Survey of World Religions
Survey of World Religions RELN 112
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abe Bruen on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELN 112 at Radford University taught by Kay Jordan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/224694/reln-112-radford-university in Religion at Radford University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Islam FlNAL 37 De ne the following terms Islam Muslim mosgue Allah gzur an Hadith Kabah ka aba Review the lectures handout and the text for these terms Islam The perfect peace that comes from surrender toAllah Muslim One who submits to Allah Mosque Literally means place of prostration An Islamic house of worship Allah God the same God worshipped by Christians andJews Qur an The holy book of the Muslims comprised of the ecstatic utterances ofMuhammad while in a trance state Hadith The body oftradition originatingfrom the rst generation ofMuslims and handed down both orally and in writing Kabah A cloth covered stone enclosure in Mecca that originally housed 360 religious images and a black meteorite Later Muhammad removed the religious images but kept the black meteorite It is a center of pilgrimageforMuslimsfrom the time ofMuhammad to the present 38 What are some of the key teachings of Islam What is the nature of the divine god What is the role of the prophet Do Muslims believe in a savior There is only one god There is no savior Each person must accept responsibility for hisher actions They believe the Seal ofthe Prophets and thatMuhammad is the last prophet god will send The Five Pillars ofIslam I Confession ofFaith Shahadah There is no god butAllah andMuhammad is his prophet 2 Ritual ofprayer ve times a day 3 Feast duringRamadanfrom dawn to dusk Commemorates Muhammad s call to prophecy and also one of his victories in battle 4 Pilgrimage ofHajj EveryMuslim who is nancially able must go to Mecca at least once Almsgiving Zakat Muslims are expected to support the poor in their community P 39 Describe the life ofMuhammad before his call to be a prophet Who is Khadijah Handout Regarded as a man not a god but miraculous things occurred during his birth A monk declared that he would be a prophet and he was able to perform miracles His parents both died when he was young and he was raised by his grandfather and later by his uncle and he grew up in poverty Eventually he married a wealthy widow named Khadijiah and he later on had at least a dozen wives He was born much later than the other religious founders we have studied and came in contact with Christians and Jews He became uncomfortable with the polytheism in Arabia 40 Note the importance of the hadith recollections or sayings of Muhammad for Muslims The Qur an represents Muhammad s revelations from God while he was in an ecstatic state the hadith are the remembrances of his sayings by family members and close associates Several editors compiled collections ofMuhammad s sayings which were used to aid the community offollowers Muslims in basing their societies and individual lives on his teachings 41 Describe Muhammad s call to prophecy Note this is sometimes called the Night of Power Muhammad often visited a cave near the base ofMt Hira and one night he had a vision ofGabriel who told him to recite When he couldn t the angel choked him Once released the angel told him what to recite and told him he was the prophet After this experience he sometimesfell into a trance and recited He was illiterate so he had a secretary record it He was a messenger which made him like Moses and different from Jesus 42 What did Muhammad preach after his call to prophecy How did the leaders ofMecca feel about his teachings He began to preach in the courtyard of the Kaba rectangular structure used to worship thatAllah was the one and only god and that someday there would be a judgment that would send the good to Heaven and the bad to Hell The idea ofmonotheism andjudgment was very disturbing to his community The idea of only one god instead of360 threatenedMecca tourism and manyfelt he was threatening old age beliefs He realized ifhe was in Mecca his life was in danger 43 What is Muhammad s Night Ioumey or Night Ascent What was the name of the city from which he ascended Text A story aboutMuhammad that states Gabriel came and cleansed him and took him from Mecca into the air where he rst went to Jerusalem and then to the sea of the Heavens where he spoke with Adam John the Baptist Jesus Joseph Moses and Abraham He then went no further with Gabriel but was put onto a ying carpet where he went to speak with Allah This demonstrated thatMuhammad has the same status as his prophetic processors 44 What was the Hijra When did this occur What is the year which the Muslims count as year 1 on their calendars H e ed to the city of Y athrib which was later renamedMedina the city of the prophet this is called The H ijra This occurred in 622 CE and this is counted as year one forMuslims 45 What did Muhammad do in the city of Yathrib Mecca Lecture Text He built the rst mosque and began weekly Friday services At rst followers were expected to prayfacing Jerusalem but he got into an altercation with the local Jews and this was changed to Mecca 46 When did Muhammad return to Mecca What did he do When he took control of the city Lecture text Muhammad returned to Mecca in 630 He cleansed the Kabah ofthe 360 religious idols within leaving only the black meteorite 46 What are the 5 Pillars of Islam De ne the words Shahadah Salat Zakat Hajj Ramadan Kabah The Five Pillars ofIslam I Confession ofFaith Shahadah There is no god butAllah andMuhammad is his prophet 2 Ritual ofprayer ve times a day Salat 3 Feast duringRamadanfrom dawn to dusk Commemorates Muhammad s call to prophecy and also one of his victories in battle 4 Pilgrimage ofHajj EveryMuslim who is nancially able must go to Mecca at least once 5 Almsgiving Zakat Muslims are expected to support the poor in their community Kabah 7 a cloth covered stone structure in Mecca that housed 360 religious images and a black meteorite Later Muhammad removed the statues but kept the meteor It is a center ofpilgrimageforMuslims 47 What are some of the key Islamic religious