U.S. History Since 1865
U.S. History Since 1865 HIST 112
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Date Created: 10/19/15
US History Presidents 19002008 1900 Theodore Roosevelt quotTrust Busterquot and quotGreat Conservationist 1908 William Howard Haft Dollar Diplomacy called for the use of diplomatic and military action to further business interests overseas 1912 Woodrow Wilson President during WWI advocated the creation of the League of Nations 1920 Warren G Harding Considered one of the worst presidents numerous scandals 1922 Calvin Coolidge Prosperity between the 2 world wars adoption of the KelloggBriand Act 1928 Herbert Hoover President during the Stock Market Crash and when the Great Depression began heavily criticized for doing so little 1932 Franklin D Roosevelt Instituted many programs to bring the country out of the Great Depression CommanderinChief during much of WWII 1944 Harry S Truman Became president when FDR died saw end of WWII and dropping of atomic bombs 1952 Dwight D Eisenhower Pres During 1950s relative prosperity 1960 John F Kennedy Nixon V Kennedy Closest election since 1888 Kennedy wins 1963 LBJ becomes president when JFK is assassinated enactment of important civil right legislation and escalation of Vietnam War 1968 Nixon President during end of Vietnam War first president to resign Watergate 1972 Gerald Ford First person to become president that had not been elected to either the presidency or vicepresidency pardoned Nixon 1976 Jimmy Carter instrumental in achieving peace between Egypt and Israel with the Camp David Accords Iran Hostage Crisis 1980 Ronald Reagan Massive bulid up of the military which the USSR couldn t sustain led to break up of the USSR after his second term ended 1988 George H W Bush First Persian Gulf War 1992 Bill Clinton President during most of the 1990s second president to be impeached though not removed from office 2000 George W Bush September 11 h terrorist attacks wars in Afghanistan and Iraq 2008 Barack Obama Taking Sides Issue 14 Was Rock and Roll Responsible for Dismantling America s Traditional Family Sexual and Racial Customs in the 1950s and 1960s gtYES Jody Pennington believes that the emergence of rock and roll in the 1950s along with new forms of consumerism expressed quotthe inner conflict between conservative and rebellious forces for high school teenagers who wanted to rebel against their parents yet still grow up to be them gtNO J Ronald Oakley argues that although the lifestyles of youth departed from their parents their basic ideas and attitudes were still the conservative ones that mirrored the conservativism of the affluent age in which they grew up lssue 16 Did President Nixon Negotiate a quotPeace with Honor in Vietnam in 1973 gtYES Richard Nixon believes that the South Vietnamese government would not have lost the war to North Vietnam in 1975 if Congress had not cut off aid gtNO According to Professor Larry Berman President Nixon knew that the Paris Peace Accords of January 1973 were flawed but he intended to bomb North Vietnamese troops to prevent the collapse of South Vietnam until he left office lssue 17 Has the Women s Movement of the 1970s Failed to Liberate American Women gtYES F Carolyn Graglia argues that women should stay at home and practice the values of quottrue motherhood because contemporary feminists have discredited marriage devalued traditional 39 quot Uand 0 39sexual 39 gtNO According to Professor Sara M Evans despite class racial religious ethnic and regional differences women in America experienced major transformations in their private and public lives in the twentieth century lssue 18 Is the United States a Declining Power gtYES Professor Andrew J Bacevich a West Point graduate and Vietnam veteran believes that the United States has major problems because it has enlarged the power of the presidency and abuses its military power to create an informal empire in the energyrich Persian Gulf in its pursuit of a consumer dominated good life gtNO Dr Fareed Zakaria a political commentator for CNN believes the United States is still a great power in the postindustrial world because of its tremendous advantages in education immigration and scientific innovation Manhattan Project Develop atomic bomb Many scientists were Jews from Germany 2 phases theoretical at University of Chicago and Practical at Los Alamos NM KFactor ncreasing U235 uranium