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Introduction to Information Technology

by: Myrtis Volkman

Introduction to Information Technology ITEC 100

Myrtis Volkman
GPA 3.96

Katrina Hundley

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About this Document

Katrina Hundley
Class Notes
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Popular in Management Sciences And Information Technology

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myrtis Volkman on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ITEC 100 at Radford University taught by Katrina Hundley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/224667/itec-100-radford-university in Management Sciences And Information Technology at Radford University.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
ITEC100 18 Thurs 5 pm Class Creating a Chapter 5 Study Outline 1 Fundamentals of Telecommunications Communications 7 the transmission of a signal from a sender to a receiver by way of a medium such as wires or radio waves Communications Medium 7 anything that carries a signal between a sender amp receiver 11 Telecommunications and Data Communications Telecommunications refers to the electronic transmission of signals for communications Examples Some telecommunications devices that we interact with on a daily basis include telephones radios TVs and computers Data communications a specialized subset of telecommunications refers to the electronic collection processing and distribution of data typically between computer systems Telecommunications network connects communications and computing devices Computernetwork a specific type of telecommunications network that connects computers and computer systems for data communications This chapter discusses the following of O Networking media Anything that carries an electronic signal and creates an interface between a sending device and a receiving device O Networking hardware devices and networking software Work together to enable and control communications signals between communications and computer devices 12 Characteristics of Telecommunications The characteristics of telecommunications components should be analyzed in terms of speed quality and convenience Telecommunications can allow people to be more productive For example being able to access and respond to email during an hourlong daily commute on the bus or train frees up an hour later in the day for going to the gym or some other productive activity 121 Types of Signals If we measured the voltage on a telephone wire during a conversation we would see something like Figure 54a Notice that the figure shows a signal that continuously changes over time This type of continuous fluctuation between high and low voltage is called an analog signal In contrast if we measured the voltage on cables used to connect PCs we would probably see something comparable to Figure 53b The signal in Figure 53b at any given time is either high or low This type of discrete voltage state either high or low is called a digital signal The two states are used to represent the state of a bit high for l and low for 0 a Analog signal h Digitalsignal N x V r Time Time l quot V r o 1 122 Transmission Capacities Signal Frequency speed at which an electronic communications signal can change from high to low is called the signal frequency A faster frequency means a faster data transmission rate Signal frequency is measured in hertz Hz or cycles per second In computer networks the data transmission rate is also referred to as the bandwidth and is measured in bits per second bps Today s bandwidth options fall into one of two categories narrowband or broadban Bandwidth Options Q rod and Media advertised by lntemet service providers as highspeed Q Narrawband Any medium with a speed less than 200 Kbps typically the speeds delivered by a 56 Kbps dialup modem connection Brandi Jones Josh Hughes Sam Kelly James Mccune Nick Cox 2 Networking Media Devices and Software Telecommunications network support voice others support data but still others support both voice and data No matter what the type the communications that take place on these networks require networking media hardware and software 21 Networking Media In developing a network the selection of media depends on the environment and use of the network Media should support the needs of network users Depending on the environment wired networks are more secure than wireless networks which is why a government agency would choose to use a wired network over a wireless networ 0 Different communications media connect systems in different ways Some media send signals along physical connections like cables others send signals through the air by light and radio waves httpstoreapplecoml800MY APPLE WebObjects AppleStorewoawa RS LIDmcoE lBD73 5 8ampfnodehomeshop macmac accessories aimort 39 quot 39 MBOS JJJ A 0 used for wireless intemet through household Can be used for both professional and personal use 211 Physical Cables 2111 Type of Cables Twisted pair cable consists of pairs of twisted wires covered with an insulating layer Ex Type of cable that brings telephone service to your home and is used for dial up modem connections 0 Coaxial cable consists of an inner conductor wire surrounded by insulation a conductive shield and a cover Ex At one time it was preferred cable for computer networks Now mostly used for cable televisions and radio networks 0 Fiber optic cable consists of thousands of extremely thin strands of glass or plastic bound together in sheathing transmits signals with light beams 0 Speed beroptic cables support data transfer rates 16 terabits per second 0 Size is much smaller in a diameter than many copper wires More strands can be bundled together in smaller cables than with copper 0 Security Copper wires are easy to tap but the same is not true for beroptic cable 0 Clarity ber optic cables do not allow signals to bleed to one strand or another unlike copper wire that often suffer from such interference htt wwwbestbu comsiteols a e39s skuId6998047ampt e roductampid109939l70 o Highspeed errorfree transfers of large les from digital cameras and other peripherals at up to 400 Mbps amp 24K goldplated and corrosionproof connectors for maximum conductivity and durability 212 Radio Signals And Light 0 Telecommunications signals can travel through air using radio waves and light 0 Radio wave electromagnetic wave transmitted through an antenna at different frequencies 0 Ex Fm radio cell phones baby monitors and garage door openers all operate at different frequencies 0 Above microwaves in the radio spectrum comes infrared light and then visible light 0 Microwaves waves sent at the high end of the radio spectrum between 1 amp 300 GHz embers Present Roles 22 Networking Devices 221 Modem 222 Network Adapters 223 Network Control Devices Hubs Switch es Repeaters Bridges Gateway Routers Wireless access point Firewall Wireless Telecommunications Technologies 31 Cell Phone Technologies 32 Pages 33 Global Positioning Systems 34 Wireless Fidelity and VWMax Wireless Telecommunications Technologies continued 35 Bluetooth 36 Infrared Transmission 37 Radio Frequency Identi cation 4 Networks and Distributed Computing 41 Computer Networking Concepts 411 Distributed Computing Brice Earnhardt 1eaderKristen Boyd text researcherRyan Smith PresenterAaron Rose web searcherJamie Lees typer submitter 42 Network Types 42 Network Types 0 Networkclassified by size in terms of the number 421 Personal Area Network PAN 0 Personal Area Network the interconnection of personal information technology devices typically wireless within the range of an individual typically around 33ft to 10m 422 Local Area Network LAN 0 LAN network that connects computer systems and devices within the same building or local geographical area 0 Virtual Private Network VPN an internet extended beyond the confines of the private network 1 Example wal mart provides key supporters with acess to its internet so that they can see what products 0 Intranetuses protocols of the internet and the web TCIP and http along wit internet services such as web browserswithing the confines of a private network 423 Metropolitan Area Network MAN 0 MAN connects networks within a city or metropolitan size area into a larger high speed network 424 Wide Area Network WAN 0 Wide Area Networks connect LAN s and MAN s between cities across country and around the world using microwave and satellite transmissions or telephone lines 1 Example college may maintain a LAN that covers the campus 425 Global Networks 0 Global Networks are a wide area network WAN that crosses an international border 1 Example the popular file sharing service kazaa has been able to escape prosecution because it maintains its servers in Denmark has its domain in Australia and runs its software from the South Pacific 0 URL wwwcorpattcomglobalnetworkingz Site name ATampT global networking


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