Ecology and Adaptation
Ecology and Adaptation BIOL 131
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Rollin Kunde on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 131 at Radford University taught by Jeremy Wojdak in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/224706/biol-131-radford-university in Biology at Radford University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Major themes in biology Relationships between structure and function Levels of biological organization Definitions of each level What are emergent properties Changes in energy and matter Species concepts Taxonomy Linnaean system binomial nomenclature why italicize hierarchical groupings name of each level Domain Kingdom etc SystematicsPhylogeny Differences between systematics and taxonomy How are groups determined Evolution Mechanisms of microevolution what are they what do they mean whenwhere are they important which produces adaptation vs which just produce evolutionary change that may or may not be good for the organism Natural selection Artificial selection Genetic drift Gene flow Mutation Coevolution define and have examples Mechanisms of speciation how do they operate which is more common Allopatric sympatric polyploidy Mechanisms of reproductive isolation Prezygotic gametic mechanical space time behavior Postzygotic hybrid inviability breakdown sterility Evidence for macroevolution Logic What is the logical basis for expecting organisms to be related for organisms to have changed through time Why did Darwin use the phrase quotdescent with modification Fossil record Why are fossils rare Why is the fossil record incomplete Comparative anatomy How can comparing organisms morphology help us understand how organisms are related to each other Homology vs analogy Comparative embryology Biogeography What does it mean that organisms separated from the mainland on islands are very similar to those mainland species Molecular biology How is comparing the similarity of molecules in different organisms similar to comparing their structureanatomy Why do all organisms use DNA RNA and the same code Quantitative concepts Experimental vs observational approaches Strengths and weaknesses Graph types Scatterplot bar graph frequency histogram What kind of data is plotted on each type Statistical concepts Sampling what is the goal Why do we need to sample Randomization what is the goal Replication why Independence define pvalue define be able to interpret accuracy and precision types of errors in statistical hypothesis testing Statistical tests ttests ANOVA regression chisquare what is each used for What kind of data dictates the use of each Ch1 1 ImWhich of the following is an attribute of living things L AOverview Your Answer all of the above Correct Answer They must be able to evolve and adapt No Only one of the answers is correct 2 What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type LJConcept 11 Your Answer species Correct Answer population No Members of the same species may be geographically isolated and unable to interact with one another 3 Which series of terms is in the sequence of biological organization from the simplest to the most complex LLAConcept 11 Your Answer tissue organ system organ cell organism Correct Answer cell tissue organ population community No The correct sequence would be cell tissue organ organ system organism 4 Mmergent properties of living systems are de ned as properties that 11 Concept 11 Your Answer none of the above Correct Answer are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases No One of the choices provides a correct de nition of emergent properties Remember that with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order novel properties emerge that are not present at the level just below Which of the following can be considered a biological system LJConcept 11 Your Answer all of the above Correct A system is a combination of components that lnction together It can be de ned at any scale 6 Sequencing a protein to discover the sequence of amino acids that make it up is an example of Understanding how that protein lnctions and interacts with other proteins in a cell is an example of L39AConcept 11 Your Answer hypothesisdriven science systems biology Correct Answer reductionism systems biology No Sequencing a protein is discovery science 7 mm an ecosystem nutrients and energy DConcept 11 Your Answer disappear can not be created nor destroyed Correct Answer cycle ows through No Nutrients are always recycled Energy ows through the ecosystem 8 mhe chemical energy used by most organisms for metabolism and growth ultimately comes from L AConcept 11 Your Answer carbon dioxide Correct Answer the sun No This is a waste product of the metabolism of sugar for energy and it is a source of the atoms in the sugar produced by photosynthesis 9 Which of the following is the lndamental unit of structure and lnction in living organisms LJConcept 11 Your Answer organ Correct Answer cell No An organ consists of two or more tissues while a tissue consists of cells of similar structure and function Organs exhibit the functions of life but there is a simpler level of biological organization that is life s fundamental unit of