playing to difficult advanced studies Applebaurn developed a series of films designed to visualize ways of solving simple string problems These films are also available from BelwinMills Publishing Corporation in Miami Florida in half inch and one inch video tapes Samuel Applebaum Robert Kiotman Action with Strings by Robert Klotman published by Southern Music Com pany can best be described as an eclectic approach It utilizes the finger patterns and bowing studies that one finds in the Bornoff books but is built around musical pieces that follow a sequence based on skill and technical development The basic levels follow traditional patterns and students ac quire vocabulary and cognitive knowledge about music as they progress through the book CHAMBER MUSIC IN THE SCHOOLS Every program regardless of its grade level or the technical proficiency of its players should offer opportunities for chamber music Some of the ben efits of playing one on a part are as follows 43 4 4 Developing String Programs in Schools 1 It provides excellent opportunities for individualized instruction 2 The listening skills of its participants are enhanced 3 Exposure to one on a part helps players improve their melodic and rhythmic capabilities 4 Players improve their intonation 5 Through chamber music students gain musical confidence and under standing 6 All of these benefits contribute to the improvement of orchestral play mg In addition chamber ensembles offer the program considerable flexibil ity Small groups may make appearances to enhance public relations where the larger group would be unable to appear For further information regarding the use of and opportunity for chamber music write to Chamber Music America 545 Eighth Avenue New York New York 10018 phone 212 2442772 STRINGS IN THE YEARZODO Music for orchestra represents a large part of the vast cultural heritage of the instrumental music of Western society The genre includes works by the great European and American composers All students should be ex posed to this literature as well as jazz and nonWestern musics Young people interested in performing on string instruments should have the op portunity to pursue that interest and develop their talent ms 73 00 339i in P rj gV Assignment 3 Mus 151 String Method Instructor Dr IBei Lin 33932 OnePage Summary of Paul Rollaml s Teaching ofAet1o1i ma Strmgflayxng 33quot 13 219 9 I138 k one Wide thamat gielaz 9f Joan 3 2 1 3 3z 3 quot 39 3 2 v Qi 4 f i 5 k39ltI P h 335 q a 5 2 39E lt339x39 i399 v s 4x ex39r 39 ii 2 s 3 g 3 39 one you preferjof the Paul RbZZand s T eachzng ofActfon m S2 rmg Playmg The tapecangblt3zie6z da1d bgrroxazedpat the Sinc1airAYCet rV b s amp p b kP 0 a i39 s H 4b X c I 0wb A 2 jP 5 z 3 W r 1 b 79 s gquot quotf39 a 5 f I t 3 5 V K 3 t A 3c 5 m Z 2513r339kX A 3 g i 5 ii 7 E3 2 a tfg E lt 11 as s j 5 1 39 No late asslgnment 1s acce ted mY mY mY 1 2 T 7 r3939 x 39139 391 9 3 PW pg w 3ai in 1 Z quot 39 V 339 aiquot lt73 quot 57 lt 3 2 5 5 x quot i I 2 39 239 x rs 39 pr 39 5 v w i 1quot o I E 1quot p 2 I g L r s 3 gt IBei Lin Long Sustained Tone Breath control is for the singerthe ability to sing long phrases without having to interrupt them for a new breathbow contral in the long sustained storke is for the string players the ability to sustain a long tone of musical phrase without having to change bow Galamian Practice the following exercises in open strings and double stops Tone production resonance and evenness 1 Spun tone 60 2 counts near the ngerboard 4 counts closer to the bridge 8 counts 10 counts 12 counts near the bridge Body movment 1 go with the bow direction 2 go against the bow direction in order to sustain the sound at the tip 2 Son Fil Index nger has to be educated to the sensitivity of feeling the resistance of the strings the pressure and friction exerted by the bow on the strings 391 gt Vlt gt t gt l quotll 3 Roul o The goal is to help the student to get the deepest sllest soudn without forcing None of the joints should be locked 0 Playing the sustained note on open strings and rolling the bow between the ngers during the stroke so that the stick will lean alternately toward the ngerbaord and twoard the bridge No jerking while rolling the bow 1391 J gtlt gtlt gtltquotgtlt gtltquotgtlt 5 quot 1 3 l l 1 I E I 0 U D 1 E Cq 9 6 bit 11 gt stick rolled toward ngerboard lt sticl roiled toward the bridge P Wm T he Left Hand Extensions T T Posture 2 The extended position of the left hand also referred to as the quotstretchedquot position the quotex