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Lecture 12 Notes

by: Alexandra Ruth

Lecture 12 Notes PSY0010 Introduction to Psych

Alexandra Ruth
GPA 3.78
Introduction to Psychology
Jennifer Cousins

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About this Document

Includes notes on Social Psychology
Introduction to Psychology
Jennifer Cousins
One Day of Notes
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This 5 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Ruth on Friday January 9, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to PSY0010 Introduction to Psych at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Cousins in Fall2011. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.

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Date Created: 01/09/15
Chapter 12 Social Psychology Lecture Outline 1 Social psychologystudy of psychology of how a person s thoughts feelings and behavior are in uenced by the real imaginary or implied presence of others socia in uenceprocess through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly in uence the thoughts feelings and behavior of an individual way we act can be in uenced by others social in uence 2 Conformitychanging one s behavior to match that of other people Asch s classic study participants were shown comparison lines and asked which were similar When some confederates gave wrong answer subjects gave wrong answers too group think not paying too much attention to bits of detail more concerned with gruoup cohesivenessuni ed stance throughout group ex titanic is unsinkable HAS to be unsinkable no matter what or group of business leaders reject a new applicant bc they want to preserve their own ideas 3 Compliancechanging one s behavior as a result of others directing or asking for the changein an explicit way ex mom tells you to do homework amp you do it consumer psychology branch of psych that studies the habits of consumers four ways to gain compliance 0 Foot in the door asking for a small commitment then after gaining compliance asking for more commitment ex asking to babysit then dogsit too 0 Door in the face asking for large commitment and being refused then asking for smaller commitment Norm of reciprocity assumption that if someone does something for a person that person should do something for other in return Ex I took back my original request so you should agree to do a new one o Lowball technique getting a commitment from a person and the nraising the cost of the commitment buying a car then getting hit with additional fees 0 That39s not all technique a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target buys variety of techniques used to get others to comply to what they want 4 Obediencechanging one s behavior at the command of an authority gure Migram s experiment voltage was increased by teacher when the quotIearnerquotconfederate made a mistake in answers 84 of people were glad they participated in the experiment w no symptoms of trauma on psychiatric evaluation cannot ethically conduct such a study today bc the deception causes potentially psychologically traumatizing the participants migrams parents were holocaust survivors how can humans torture others Idea 5 Social cognitionthe mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them 6 Attitudes tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person object idea or situation poor predictors of behavior unless attitude is very speci c or very strong gung ho about non smoking for example components 1 Affect feelingsI like country music 2 Behavior actions I buy country music albums 3 Cognition thoughtsI think this is the best kind of music FORMATION Direct contact with the person situation object or idea Direct instruction from others Interacting with other people who hold a certain attitude Vicarious conditionwatching the actions and reactions of others to ideas people objects situations watched someone die of emphysema CHANGING A39ITITUDES Persuasion someone tries to change beliefs of someone else by arguments pleading or explanation Key elements 0 Sourcecommunicator expert trustworthy attractive 0 Message clear organized 0 Target audience late teens to early 205 more susceptible to persuasion Discordance between attitudes amp behaviors Cognitive dissonance sense of discomfort occurs when a persons behavior does not correspond to their attitudes Lessened by changing con icting behavior changing the con icting attitudes or forming a new attitude to justify the behavior You have an attitude that smoking is unhealthy smelly and bad for yourlungs 7 Impression formationforming of the rst knowledge that a person has concerning another person 1st impressions primacy effect very rst impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of evidence to the contrary job interview 8 Social categorization assignment of a person that has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past comparing new people to old people you know Stereotype a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category business woman is smart put together Rocker is a mess and irresponsible 9 Attributionprocess of explaining one s own behavior and the behavior of others attribution theory Situational cause cause of behavior attribute to external factors such as delays actions of others or some aspect of the situation peer pressure by experimenter Dispositional cause cause of behavior attributed to internal factors like personality or character internal obedience naturally evilness o Fundamental attribution error tendency to overestimate the in uence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors just the core personality is causing them to do this In reality the real explanation is a combination of the rst two 10 Prejudicenegative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group beliefs forms include ageism sexism racism too fat too thin 11 Discriminationtreating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong action in groups social groups with whom a person identi es quotusquot common identity college students outgroups groups with whom a person does not identify with them preschoolers reaistic theory con ict bw groups increases prejudice and discrimination stereotyping scapegoating tendency to direct prejudice or discrimination at out group members who have little social power or in uence how prejudice is learned social cognitive theory views prejucide as an attitude acquired through direct instruction modeling and other social in uences social identity theory formation of persons identity within a particular social group is explained by icl categorization social identity and social comparison overcoming prejudice equal status contact bw groups in which the groups have equal status with neither group having power over the others just having contact and seeing how others really behave can challenge stereotypes quotjigsawquot classroom education technique only given one part of info needed to solve problem causing separate individuals to be forced to work together to nd solution 12 Interpersonal Attractionliking or having the desire for a relationship with another person Rules of attraction proximity physical or geographical nearness people like people who are similar to themselves to who are different from themselves complementary reciprocity of liking tendency of people to like other people who like them in return love a strong attraction for another person due to kinship personal ties sexul attraction admiration common interests intimacy feelings of closeness passion physical attraction commitment decisions about the relationship types of love romantic love consisting of intimacy and passion type w signi cant other companionate love consisting of intimacy and commitment type with signi cant other that lasts 13 Aggression behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person bioogica in uences on aggression may include genetics the amygdala and high testosterone levels amygdaa stimulation lead to aggression Charles Whitmanshooting rampage at college in texas bc he had a tumor pressing on his amygdala social role the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position Zimbardo prisoner study study was called off after 6 days bc there was a riot and guards became abusive some physical psychological abuse things got too extreme reates to Milgram s study chidren exposed to media violence do show more aggression especially in younger children 14 Prosocial behavior socially desirable behavior that bene ts others rather than harms them atruism prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve risk of harm to oneself volunteer to go to war zone countries to help the residents of the country why don39t we do good hit and run bystander effect when others are around impacts the decision to help or not help becomes less likely when the number of bystanders is increased diffusion of responsibility occurs when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction bc of the presence of other people are seen to share the responsibility tabe 123 ve decision points noticing de ning an emergency taking responsibility planning course of action taking action


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