structure and function 10 what is the molecular commonality that is the basis of life s variety LJConcept u Your Answer DNA Correct The uniformity of coding in DNA is virtually universal Life s variety arises from variations in the nucleotide sequences of inherited DNA molecules the substance of genes ll Mow is the information encoded in DNA actually used by organisms LLJConcept u Your Answer DNA is translated into protein and then transcribed to RNA Correct Answer The information in DNA is transcribed to RNA and then translated into protein No The information in DNA is first transcribed to RNA and then translated into protein 12 n which kingdom can multicellular eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms be found LAConcept 12 Your Answer Plantae Correct Multicellular eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis are placed in the kingdom Plantae 13 Which of the following domains is prokaryotic LJConcept 12 Your Answer Archaea Correct Archaea are among the simplest kinds of organisms the prokaryotes l4 Which kingdom within the domain Eukarya is composed of organisms that are generally unicellular singlecelled LLJConcept 12 Your Answer Protista Correct The eukaryotic protists are usually singlecelled or unicellular organisms 15 ukaryotic organisms that decompose dead organisms and absorb the nutrients are generally found in which kingdom LDConcept 12 Your Answer Fungi Correct These are eukaryotic decomposers that obtain their nutrients by breaking down dead organisms and organic wastes 16 Matural selection tends to act at which of the following levels LAConcept 12 Your Answer species Correct Answer population No The members of a given species may be spread over the world in different environments so the same adaptations would not work for all populations 17 Which of the following observations and inferences led Charles Darwin to his theory of natural selection as the mechanism for evolution lJConcept 12 Your Answer Individuals with heritable traits bestsuited to the local environment will generally produce a disproportionate number of healthy fertile offspring Correct Answer Darwin synthesized his theory of natural selection from all of the above observations and inferences No This is a correct statement but there is a better answer 18 With evolution as the core theme of biology we can explain traits shared by organisms as evidence of and traits that differ among organisms as evidence of LJConcept 12 Your Answer descent from a common ancestor adaptation through natural selection Correct Many shared traits have been derived from common ancestry The modi cations to those shared traits can usually be attributed to adaptive evolution by natural selection 19 WEXperimentation is only one part of the process of scienti c inquiry but it is a very important step because it L1Concept 13 Your Answer allows rejection of some alternative hypotheses Correct Experimentation is important because hypotheses can be rejected when contradictory evidence emerges 20 madon is a radioactive gas that seeps into homes from the soil It is thought to be a leading cause of lung cancer A research team investigates this theory They gather large amounts of data on basement radon concentrations and lung cancer rates and conclude that the more radon there is in a home the more likely is lung cancer After the study is published other researchers criticize it by asserting that the studied neighborhoods with higher radon concentrations also have a higher percentage of older people and a higher percentage of cigarette smokers than the lowradon neighborhoods Both advanced age and cigarette smoking increase the risk of lung cancer This criticism if correct shows that the radon study suffered from LAConcept 13 Your Answer nonsystematic observation and analysis of data Correct Answer uncontrolled variables No Observational data were collected systematically and presumably quantitatively analyzed 21 Which one of the following statements is most clearly inductively derived LA Concept 13 Your Answer Because worms lack bones they are classi ed as invertebrates Correct Answer If the animals observed require organic molecules as nutrients then it can be concluded that all animals require organic molecules as nutrients No This statement is simply applying a de nition to a group of organisms 22 mTwo garden plots were planted with corn The soil was similar in each and equal amounts of water were applied to each plot One plot was fertilized and the other was not The experimenters measured the yield as bushels of corn from each plot The plot that did not receive the fertilizer was the L iConcept 13 Your Answer controlled variable Correct Answer control plot No In this experiment the plot is not a variable 23 A hypothesis must be testable and falsi able to be scienti cally valid Being testable and falsi able means that LAConcept 13 Your Answer only a controlled experiment can prove whether the hypothesis is correct or incorrect Correct Answer some conceivable observation or experiment could reveal whether a given hypothesis is correct or incorrect No However controls are required to assure the validity of an experiment Testing never quotprovesquot that a hypothesis is correct