panded handquot or the quotopen handquot position in volves a stretch between the first and second fingers from the usual halfstep to a whole step This means an expansion of the total span of the hand from a minor third to a major third It is extremely important however that this expan sion or stretch only involve the first and second fingers The rest of the hand and fingers con tinue in the same relative position halfsteps between each finger The bacltward extension or lowered form is preferably taught before the forward extension or raised form it is simpler to execute at first and gives the student the quotsetquot or quotfeelquot of the extended hand The extended po sition constitutes Postuxre 2 of the four basic cello postures THE BACKWARD EXTENSION OR LOWERED FORM In executing the backward extension the 1rst finger stretches back a halt step from the Fig 13 Posture 2 regular position while all the rest of the hand and fingers remain in the same relative position and shape The first finger in this position be cause of the whole step now between it and the Practice the following rote study being second finger has straightened out somewhat sure to keep down the second third and fourth lj and actually points back at an angle and lies a fingers during the whole study moving only the 3quot little more on its side in this position See Fig first finger to play the alternating B natural and are 13 The thumb remains opposite the second B flat this may also be transposed to other finger strings for further practice uuuumonn nnu n m execute this extension the tip of the first finger quot emains in its usual place on the proper note 3935 FORWARD EXTENSION OR RAISED FORM In making the forward extension the hand oves a little toward the bridge of the instru ent hence the term quotforward extensionquot To 1 in me regular or natural position The rest of the hand including the thumb advances down the snack of the instrument a halfstep with the thumb moving along underneath the second fin 31 The first finger as the hand advancespiV t 055 a little on its tip The finger itself straight ens and assumes the position of pointing upward 39 toward the player39s ear lobe Thus the movement required to expand the Z reach of the hand is just the opposite of that in Q uk q making the backward extension But after the P Fig 14 Posture 2 F u finger on the forward extension 39 A r 2 It is not enough just to stretch the second This fault 39I s R n jeopardizing While achieving the distance between the first and second fingers places the third and fourth fingers out of position for their proper notes the intonation Moreover an extra execution of the forward extension the hand and fingers appear just as they did in the backward extension Hence the appearance and aspect of the arm hand and fingers are the same for both extensions only the executions are different In making the forward extension the thumb moves along theneck of the cello a little under rzeafh the second finger in a single simultane ous movement with the second third and fourth fingers and hand and arm too The first finger tip remains in its regular place and the finger pivots as already described It is very irnpor tant that the second third and fourth fingers re main in proper alignment over the string poised over their new respective notes and ready to play these tones to insure correct intonation See Figure 14 all the fingers down and Figure 15 first finger down and others ready to play Fig 15 Posture 2 awkward rolling movement of the hand has to be made to bring these fingers back into proper alignment over the string The single coordi nated tnovementin making the forward extension of all the elements involved arm hand and fin gers with the thumb moving along the neck 1 Octave ScalesString Bass C Scale G Scale D Scale A Scale E Scale F Scale 1 Octave ScalesCello C Scale C Scale D Scale A Scale 1X2X40X2x400x4X21Ox4x21 E Scale 1X2x401 134431 0x4X2 F Scale F Scale Looming Tenor clef is used in cello music to expand to the higher register and to avoicl the ledger lines in the bass and treble clef Cellists are expected to read l39lt1 1139l not onlyquot bass clef hut also tenor anti rrchle cleis lquotlltgtwevc39r rruiriy intermccliztte cellists l1 1Vt 1 llt39i1sti39it39i1ig t39i39ne i t1 lii391g tenor clef after plajging cello for 21 couple oiquot years Many of39rny39 stoclcmrs Find it tlifliculr to read the new cleftetior clef since most oi them are bass or treble clef readers 39lquothey not only need to read the