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Regional Geography Europe

by: Johnathon Heathcote

Regional Geography Europe GEOG 280

Marketplace > Radford University > Geography > GEOG 280 > Regional Geography Europe
Johnathon Heathcote
GPA 3.93

Grigory Ioffe

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Grigory Ioffe
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnathon Heathcote on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 280 at Radford University taught by Grigory Ioffe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/224702/geog-280-radford-university in Geography at Radford University.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
GEOG 280 April 14 2009 Saudi Arabia HIGHLIGHTS 830 thousand sq mi 1 in the region 281 million people 2008 29 births per 1000 and 3 deaths per 1000 2530 o expats in resident population Capital Riyadh 4 million Other major cities Jeddah 3 million Mecca 17 million Dammam KhobarDhahran agglomeration 16 million World s largest proven oil reserves World s largest oil producer and exporter GDP per capita 13000 2005 prior to the recent alltime peak in oil prices 22910 during that peak in 2008 Ancestral land of all Arabs Custodian of Islam s holiest sites Mecca and Medina Destination of 25 million Muslims pilgrims a year SAUDI CHARACTER Absolute monarchy with appointed government Sunni Muslim theocracy Sharia and Wahhabism after mid18th century religios leader alWahhab Women cannot eat alone in a restaurant drive work in a public office etc and have to be completely covered in public Maintaining traditional clothing style for both sexes Major source of funding for Islamic education all across the world Major source of funding for the Palestinian Liberation Organization Labeled Hermit Kingdom for strict supervision of foreign nation s and lack of tourist infrastructure for nonMuslims Homeland of Osama bin Laden and 15 out of 19 September 11 hijackers GEOPOLITICAL HISTORY AND TIES 0 Inner part of the Arabian Peninsula was never claimed as anybody s colony Prior to 1932 Tribal organization 60 of the population nomadic no central government 0 1932 lbn Saud a custodian of the two holy sites becomes the first truly national leader and founder of a dynasty o 1938 Oil discovery in the eastern part Dominant role of the US companies in oil extraction Currently oilextracting companies are all owned by the state 0 USowned Texas Company still holds the concession for the land area near the border of Kuwait Explosive economic development commenced in the late 1960 s Numerous expatmigrant populations arrives despite attempts at quotSaudizationquot of labor force 0 Charter member of the OPEC Lavishly financed Afghan quotfreedom fighters against the Soviet 19791987 invasion PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Tihama Sandy Red Sea coastal plain major route of passage for centuries Hijaz and Asir The least arid part of the country Asir 1220 inches of rain Najd Crystalline block of the Arabian Shield largely uninhabitated in the W but with significant oases in the NorthCentral and E Parts aquifers and springs Gulf coastal plane home of the world s largest oil reserves with Dhahran as the quotnerve center two huge oil terminals North Prior to the pipeline s construction an uninhibited desert now pump station towns Rub alKhali Empti Quarter The world s largest dune field in the world no permanent settlements THREE PRINCIPAL POPULATION NUCLEI Najd with Riyadh and other towns HijasAsir with Jeddah Mecca Medina and Taif Eastern province populations centers with Dammam as the largest of them ECONOMY Oil wealth caused complete transformation of the Saudi society s material basis but not the fabric of society 13000 miles of pipelines 60 gasoil separator plants Eight huge refineries mostly in the east Domestic industry other than oilrefineries processed foods paints AC fertilizers petrochemicals Irrigated crop farming using centerpivot sprinkling system mostly in the E province 26 desalination plants Recreation sites in Asir High quality motorways where camel was the sole means of transport just quotyesterdayquot Some ofthe world s largest airports in Jeddah and Riyadh Railway line between Riyadh and Dammam USSAUDI TIES AND INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM Close relations with US from as early as 1942 Positive and key role of Saudi Arabia in the 1991 Gulf Crisis but 19 US military perished in Khobar Towers 696 and 7 US citizens in Riyadh 1195 Looked at as isolated incidents USSaudi relations became strained after 911 Major reproach Short of openly supporting terrorism Suadis finance education system that breeds intolerance when Khobar Towers accident happened Saudi s cooperation in investigation was limited Saudi s response We are a traditional society caught in a whirlwind of a change social change can only occur slowly but we are your allies in the war on terror TERRORIST ATTACKS INSIDE SAUDI ARABIA On May 2 2003 suicide bombers killed 35 people including 9 Americans in attacks at three housing compounds for Westerners Riyadh On November 8 2003 terrorists attacked another compound housing foreign