it only supports the hypothesis by not eliminating it through falsi cation 24 IWAt which point is a scienti c investigator most likely to use deductive reasoning LJConcept 13 Your Answer alter the care ll analysis of both the qualitative and the quantitative data recorded in the study Correct Answer in establishing a test of a hypothesis No A er data analysis a new hypothesis may be put forward to be tested 25 Which of the following is outside the realm of scienti c inquiry LL IConcept 13 Your Answer addressing questions of ethical dilemmas Correct Questions of ethics are not amenable to solution by experiments or observations 26 A company was testing a new drug it thought would help decrease the risk of transmission of viruses from mother to fetus In an experiment to test the compound an investigator gave 400 pregnant female rats a small dose of the experimental drug and inoculated each with atype of virus known to cause disease in rats At the same time 400 other pregnant rats were given only the virus Of the rat pups born to the females that received both the virus and the drug 203 showed no symptoms of the disease 205 rat pups born to the virusonly females showed symptoms From this test we can best conclude LL xConcept 13 Your Answer that the drug seems to have little effect on viral transmission at the dosage given Correct Approximately equal numbers of pups were affected in both groups experimental group 400 203 197 control group 205 suggesting that the drug was probably not effective at the dosage given 27 mhe best method for determining whether bean plants require sodium is to 7 LJConcept 13 Your Answer grow bean plants with and without sodium Correct In hypothesisbased scientific inquiry the experiment must have an experimental group and a control group In this case growing bean plants with sodium would constitute the experimental group and growing bean plants without the addition of sodium would constitute the control group 28 mm experimental procedures repetition of the procedures LJConcept 13 Your Answer is necessary before assuming that a given set of results is correct Correct Repetition of tests is crucial to the process of science Only when a result is repeatable can it be considered correct 29 Should an experiment test only one variable at a time Why or why not lLiConcept g Your Answer As long as the experiment is repeated a sufficient number of times it doesn39t matter how many variables are used Correct Answer Yes an experiment should only test one variable at a time This ensures that the experimental outcome is clearly due to one identi able factor No It does matter Repetition of con lsion doesn t eliminate the con lsion 30 mA theory is LAConcept 13 Your Answer a concept that once established in the scienti c literature can be modi ed but never rejected even when new scienti c methods produce data that don39t t Correct Answer a wellsupported concept that has broad explanatory power No Atheory is a wellsupported concept that has broad explanatory power but scientists must modify or even reject a theory when new research produces data that don t t Ch22 l arwin originally de ned evolution as LLJOverview Your Answer descent with modi cation Correct Darwin proposed that Earth39s many species are descendants of ancestral species that differed from presentday species 2 Which of the following is a key observation that must be explained in a unifying theory about life LAOverview Your Answer Many basic characteristics are shared by all living things Correct Organisms do share many basic characteristics Darwin reasoned that the diverse organisms found on Earth today evolved from a few common ancestors 3 Which of the following is an example of the process of evolution UJOverview and LJConcept 223 Your Answer the large number and diversity of species of marsupials in Australia Correct Answer predation No This is an example of biogeography part of the observable pattern of evolution 4 Which of the following is a true statement about Charles Darwin LLiConcept 221 Your Answer He worked out the principles of population genetics Correct Answer He proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution No Darwin did not have a great enough understanding of genetics 5 mhe scalanaturae or scale of nature is based on the ideas of LDConcept 221 Your Answer Aristotle Correct Aristotle believed that all living forms could be arranged on a ladder or scale of increasing complexity 6 At the time Darwin voyaged on HMS Beagle the popularly accepted theory in Western culture that explained the origin of Earth s plants and animals held that the various species LIAConcept 221 Your Answer are all related to one another Correct Answer had been created by divine intervention a few thousand years before No Darwin proposed that all life is somehow related 7 WarolusLinneaus is considered to be the founder of and LJConcept 221 Your Answer the binomial classi cation system thought that resemblances among different species re ected the pattern of their creation Correct Although he is considered the founder of taxonomy Linnaeus accepted the theory of creation 8 Imfhe modern idea of extinction as a common occurrence in Earth39s history was rst proposed in the early 