tt rCgt139 clefin the music but also often need to sigl1t te9cl the passages in tenor clei in orchestral reliearsals Tliis osiially occurs when they need to pass Gracie 4 mi1sic siricl higher and they I C3E1lll that they are not able to lcleritify melotlies in tenor clels anti locate where Ilse are on the cello The srticle contains two W39El398 oi rcaciing the tenor Zl39C l ifo r the trellis clei7 restless 3i1l Z for the bass Cielquot reatlcrs and also discusses tenor clef supplemental rr1atcrials 392ivziilablc For cellists today Two ways oi iie 1tl 1i1 g the tenor clef to the srmlenrs 1 l3or treble clcll rezttlcrsz Many cello players can i39eacl treble clefquot quite well quotlquot39iel3le clciquotmltl tenor clef are 3 nirirh spiirt One CIAI rczicl the notes in tenor cleilzis illit were in treble clef and play 21 note ttntl an octave lower l louritl this is the easiest way PSiI flCUl 1 quotly for the stoclenrs who can teacl in treble clefwell See music example 1 fl2Lsz39r Jibczz rzrple 1 h E393l the note one whole step lower as in the treble clef 76 I American String Teacher l November 2008 quotaJxvc S ml 5 iv 39i c then play the note an CCI 3V lower the actual note 3 8351 p 2 For bass clef reactlers Cello players know their bass clef very well We always hear that the easiest way is to play every note the next string higher when one first starts to read cello music in tenor clef However this approach only worlts if the written tenor cleflnotcs are below the top line of the stall where one would play in the ilrst position on the A string insteatl l iTl 1C D string Anything zihove the top line wotilcl require us to liave an H string which we clorft have Fc cording to Tito lsnof39 in the lnternet Cello Society the bass clef anti the tenor clel72tre 2 perfect fth apart which 1 2liquot1S that they are five notes apart The students can men tally shift the tenor clef notes three lines or three spaces up or they can think in terms oiquot1 perfect fli l391igher izliery will final the note they need See l39Z H1SlC c X 1i 391pl t 2 il izitric39 3crzri2p e 2 a h rezitl 38 in the lmss clef r v rzs rl z Tenor Clef for Cello Students There is no other way to perfect one tenor clef reading than to practice reading more music in the tenor clef T here are ve supplemental lOOlltS available to aid in learning tenor clef l 72 nor firf art ER Cello hy Ceissizi lquotlarvey A Harvey Publicatiozis quotThis book is tiseftil to the intcrmecliv ate cello stoclemis who are struggling re1diiquot1g tenor clef quotlhe hook St39139tS of by giving a new note or two per lesson such as starting middle C in the first lesson with many exercises and pieces The exercises change back and Forth between bass to tenor clef The hoolc is well organi39zctl and progressive quot39lquotl391c book starts with the first position and goes up to the transitiontliurtih posi tioos 6th 7th aricl 8th positions lo the lziter pirt oi the book I nal the shifting exercises are helpful to students who are struggling with shifting quotlhe students will not only learn the tenor clef well in this book but also will know the geogriplquot1y of the cello positions DJ nrzrrzz3972g Mm 39Zwr Clisfldy list m anti lan Ciotit l31lquotgter 239losic Ltcl 39lquothc hoolt is c1 gtr391ixcl in lteys oi r1391ijor zmcl relative minor starting from C major up to three sliarpsilzits and is intended For ccllists oi Grade 4 aiiliry At the top of each lesson the riotes usecl in the appropriate scale are given first in the bass and then in tenor clef A short exercise in duet fotrn that it teacher can play with a student anti 21 real piece are incluclecl in the same lltev Main playing tcclmiqucs are included shiitirig l7ron391 the lower to the ltigher register learn iog to read and play in the E1 1nSiiii3911l positions of the cello and reaclirig across strings Another pltis olithe hook is that it comes with piano accompaniment 39lhc musical selections give stuclents exv pcrience by incorporating the real music while using tenor clef The selection of the inusic is good zmci the stuclemis can perform the pieces at 1 public C 391C I39I ll 3 I o9z39zr390n f z39z m Jr39 CKMJ Book 2 liy Riltllt ilVloo1ltr 39lhL lsoollt is o39gmi2ec39l lgty l illh Sixill and SL V Y1El391 positions on cello Coincis clontally 39l39l range ofnotes commonly used in fl10SC positions C0139r c3spooltls with the same notes in tenor Ciel Thoi39eFore this book is also 1 elton391mcncl ed as one olquotrl391c SL1pplltquot l 1t21l mc39rholtl hooks for tenor clef A