splitting neutrons ration of 151 generation and second and so on Potsdam Declaration Churchill and Truman meet Truman gets news atomic bomb is good to go On July 26 Truman tells Japan to surrender or US will use a weapon of quotutter destruction Yalta Russia agrees to enter war with the Japanese 3 months after Germany s defeat Hiroshima and Nagasaki Hiroshima Aug 6th Nagasaki Aug 9th Both Hiroshima and Nagasaki had significant military bases Policy towards Japanese JapaneseAmerican relocation Fearful of Japanese FDR issues Executive Order 9066 War Relocation Authority Milton Eisenhower Containment Monolithic Communism Moscow George F Kennan Mister X quotfluid stream divert it show our system is better Truman Doctrine Attempt to implement containment quotOutside pressures and armed minorities First applied in Greece and Turkey Marshall Plan June 1947 giving commencement address fund European Recovery Plan quotimperialist plotquot Truman s biggest success Cold War Political conflict military tension proxy wars and economic competition existing after WWII between the Communists Soviet Union and the Western world US Berlin Airlift Russia blocked ground transportation to E Germany US flew in supplies showed our system was better Fascism Elite ruling group ideology of the far right authoritarian by design totalitarian Communism In theory everyone is equal same salary same food etc In practice is more similar to Fascism Ideology of the far left socialism everyone is equal NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization First time America joined military alliance during peacetime quotAttack against a member nation is considered an attack against us all 1949 SEATO South East Asian Treaty Organization Treaty organization similar to NATO Special protocol gt South Vietnam Bert the Turtle when you see the flash duck and coverquot Massive Retaliation and Brinksmanship Eisenhower John Foster Dulles Avoid bankrupting nation by putting most of the defense budget into nuclear weapons More bang for the buck Caused a constant state of crisisbrinksmanship Who lost China Truman published White Paper saying Chaing Chaing had more firepower and manpower 3 to 1 Corruption in Chaing s government Warsaw Pact Communist retaliation to NATO cause polar war Communism v imperialists 1955 Viet Minh Ho Chi Minh leads it to try and overthrow colonial France Invaded Dien Bein Phu French fortress fell in 1954 Geneva Accords Cambodia Laos North Vietnam amp South Vietnam split at 17 h parallel in 2 years 1956 there were supposed to be election to reunify Vietnam US didn t allow elections afraid Ho Chi Minh communist would win 38 h Parallel Divided North and South Korea 17 h Parallel Divided North and South Vietnam Korean Conflict Divided Korea at the 38 h parallel USSR controls North US controls south June 1950 N Korea crosses 38 h parallel UN sanctionquotpolice action By the time police action is taken S Koreans are near the bottom MacArthur attacks at nchon N Korean retreats back to the 38 h parallel UN council allows MacArthur to cross 38th Truman fires MacArthur Chinese enter war cross Yalu River and join N Korea pushes S Korea back below 38th 3 years later back where we started Defense Perimeter Dean Acheson Jan 1950 Need a line to protect but causes more problems Defend Korea and Vietnam aren t included Counterinsurgency Flexible response guerrilla warfare SEALS Domino Theory If one land in a region came under the influence of communism then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect Clarify the need for American intervention around the world External Aggression Theory Gulf of Tonkin Resolution blank checkquot for Johnson to do whatever he thinks will solve it Americanizes the war Summer 1964 Passed 418 to 2 and 88 to 0 Johnson s rationale for escalation of the Vietnam War Hoped that US firepower would force Ho Chi Minh to the bargaining table in early August N Vietnamese clashed with two US destroyers patrolling the Gulf of Tonkin LBJ condemned the attack as unprovoked and called on Congress to pass the previously prepared resolution giving him the authority to lltake all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression ARVN Army of the Republic of Vietnam South Vietnamese Army NLF National Liberation Front Trying to get rid of DM in South Ho Chi Minh makes overtures to NLF in South VC Vietcong or NLF quot political organization and army