19th century writings of L JConcept 221 Your Answer Lyell Correct Answer Cuvier No Lyell is best known for uniformitarianism 9 yell39s principle of uniformitarianism LJConcept 221 Your Answer was rejected by Darwin in favor of catastrophism Correct Answer strongly in uenced Darwin39s view of how living organisms could change over time No Darwin came to agree with Lyell that processes at work in the present could have produced observed geologic features 10 WAt the time Charles Darwin sailed on HMS Beagle LlConcept 221 b Your Answer the idea that animals and plants might change over time was absent from Western science Correct Answer several biologists had proposed that species might change over time but none had suggested a convincing mechanism that might cause the change No Several others had at least proposed this idea ll ecause he was well aware of the effect his theory of evolution would have on the public and on the Church of England Darwin delayed publishing his work for several decades while he gathered additional evidence Which of the following lines of evidence did he use to support his theory LJConcept 222 Your Answer Adaptations to speci c environments increase an organism s ability to survive and reproduce and organisms seem to produce only as many offspring as the environment can support Correct Answer All species are capable of producing more offspring than the environment can support and arti cial selection can produce organisms that differ from their wild ancestors No Organisms generally produce many more offspring than the environment can support l2 muring his voyage around the world Darwin was inspired to think about evolution by LJConcept 222 Your Answer the unique organisms he saw in the Galapagos Islands Correct Answer all of the above No His interest was especially piqued by the Galapagos nches but there is a better response 13 n Darwin39s view of descent with modi cation IQConcept 222 Your Answer environmental changes have no effect on the organisms living in that environment Correct Answer natural selection can improve the match between an organism and its environment No Atrait that is advantageous in one environment may be detrimental in another 14 What insight did Darwin gain from reading Thomas Malthus39s essay on human suffering LAConcept 222 Your Answer Natural selection should be capable of considerable modi cations over hundreds of thousands of generations Correct Answer Organisms have the capacity to overreproduce No This insight was the result of examining arti cial selection 15 Wm breeding of plants and animals for particular traits by humans is called L JConcept 222 Your Answer sexual recombination Correct Answer arti cial selection No Sexual recombination refers to new combinations of alleles resulting from fertilization l6 uring periods of rapid environmental change what may happen to a species that was wellsuited to the former environment LJConcept 222 Your Answer Traits that were favorable in the original environment may be detrimental in the new environment Correct Answer all of the above No This statement is true but there is a better answer 17 he smallest unit that can evolve is an wConcept 222 Your Answer population Correct Evolution can be measured only as changes in relative proportions of heritable variations in a population over many generations 18 According to the theory of evolution all of the different kinds of homologiesi anatomical molecular and embryologicalishould LLJConcept 223 Your Answer produce similar patterns of evolutionary relatedness Correct According to evolutionary theory the different types of homologies should generally produce evolutionary patterns that corroborate each other 19 When they were rst sold aerosol insecticides were highly effective in killing ies and mosquitoes Now several decades later a much smaller proportion of these insects die when sprayed The reason fewer insects die when they are sprayed is that LEAConcept 223 Your Answer many mosquitoes today are descendants of mosquitoes with insecticideresistant characteristics Correct Individuals whose characteristics best t them to their environment are likely to leave more offspring than are less t individuals This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to a gradual change in a population with favorable characteristics accumulating over the generations 20 WA population of zooplankton is exposed to a small number of predatory sh that feed on the largersized adult zooplankton Which of the following predictions would most likely occur based on the principles of natural selection LJConcept 223 Your Answer The rst and the third choices are both good predictions Correct Answer Adult zooplankton will start to reach sexual maturity when they are still relatively small No Natural selection does not operate in order to bring about some lture bene t 21 ImHow did HIV become resistant to the drug 3TC UJConcept 223 b Your Answer none of the above Correct Answer Some members of the virus population must have had a genetic variation that made them resistant to 3TC No One of the other answers is correct 22 mm important challenge to traditional pre1860 ideas about species was the observation that seemingly dissimilar organisms