wellexplained inrroltl1acrior is 21 must read lcFolce wo139llting on the book Mooney usos clue quotlia1 gct S39Sf l fl in his method books in I39Clt ffl39 to final i l39i correct note on tho l39ingo139lgtoa139l Tile notes that he uses in the loollt 115 391139gcr plfacztlcc mi l c tosrqtal 1g1i11st open s139z39iI1gs anti l1mnonilts lor I3fl1I39 l ZC l EO amp1tiOi l which helps sol clcnrs C3 pi i i i Cquot I C39C fly at home He also has spectihcally dchnnttl l39mlt main i irgo39 p1tfrc3939ns 1sc39cl in the l2I39 1nSiiOI 13l positions l m39e139n l consisi s ol 21 whole step lZ fl WcquotCJ 1 Isl zmcl Zncl lingers Will a liallistcp laotxvccn Zncl 29l39il 3rl lirigcirs l att e1 n H is 21 l l21llquotS39 p llt src2c n lst and End tilwn 1 whole Siitfp bccrwczon End zmui 3rd lquotingcr39s l7ma139n ill uses all W l1lTS39Cp AI1ot l 1lttr plus is th1 the boollt lI391Clt1lCS 2 geograpliy worksheet on evc ry position that hczlps students lltn0wwl391 re the notes are locatccl on l391EZ cello lhe book also shows photos oiquot mach lcl rl1e1r 1ltl pzmom Tlnere is no piano accompanimcrn Most pieces are writ1 cn in lllffi l39o139m mad the t39o1cl391ltr cgzin play zln l L 5S part to 21ltaomp1I 139 the smclltnrs l quotlc also cquot zugt111393gcs lm suulcnrs to ligiiro out l l39iL lquot own l39ing3rs Iincl bowing Flo only melrlcs the lingltr ings when 21 new slli occurs it is 21 lsezlpihl hook ITO l1aw to l1iciliaatc not only tenor clef 1quotlt1dingz but also geogr1 phy in l ilquotquot1l391 sixth and S CI393tl positions on the cello 39fE zrxr Clcfflns lo1 n1 lavlgt39 l39l39iy porion Hess ilhis book 1 1 iiS39S oiquot 15 pages ofquot czxcrr cises quotlies hools starts with an lI391l39i 0Cli C ion of how 0 read I 1Q clef which is l39iclpl71l to St1Cl3i I39S illacz book contains fourtli position lif ll 1 sixth seventh anal eigliltli posizions complete with piano Z1 i Yquotl p21nimltants 3957zzlt lvc2mIsquotfE2z 039 72720 C laf Sold by ilOIquot39c iS 1z39lt39l Stsiligggsl 39l39l 1o llisl1cnrcls are pa139t c1l11 ljg39 11scflquotul 1ncl hm 0 use in o ltp lessons ilhe rod redial of Weill Reciloi Hall of Carnegie Hall in 2005 onci hos oiso been an linolisi of Comegle Holl in the Pro Musicis lniernolionoi Solo Awards in 2006 Lin is o founding cellist of two foculty piano lrios of the Unlvarsiiy of Hawaii Trio Monoo ond Trio Xio Prior so the carcls reprosezat the noses on A string and I qL1 iSI39 the stuclcrms to play the 1 10E fS on the A szririg The cards includc first position foonli position and righth position thumb position ilhxi blue csrcis rcprczscm the notes on the D string University of Howoii she served os acting and also go up from the lirst the fourth cello professor or Luther College in Iowa ond os o ieoching ossisfcmf of bofh Northwestern University oncl Meodowrnounf School of Music Her primary teachers included Hons Jorgen Jensen Steve Doone ond Pomoio Frame and eighth positions on the D string In conclusion learning the tenor Clefwill gm czasier over time One of he most popular cello series the SL17ollti method hooks starts l39lti 1I clef 1396sclirzg in Book 4 on C zzznsorz T5quoti t39e by quotlquotchiilovsllty In E1Clquot clirtion to C7rJns2n 7 z39m l will add Clquotl I39 tltnor CTlC lSi p139lltTE39quoti ll1S will 1quotl39i 3i 39 f39quot as 39nontionocl bltloL39c ljl 1 I t are only 21 few books available for toaclaing Eti I 139I39 clef The most popular two books are Y vzor Cief rr the Cello by Cassia lwlarvoy and 9 05z39zi0rz Pz39eces 9r Ccailo Book 2 By studying any of those supplementcal books i l391 studonss will lmow how so reazl the rcno39 clelancl play the in l39lquot1 liigliiczr positions with grciator ease Dr l Bei Lin is on Associate professor of cello or the illnivorsiiy of Hawaii oi iiVxonoo Lin 2 nolive of lloiwcsn received her Doctor 39 1 music degree with Honors gond her mosier of music idegree from Northwestern University She holds o Bocholor of Music degree with distinction from the Eoslmon School of Music She has performed solo recitols in the United States Toiwon Ausfrio Germany New Zeolond France Spain Thailand and Chino She gotve her solo clebm We are L1 Full Service iViolin Shop Violins Violas Cellos Basses T Sales l Rer1talquot39Online Sales Instruments 3 Bows in All Sizes Student to Professional Selectlion quot39 Rsio239ation Repair Unlike general music stores lhca Experts atiCf3tri1391gs cloal tE XClL1SlVE l in SlIlngi SlTTUI39 G139iiS Creating World Class Instruments in the Hearquot of mericn You Dream We Listen Together We Create