in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War Checkers Speech Nixon llslush fund of 18000 close to getting kicked off ticket fund was for paying postage TV time cut off before number could be put up Election of 1960 Nixon V Kennedy Kennedy is Catholic put allegiance to the Pope to rest TV debates for the first time closest election since 1888 Kennedy is elected Tet Offensive Jan 31 1968 Vietnamese New Years Americans thought they had destroyed N Vietnam s offensive NVA and VC planned attack coordinated Attacked Saigon VC got inside Embassy compound and into the ambassador s house US and S Vietnam beat back N Vietnam offense Destroyed Johnson s idea nd ruined credibility The Pueblo Credibility Gap Difference between the administrations is telling us about Vietnam and what was happening Prior to Vietnam and Watergate Americans tended to believe administration turns that cultural aspect around skeptical Election of 1968 Nixon Humphrey Wallace Vietnaminzation expand equip and train South Vietnam s forces and assign to them an everincreasing combat role at the same time steadily reducing the number of US combat troops Paris Peace Accords ntended to establish peace in Vietnam and end the war ended direct US military involvement and temporarily stopped the fighting between north and south Signed on January 27 1973 The Nixon Pardon Nixon Mentality People were out to quotgetquot him and the country What is good for Nixon is good for the country quotWhen the president does it it s not illegal Pentagon Papers internal document for government officials to understand Vietnam problems Daniel Ellsberg leaked the papers quotPlumbersquot try to discredit Ellsberg by breaking into his psychiatrist s office on Labor Day weekend 1971 Watergate Nixon sets up his own personal White House Network 1969 phone tap Joseph Kraft Tom Huston Huston Plan wiretaps etc Liddy Brookings Institution firebomb etc June 17 1972 Operation Gemstone Wire tapped the DNC phones On June 23rd Nixon is helping to coverup quotsmoking gun People Pat Boone covered black artist s songs and sold more copies than his black counterparts Alan Freed DJ who coined word rocknroll Elvis the Pelvis Mississippiborn rock and roll singer beloved among younger Americans in the 1950s Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique sparking the quotSecond wavequot of American feminism in the twentieth century founded NOW Ho Chi Minh ndochina leads the Viet Minh tries to overthrow colonial France Chiang Kaishek Jiang Jieshi Nationalist Chinese initially in control of government then exiled to Taiwan in 1949 Mao TseTung Mao Zedong Communist provides basic needs to countryside soviets lukewarm to Mao 1949 Mao wins and exhiles nationalist Chinese to Taiwan J Robert Oppenheimer Theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California Berkeley llfather of the atomic bomb Scientific Director of the Manhattan Project George Kennan quotMister Xquot m Theory on containment llfluid stream divert it show how our system is better Douglas MacArthur old soldiers never die they just fade away pushed to pursue the North Koreans passed the 38 h parallel criticizes Truman Truman fires him Also fought in WWII on the Western front Diem First president in South Vietnam after the withdrawal of France from Indochina as a result of the Geneva Accords was assassinated by ARVN on November 2 1963 LBJ Great Society llWar on Poverty llJohnson treatment greatly escalated direct American involvement in the Vietnam War John Foster Dulles Massive retaliation avoid bankrupting nation by putting most of the military budget into nuclear weapons Henry Kissinger Secretary of State d tente opening of relations with China negotiated the Paris Peace Accords Nixon s top foreignpolicy advisor Robert Kennedy Was running for president and was assassinated on June 5 at the Ambassador Hotel in LA by Sirhan Sirhan Martin Luther Kinng African American minister whose emphasis on nonviolence catapulted him to leadership of civil rights movement Hubert Humphrey Lost to Nixon in 1968 George Wallace Ran for president four times and lost all of them southern populist prosegregation George McGovern Liberal senator from South Dakota and Democratic candidate for 1972 dove dropped his VP after it became known that Eagleton had received electricshock therapy for depression decriminalization of History 1 12 119201 1 HistoriographyThe