workers from mainly Arab countries At least 18 people including 5 children died in the attack and more than 100 were injured WLL THE SAUDIS TRULY COOPERATE August 2003 Withdrawal of all American troops only military instructors stay US Embassy in Riyadh and consulates in Dhahran and Jeddah Officially Saudi Arabia continues to be an ally Saudi diplomats keep insisting that the war in Iraq is a single biggest obstacle in their own war on terror HASMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN HIGHLIGHTS Land area 34 489 sq miles Population 57 million 2007 Birth rate 281000 Death rate 41000 Ethnic Makeup 98 Arab Religion 965 Sunni 35 Christian Capital Amman close to 2 million Other major cities Zarqa 05 million lrbid 03 million GNP per capita 6200 2006 GEOPOLITICAL HISTORY Historically not a center of power Amman Raboth Ammon of the Old Testament and subsequently the GrecoRoman Philadelphia Area experienced golden age during the Byzantine period 200 BC AD 600 many Christian churches Since Muslim conquest AD 634636 populated by Arab nomads Bedouins Since 10th Century under Turkish Ottoman control After WWI former Turkish possessions became British and French possessions TransJordan created 1923 as a British mandate quotTransJordan beyond the Jordan River Designed by the UK as a buffer state British intent To keep the French north of the Yarmuk River to hold back the Saudis from the Jordan Valley and to keep the Iraqis focused on Mesopotamia 0 With the advent of Israel 1948 TransJordan became the buffer for all four of its neighbors Inextricably linked to the IsraeliPalestinian conflict JORDAN AND THE ISRAELIPALESTINIAN CONFLICT After the first ArabIsraeli War 1948 TransJordan incorporated the West Bank together with eth E part of the city of Jerusalem and received the first wave of Palestinian refugees As a result TransJordan became Jordan Now Palestinian Arabs began to outnumber the Bedouins both groups are Arab but with different identity 1967 Jordan joins Egypt and Syria in the war of Israel Heavy military and territorial losses With the loss of the West Bank and Jerusalem the country again defacto become TransJordan again Jordan receives a new wave of Palestinian refugees with their military infrastructure POPULATON AND BALANCE OF POWER 0 Now between 12 and 23 of population are Palestinians o PLO Factions are jockeying for power Black September 1970 most Palestinians remain but Militant Palestinians factions forced out ending up in Lebanon etc Jordan is the only Arab country to offer citizenship to its Palestinians o The current King s wife is a Palestinian Intercommunal tensions linger Gradual reconciliation with PLO s Arafat o Renouncing claims on the West Bank 1988 to support Palestinian state MANEUVERING IN GEOPOLITICAL CONFLICTS 19901991 Gulf crisis taking sides dilemma Kuwait and US aided Jordan on the other hand most Jordanians of Palestinian origin support Saddam Hussein King Hussein ofJordan sides with lraw to solidify national consensus at home US aid discontinued hundreds of thousands of Palestinians evicted from Kuwait Seeking reconciliation with Israel 1994 Peace treaty with Israel diplomatic relations established Resumption of US Aid 1999 King Hussein dies ruled for 47 years longer than any contemporary head of state except the British queen King Abdullah takes over PEOPLE URBANIZATION AND MINORITIES 79 urban most but not all Bedouins are now sedentary PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1 Jordan Valley Below sea level King Abdullah canal from Yarmuk parallel to Jordan 2 Highland Belt Most humid home to most Jordanians and all irrigated farmland 3 Eastern Desert WATER PROBLEM Average annual precipitation lt5 inches Daily per capita water consumption quot39 85 liters a day compare with 300 in Israel and 600 in Europe and the US Critical significance of water from Yarmuk Significance of transborder cooperations with Israel fresh water from the Sea of Gailii ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Rich phosphate resources along Hijas railroad inherited from the Turks Jordan is world s third exporter of phosphates Potash and other chemicals from the evaporated Dead Sea brines Zarqa refinery Tourism to Petra and other Roman sites Recreation in Aqaba Modernized Hijaz railway Only freight til 1999 now also passenger express AmmanDamascus Fourlane divided highway from Syria to Aqabah Queen Alia International Airport Royal Jordanian Airlines Uninterrupted modest economic growth since the mid1990s NTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Aided primarily by the UK until the 19505 Since then US is the major donor Close relationship with the US briefly interrupted by the Gulf Crisis Most rankandfile Arabs in the countries whose regimes have close ties with America Jordan Saudi Arabia and Egypt are hostile to the US Major grievance perceived double standard in the US attitude to aggression 0 November 11 2005 suicide bombing of 3 Ammanbased hotels Grand Hyatt Radisson and Day s Inn 0 Attacks conducted by Iraqi nationslas but with local support 0 Also Zarqavi allegedly the mastermind was a Jordanian LEBANON HIGHLIGHTS Republic