holidays Text Ramadan is the ninth month ofthe Islamic lunar calendar Throughout the daylight hours of Ramadan Muslims observe strictfasting om sunup to sundown This month is held in honor of the ProphetMohammed for it was during the month of Ramadan thatAllah revealed the rst verses of the Qur an the holy book ofIslam Eid al Fitr is probably the most important Islamic holiday and occurs on the dayfollowing the month of Ramadan A joyous feast is celebrated among the community Literally the quotFestival of Breaking the Fast quotEid al Fitr is one ofthe two most important Islamic celebrations the other occurs a er an individual engages in the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca AtEid al Fitr people dress in their nest clothes adorn their homes with lights and decorations give treats to children and enjoy visits with friends and family Eid ulAdha marks the end ofthe Hajj which is an annual pilgrimage ofMulsims to Makkah SaudiArabia This pilgrimage is an obligation once in a lifetimefor those who are physically and nancially able to perform it Eid ulAdha is celebrated with prayers 48 What does the word caliph mean Who were the rst four caliphs Caliph ipolitical and religious leader I Abu BakriMaintained loyalty oftribes previously committed to Islam Subdued the remaining tribes in Arabian peninsula Worked ir only I year 2 Umari 634 644 Led rst conquests Conquered Syria Defeated Byzantine Emperor H eraclitus Originated poll tax Shared wealth with supporters Assassinated by slave with poison dagger 3 Uthman 7 644 656 Appointed too many relatives to high positions Ali 7 Son in law ofthe prophet Shi ites believe he was the rst legitimate caliph because Muhammad s power should have passed directly through his descendants They believe this power resided in a sequence ofImams k 49 Explain the origins of the Shiite and Sunni division Within lslam Who are the Shia or Shi ite Muslims What does the word shia mean Who did the Shi ites believe should have immediately succeeded Muhammad Who are the Sunni Muslims What does the word sunna mean Ali is the central gure at the origin ofthe Shia Sunni split which occurred in the decades immediatelyfollowing the death of the Prophet in 632 Sunnis regard Ali as the fourth and last of the quotrightly guided caliphs successors to Mohammed pbuh as leader oftheMuslimsfollowing on om Abu Bakr 632 634 Umar 634 644 and Uthman 644 656 Shiasfeel thatAli should have been the rst caliph and that the caliphate shouldpass down only to direct descendants ofMohammed pbuh via Ali andFatima They o en refer to themselves as ahl al bayt or quotpeople ofthe house ofthe prophet The Shia used in reference to the group ofMuslims is shortenedfor Shia t Ali which means quotparty ofAli Sunna the way of life prescribed as normative forMuslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations ofthe Koran 50 What is Su sm What do Su s believe Su sm Su sm may be best described as a mystical practice that emphasizes certain unique ritualsfor guiding spiritual seekers into a direct encounter with God Muhammad is considered their chief prophet and many consider Su sm to be a mystical brand ofIslam Su s believe that God is responsible for everything they do every act that they as his servants perform 51 What is the role of law in the Islamic faith What does Sharia mean How does lslam deal with the religious and secular spheres Sharia The divine law ofIslam by which Muslims should live their lives It embraces every aspect of life including family relations inheritance taxation puri cation and prayer and observes no distinction between secular and religious law Christianity Study Guide FINAL 15 What is the perspective of the Gospel of Matthew Who is his intended audience What does he emphasize that may be less important to other authors What does the term synoptic gospels mean What does Q stand for lecture handout 45253478480 Matthew was a Jewish tax collector and wanted to prove thatJesus was theMessiah expected by the Jews A synoptic gospel is the term used to describeMark Matthew and Luke because they follow the same chronology The Q Quelle is a sayings source that no longer exists It is believed that probably recorded sayings of Jesus but without a description of the time and place Matthew and Luke had access to the Q 16 What was the relationship of Jesus to Abraham To King David Why is this importantlecture handout 46667 Jesus was the descendent of both Abraham and King David God made a covenant with Abraham and David was the most revered king Since God made a covenant with Abraham this meant thatJesus was the heir to the covenant Some hoped that the messiah would be like King David so Matthew made Jesus out to be like him 17 What is the doctrine of the virgin birth Why did Matthew think this was important lecture handout There is a prophecy in the Hebrew Bible that says A maiden shall conceive quotIn the Septuagint Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible the same verse appears but there is no Greek work equivalent to the Hebrew word maiden so the prophecy comes out as virgin Matthew described the story of the virgin birth as part of his e ort to prove thatJesus was the one expected by the Jews 18 What is the doctrine of the Incamation lecture The Christian belief that Jesus was God come to Earth in human form 19 Who was John the Baptist What happened when Jesus was baptized What did the devil do after the baptism of Jesuslecture 45758 John the Baptist was Jesus cousin and preached the need for repentance and the end of the world After Jesus baptism the spirit of god descended onto his shoulder with the message repent for the kingdom of Heaven is upon you Jesus went to the woods where he was tempted by the Devil to 1 turns stones to bread 2 worship the Devil and get rule over all the cities he could see and 3 hurl himself of a mountain so the angels will save him 20 What kind of kingdom were Jewish people looking for What was Jesus conception of the kingdom of Godlecture handout 46163 The Jews wanted an Earthly kingdom Jesus preached that the kingdom of god was not a political kingdom but the reign of god in human hearts
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