kcstringscom r s lltC Strings is privileged to support the American String Teachers Association 5842 ivierrianl Dr lVl 3I39l lE1m KS 66203 Phone 913 677l lGO Fax 913 639quot l50Ei wwwoslowebltom I9 6 Intermediate Class Instruction Competency 17 Be able to mark bowings in a string part Some Basic Bowing Guidelines One must remember that none of these rules is binding There are many exceptions that are dictated by musical concerns and one can find in stances where two outstanding string teachers will disagree over the same passage These rules are merely set up to establish guidelines for the inex perienced string teacher 1 Measures usually begin with a downvbow 2 To comply with rule number 1 notes that begin before a bar line if they consist of an odd number of separate bows begin with an up bow Pints 3 A dotted eighth note and sixteenth are usually linked See hooked bowing p170 cbl 4 If there are a succession of uninterrupted sixteenth notes without slurs then each group of four begins with a downbow 5 To achieve a crescendo it is better to move from the point to the frog An excellent example of an exception to rule number 1 employing rule number 5 is Bach s Air on the G String which begins with crescendo on a sustained whole note It is better to begin with an upbow Fl 2LsJ5l1 u Pf 6 Where long sustained notes caused by ties slurs or tempo occur it is better in orchestral playing to permit change of bow by different play ers at different times On suggestion is Do not change on a beat and assign inside and outside players on each stand different designated times 39 7 In syncopation especially in accented or forte passages the syncopated note is played with a downbow tlhlil l 1 Q l1 l a r2 ti 4 p at it pS X 1 fr 0R 5 2 if I ll 439 T W rA 0 rr r of as fit A quot3 quot V J v39 Some Simple Guidelines Determining Bowing 8 When there is tie or slur over a bar line it is usually played with a down bow Overture HandelKiotman Moderate f 197 Basic bowing term 1 On the string Detache it is smooth change om one how strike to another F1 4 Cetlo 3 f Sraccatoz detached separated or disconnected note played with the bow remaining on the string Cello Martelez each stroke is prepared by pressure before playing and must be following by an immediate release IL I3 Y Cello ji 57 n M f Q Slur slurred notes are those that continue in the same direction or follow in sequence without bow change 39 quotquotquot ta 11 V Cello 1 ex 2 O quot the string Spiccatoz bouncing bow the spiccato bow moves in a horizontal direction like a detache bow except that there is a lift after each stroke often found in the music of Haydn or Mozart V 391 Cello 1 Some terms Sulponticello close to the bridge Col Iegnor with the Woods S211 tasto sotto voce pleaced the bow over the ngerboard Pizzicaro pluck the string Project j Technique Analysis Mus 151 String Method Dr IBei Lin Do a technical analysis of the selected piece I RIGHT HAND FUNCTIONS BOW indicate in the music 0 Place a bow direction marking over the first note in each measure and whenever the usual downup asit comes pattern changes within a measure Sluts and ties are excluded of course 39 a Place an 7 between two notes played on different strings ie string crossing 9 Indicate the name of the bow stroke required when in first occurs in the piece eg detache staccato slurred staccato spiccato martele portato or sautille See bowing classi cation chart for notation and de nitions etc r v The first measure is done as an example for you H LEFT HAND FUNCTIONS Indicate in the music 9 Place a ngering over every note in the piece except where notes are immediately repeated o Indicate where the halfstep spacing occurs between two notes by using the A mark It is helpful to think through the patterns needed for each string in the given key signature o Indicate where shifts occur if any by marking a dash P before the ngering indicating the new position eg 8 4 means the fourth nger is used in the new position 111 GENERAL write out on one separate page 0 Indicate at least three particularly problematic measures why they are so and how you would approach solving them 0 How do you address intonation problem indicate three measures where significant problems may occur gao quot39 quot n 1 I I D 4x P w v Sizze of Performance jigg s Etude for Orchestral Bowings 4 E m 0 h Moderate ELIZABETH AH GREEN rt V9 W 1st VIOLIN I End VIOLIN iOLA CELLO BASS Cgpyriqh 3393 MCMKX by Car Fi1chcr1m Sew for 4 J Ox SCORE J1 1
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'