such as hummingbirds humans and whales have similar skeletal structures This most directly suggested to biologists that LJ Concept 223 Your Answer all of the above Correct Answer dissimilar organisms might have evolved from a distant common ancestor No Only one of the other choices is correct 23 Animals that possess homologous structures probably L39JConcept 223 Your Answer evolved from the same ancestor Correct quotHomologyquot refers to similarity attributable to common ancestry 24 n an evolutionary tree LlConcept 223 Your Answer organisms that are positioned close to each other are closely related Correct Answer homologous characteristics form a nested pattern No The positioning of branch points points at which organisms most recently shared a common ancestor are better indications of relatedness 25 he approach to evolution that involves the study of similar structures that appear during the development of different organisms is known as the study of DConcept 223 Your Answer comparative physiology Correct Answer embryological homologies comparative embryology No This is the study of common life processes activities and functions in related organisms 26 mestigial organs are LJConcept 223 Your Answer one piece of evidence that does not support the theory of evolution Correct Answer remnants of structures that were useful to an organism s ancestors No The presence of vestigial organs does support the theory of evolution 27 All known organisms transcribe genetic information to protein molecules via the same genetic code This nding strongly supports the hypothesis that L AConcept 223 Your Answer all organisms are descended from a single common ancestor Correct A common genetic code is overwhelming evidence that all life is related 28 vidence from molecular biology supports the theory of evolution by demonstrating that L39AConcept 223 Your Answer closely related organisms have more similar DNA and proteins Correct Evolutionary relationships among species are re ected in their DNA and proteins If two species have similar libraries of genes and proteins with sequences of monomers that match closely the sequences most likely descended from a common ancestor 29 What did Darwin observe about species on islands LJConcept 223 Your Answer They are often closely related to species from the nearest mainland or neighboring islands Correct If a species that disperses from a mainland to an island succeeds in its new environment it may give rise to several new species as populations spread to other islands in the archipelago 30 0 describe evolution as a quotscienti c theoryquot means that LAConcept 223 Your Answer it is a broad model that is supported by many observations and much experimental evidence Correct Evidence from many elds of biology makes evolution the quotcentral unifying principle of biology quot Ch23 1 mm the context of populations how do we de ne evolution LAOverview Your Answer Evolution is the way in which sexual reproduction can rapidly spread advantageous traits throughout a population Correct Answer Evolution is a change in a r r 39s allelic f1 1 39 over No Sexual reproduction is not necessary for populations to evolve 2 ImWhich of the following mechanisms can alter allele frequencies LLiOverview Your Answer natural selection Correct Answer all of the above No This is one mechanism for altering allele frequencies but there is a better answer 3 Which example below correctly describes average heterozygosity LLAConcept 231 Your Answer Average heterozygosity is measured by comparing the nucleotide sequences of DNA samples and then averaging the data from the comparison Correct Answer Average heterozygosity refers to the average percentage of loci that are heterozygous in a population No This statement describes nucleotide variability 4 he human genome consists of approximately 3 billion base pairs If humans typically differ from one another by about 3 million base pairs what is the nucleotide variability ofHomo sapiens LAConcept 231 Your Answer 50 Correct Answer 01 No Check your math 5 Which example below would most likely be a cline LJConcept 231 Your Answer Male bowerbirds decorate stations to attract females Correct Answer Rabbits that live in colder regions tend to have smaller ears than rabbits of the same species that live in warmer regions No This is an example of sexual selection 6 mew alleles originate from LiJConcept 231 Your Answer mutation Correct Although mutations most often do not result in favorable adaptations they are the primary way that new alleles come about 7 mSexual recombination includes the shuffling of chromosomes in and fertilization L Concept 231 Your Answer mutation Correct Answer meiosis No Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation but it has nothing to do with sexual recombination 8 Which type of mutation plays the most important role in increasing the number of genes in the gene pool mConcept 232 Your Answer point mutation Correct Answer duplication No Since the genetic code is redundant even point mutations in genes that code for proteins may have little effect because they do not alter the amino acid composition The chances are slight that such a mutation would have a profound effect on an