History of History 18611865 Civil Wars Reconstruction 1 2 1 20 1 1 1863 or 18651877 De Jure By law De Facto By Practice 0 Fundamental Change 0 Major Problems 0 Lincoln s 10 Plan 0 Puzzling Constitution Questions 0 Two Paradoxes Home Rule Economic Change Industry goes up in the North Political Change De Jure 13m 14th 15111 Fumish necessary for planting Social Change 1 24 20 1 1 Lincoln 10 plan 10 of EX Confederate have to pledge loyalty Radical Republican believed that there would be an overthrow Don t let key gures hold of ce Andrew Johnson picks up a er Lincoln s Assassination o Puzzling Constitutional Questions Should be lenient or hard and who set terms 0 Paradoxes 1263201 1 Hierarchical Paradigm 1 person 1 vote Chain of Being Aristotleunquestioned Mud sill Theory Horizontal Theory The last west Triple G Gold God Glory 12 820 11 The Miners 0 The Anatomy of a Rush 0 Strike Reported 0 Boom Town Mentality o Miners Player Mining Merchants Prostitutions Bad Men Gamblers 50 to l Saloons to Churches Worked out Strike out to Ghost Town 2quotd strike Company Movement Migration OOOOOOOOOOO Sacred Sioux By General Custard 13 1201 1 The Cowboy o Enemies of the Open Range 0 Prairie Farmer Homestead Act 1862 160 acresfree 12Xl4 Sheepers Weather 188586 8687 000 22201 1 Robber Barons o Rockefellers o J P Morgan 0 Carnegie 2 4 20 l 1 American industry A few stats Key shi tasktime The market mechanism Intellectual thought Fin de siecle 2ll2011 Populism 0 Mary E Lease 0 Farmers Organize o Patrons of HusbandryGrange o Greenback Party 0 Farmers Alliance l892Populist or People s Party Wall Street 0 Manipulate 0 Non Partisan 02 l 6 201 l Honeydipper shoving shit Progressives were not socialists 0223201 1 What Did Progressives Accomplish 0 Social Justice Movement 0 Child Labor Laws Max Hours 0 Special Protective Legislation Max Hours for Woman 0 Industrial Accident Insurance 0 Final hurdle Supreme Court 0 Human Rights vs Property Rights 0 Special Cases 0 Holden vs Hardy 1898 o Lochner vs NY 1905 o Muller vs Oregon 1908 I Louis Brandeis o Sociological Jurisprudence 02252011 0 Precedents o Pandemic thru 0 Epidemic world wide June 28 19 l 4 o Archduke Franz Ferdinand 0 Austria and Hungary 02282011 The Great War Background American Neutrality AntiGerman Feeling Propaganda o Execution of Epith Cavell and Britain Nurse US amp German Response Problems with Sub amp International Law The Lusitania Sub Rosa Agreements under the table agreements Allied Powers 0 Serbia to Russia to France to Britain 0 United States 1917 Associated Powers Center Power 0 Austria Hungary to Germany 03022011 A Short History of Alcohol in America Discussion of TS 10 WebbKenyon Act 1913 NO transport Dry Area Lever Act 1917 NO Alcohol During of War 18111 Amendment 0 Volsted Act 03042011 The Lusitania Pressure for Preparedness 0 National Defense Act Sussex Pledge Unrestricted Sub Warfare Jan 31 1917 Zimmermann Note War for US 03142011 What Role Did US Play in Actual Fighting 0 Failure of the Peace 0 Wilson 14 Points 0 Treaty Rati cation Fails 0 Red Scare o Desire for Normalcy 0316201 1 o A Few Basic F acts Timeline 0 Discussion of Taking Sides 11 03182011 0 A Few Depression Stats 0 Why did the stock market crash 0 Why did the crash trigger a depression 03212011 0 Why was so much available for speculation 0 Why did the Crash Trigger a Depression 03282011 New Deal 0 3 R s 0 Relief Bank Holiday CCC 0 Recovery 2 Man Methods I Control CompetitionRestart Output 0 NIRA Sect 7A 0 A A A I In ation Thomas Amendment to A A A o Reform 7 TV A 04082011 War 0 Againstthe Japanese 0 Domestic Front I JapaneseAmerican Relocation o Totalitarianism State Personi cation Italy Mussolini Fascism Germany Hitler Nazism 0 Japan Hirohito DiVine Kamikazedivine wind OOO Banzaihurrah Executive Order 9066 04112011 Harry S Truman Nov 8 1945 VE Day Manhattan Project 1 Theoretical Phase University of Chicago a KFactor Uranium 235 Neutrons i The ratio 2 Los Almos for second stage of Bomb Yalta pushed Russian to enter war against Japanese 3 months after Germany s Defeat Potsdam ChurchillTruman Atomic Bomb July 26 Weapon of Utter Destruction to Japanese August 6 Hiroshima 04132011 The Context of Vietnam Containment 0 George F Kennan Mister X Truman DoctrineGreece and Turkey Marshall Plan Berlin Air Li Nato1949 Warsaw Pact 1955 In Asia 0 Who Lost China Korea 04152011 Postwar o NATO1949
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