of Lebanon capital Beirut 16 million people Levant vs Lebanon Other major cities Tripoli and Sidon Land Area 4016 sqaure miles Population 2007 estimate 39 millions and was 45 million in 2004 Population Density 1121 people per square mile Urbanization 87 Birth Rate 191000 Death Rate 51000 Ethnic Makeup Lebanese Arabs 81 Palestinian Arabs 95 Armenians 6 etc Religions Muslim Shiite 34 Muslim Sunnite 20 Muslim Druze 8 Christian 36 including Maronite 19 Gregorian Armenian 6 etc PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Coastal plain with Mediterranean climate Lebanon mountains with more humid and formerly forested western slopes AntiLebanon range Bekaa Valley an intermontane trough especially dry in the north LEBANON S UNIQUE PERSONALITY Long most westernized modernized and educated of Arab countries Beirut viewed as a decadent city by Muslim traditionalists Multisectarian state with tensions between communities erupting into long civil war 19751990 GEOPOLITICAL HISTORY Christianized during Byzantine period ca 4 5C Christianity persisted during Arab conquest and later under the Turks Maronities somewhat similar to Greek orthodox developed a siege mentality Most Christians are Arabic speakers but Maronites deny their Arab ancestry Armenian community since after 1915 Lebanon French mandate between WWI and 1941 Strength of Christian groups major reason for this mandate s formation 0 1932 Census under French showed that Christians have slim majority 56 o Christians are numerically strong in Beirut and to the NE of the capital BEIRUT AS A SERVICE CENTER 0 Higher education Beirut Arab University American University French Jesuit University Armenian college ETC 0 Beach resorts and beautiful scenery 0 Airlines hub and service center 0 Banking center 0 15 million tourists annually prior to 1975 GEOPOLITICAL HISTORY o lnformal power sharing agreement based on 1932 Census enacted in 1943 Maronite President and Maronite commander of armed forces Sunni Prime minister Shiite speaker of the parliament and government posts for other minorities 0 Since 1932 demographic balance significantly altered o Maronites have rejected the idea of a new census since 1932 INTERSECTARIAN TENSIONS 0 As the number and share of Muslims grew they wanted more power 0 Balance further shattered by inflow of the armed Palestinians in 19701971 after they were expelled from Jordan 0 Shiites are most friendly and Maronites most hostile to the Palestinians 0 Middle class Sunni more friendly to Christians than to more militant Shiites and Palestinians CIVIL WAR AFTERMATH Shiite Hisballah group financed by Iran using south Lebanon for attacks on Israel Israel retaliated bombing south Lebanon Fragile power sharing breaks down several times most violently from 1975 on Civil war undermines role of Beirut as a major banking and service including education center of the Arab world 19822000 Israeli forces occupt southernmost part of Lebanon 1982 Sabra and Shatilla massacre of the Palestinians by the Christian phalangists militia with lsraelis not interfering 1983 American and French intervention in Beirut April 1983 truck bomb destroys US Embassy killing 46 1983 Truck bombs destroys US marine barracks killing 241 Americans and 56French Americans and French withdrew Multinational Arab forces enter instead War ended in 1990 Syrian military contingent 30000strong was stationed in Lebanon from 19862005 Remember Iraqi claims on Kuwait Same thing with Syria vs Lebanon February 2005 Raffic Hariri sf Lebanese Prime Minister assassination Syria s role UN commission under Detlev Mehlis German Lawyer corroborates Syra s role and leaned to the Un seciurityCounci s resolution October 2005 Syria withdraws form Lebanon REBULDNG THE COUNTRY AND ITS ECONOMY Rebuilding effort slow but steady Almost 25 of Lebanon is cultivable highest in Arab world Staples Tobacco olives fruits on the coast and western slopes wheat Opium and marijuana hashish production in Bekaa peaked during Civil War efforts to eradicate The war further altered a demographic balance as the wealthiest Maronoite and Armenian families emigrated Lebanon faces further lslamization which sooner or later gets reflected in its power structure FINAL EXAM Monday at 1015 There s is a total of 60 points The exam consists of 2 parts Part 1 includes the essays about the two countries of the ME Altogether we managed to discuss only three countries Jordan Saudi Arabia and Lebanon 2 of the three countries The essay must include the size of the country its population its composition and the capital city major resources and the major economic activities Aside from this an excellent 10 pt essay must contain a mention of some specific and possibly unique features making the country in question different from other countries It may be economic standing of the country it s ethnicreligious makeup a development gap between parts of the same country feature of its economy or cente events of particular important etc Part 2 20 questions These Q s will be devoted to the most conspicuous features of the 3 countries discussed in class PLUS Turkey


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