organism 9 n a large population of randomly breeding organisms the frequency of a recessive allele is initially 03 There is no migration and no selection Humans enter this ecosystem and selectively hunt individuals showing the dominant trait When the gene frequency is reexamined at the end of the year LJJConcept 232 Your Answer the frequency of the homozygous dominants will go down the frequency of the heterozygous genotype will remain the same and the frequency of the homozygous recessives will go up Correct Answer the frequency of the individuals who express the dominant phenotype will go down and the frequency of homozygous recessive individuals will go up No Heterozygotes express the dominant trait 10 n the HardyWeinberg equation p2 represents LJConcept 232 Your Answer the frequency of heterozygous dominant individuals in the population Correct Answer the expected frequency of homozygous dominant individuals in the population No Heterozygotes are represented by 2pq 11 n a large population of bonobos the frequency of the recessive allele is initially 01 There is no migration and no selection What is the frequency of the dominant allele Assume that there are two alleles of this gene LAConcept 232 Your Answer 10 Correct Answer 90 No p the frequency of the dominant allele l q the frequency of the recessive allele or 09 Wm a population in HardyWeinberg equilibrium 1 of the individuals in a population show the recessive trait of a certain characteristic In this situation what is the value ofpL71Concept 232 Your Answer 99 Correct Answer 09 No This would be the percentage of individuals who show the dominant trait l3 Mn the equation for HardyWeinberg equilibrium 1 represents LJConcept 232 Your Answer all the possible phenotypes in the population Correct Answer the sum of the frequencies of the genotypes for a particular gene locus No The HardyWeinberg equation is concerned with genotype not phenotypes 14 Approximately 1 out of every 2500 Caucasians in the United States is born with the recessive disease cystic brosis According to the HardyWeinberg equilibrium equation approximately how many people are carriers LA kConcept 232 Your Answer about 1 in 10 Correct Answer about 1 in 25 No You are not using the HardyWeinberg equation 15 n a certain group of African people 4 are born with sicklecell disease homozygous recessive If this group is in HardyWeinberg equilibrium what percentage of the group has the selective advantage of being more resistant to malaria heterozygous than those individuals who are homozygous for normal hemoglobin or for sicklecell disease LJConcept y Your Answer 32 Correct The 4 born with sicklecell disease are homozygous for the sickle hemoglobin allele so qz 004 and q 02 Sincep l qp 08 The heterozygotes would be equal to 2pq or 032 WAssume a population in HardyWeinberg equilibrium for a character trait with these genotypic frequencies AA 025 Aa 050 and aa 025 If you remove all the homozygous dominants and allow the remaining population to reproduce again under HardyWeinberg conditions what will be the frequency of homozygous dominants in the next generation LA Concept 232 Your Answer 0 Correct Answer 011 No Homozygous dominant individuals will exist in the population 17 Which of the following sets of conditions is required for HardyWeinberg equilibrium LAConcept 232 Your Answer a large population no mutations and natural selection Correct Answer random mating no natural selection and a large population No A population in which natural selection is acting is not in HardyWeinberg equilibrium 18 m and generate variation while results in an adaptation to the environment LAConcept 232 Your Answer Genetic dri natural selection mutation Correct Answer Mutation sexual recombination natural selection No Genetic dri and natural selection cause changes in the frequency of alleles in the gene pool They do not result in genetic variation Mutations do not usually result in adaptation to the environment 19 A population of 15 birds inhabits a fairly new island Ten of the birds are dark brown and ve of them are light brown By chance two of the dark brown birds and three of the light brown birds die before producing any offspring All of the birds in the next generation are dark brown This change in phenotypic frequency can be attributed to LLiConcept 233 Your Answer natural selection Correct Answer genetic dri No There is no evidence that the birds39 color affected their tness 20 mAn earthquake hits a small island All but a small group of closely related lizards are eliminated and the survivors spread out over the island This is an instance of pl Concept 233 Your Answer mutation Correct Answer bottleneck effect No There are no mutations described here 21 Which of the following scenarios would most likely result in the microevolution of a population of humans LAConcept 233 Your Answer Hundreds of thousands of people are killed in a natural disaster Correct Answer A colony of humans on the moon is isolated from Earth No That would not be a signi cant enough change in the human gene pool to cause microevolution to take place 22 Which of the following is the best example of gene ow LLJConcept 233 Your Answer All the mutations in a population were neutral Correct Answer Wind blows pollen from one population of plants to another and cross fertilization occurs No Gene ow is the loss or gain of alleles from the gene pool 23 ImWhich of the following most accurately measures an organism s tness LAConcept 234 Your Answer blank 24 Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an example of which of the following LA Concept 234 Your Answer directional selection Correct Directional selection favors those individuals at one end of the spectrum that best adapt to a new situationiin this case the presence of an antibiotic 25 ImFor several years scientists have warned doctors of the danger of overprescribing antibiotics such as penicillin Scientists are concerned because L lConcept 234 Your Answer the organisms that produce many of the antibiotics are overexploited and could become extinct Correct Answer strains of microorganisms that are resistant to these drugs will be selected for No Consider the topics of this chapter 26 WA population of squirrels is preyed upon by small hawks The smaller squirrels can escape into burrows The larger squirrels can ght off the hawks After several generations the squirrels in the area tend to be very small or very large What process is responsible for this outcome L iConcept 234 Your Answer HardyWeinberg equilibrium Correct Answer disruptive selection No The type of selection referred to in the question would favor evolution rather than equilibrium 27 WStabilizing selection L39QConcept 234 Your Answer can take place only in species exhibiting sexual dimorphism Correct Answer favors intermediate variants in a population No That has nothing to do with stabilizing selection 28 mnds with averagesize wings survived a severe storm more success llly than other birds in the same population with longer or shorter wings If severe storms occur regularly then over time one should expect these storms to bring about LlConcept 234 Your Answer gene ow Correct Answer stabilizing selection No We are not seeing the loss or gain of alleles from the gene pool that is individuals are neither immigrating to nor emigrating from the population 29 ImfaySachs disease which is lethal results from having the homozygous recessive condition of the responsible gene Which one of the following statements is true LA Concept Your Answer In the heterozygous condition the dominant allele will overcome the recessive allele and only the dominant allele will be passed on to offspring Correct Answer Heterozygous individuals will survive and may pass the recessive allele on to their offspring No All alleles within an organism have equal chance of being passed on to offspring 30 Which type of selection maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in a population phConcept 234 Your Answer balancing selection Correct Balancing selection preserves variation through many mechanisms such as I A A 1 L 1 1 39 u yg and i 1 J r selection 31 Which of the following would seem to be an example of neutral variation LJ Concept 234 Your Answer human ngerprints Correct As far as we know this variation from human to human is neutral that is it has no selective advantage 32 What is the importance of neutral variation in evolution wConcept 234 Your Answer DNA forensics relies on neutral variation among humans Correct Answer Neutral variation increases genetic variation allowing a population to carry more alleles that may help it respond to environmental change No DNA forensics does use neutral variation to distinguish one human from another but this use of neutral variation does not affect evolution 33 Selection that acts over evolutionary time to preserve traits that increase an individual s ability to mate is known as LAConcept 234 Your Answer sexual selection Correct In sexual selection secondary sexual characteristics that may not seem to be adaptive in the general sense may give an individual an edge in gaining a mate 34 Which statement below is true about sexual selection LLJConcept 234 Your Answer There is no evidence that intrasexual selection takes place between females Correct Answer Sexual selection can result in sexual dimorphismmarked differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics that are not associated directly with reproduction No There is evidence in some populations of females establishing hierarchies of dominance 3 5 ow does natural selection fashion organisms LLJConcept 234 Your Answer Sexual selection acts to make organisms better adapted to their environments Correct Answer Chance and the environment interact with natural selection so that the best available traits are selected for No Sexual selection often leads to compromise Traits that increase an organism s reproductive success such as color ll plumage in birds may make them more susceptible to predation 36 A number of mosquito populations today are resistant to insecticides that were once quite effective Biologists think that insecticide resistance evolved in mosquitoes because LJConcept 234 Your Answer mosquitoes attempted to adapt to their environment Correct Answer a few mosquitoes were probably resistant to the insecticide before it was ever used and these individuals were more likely to survive and reproduce No Mosquitoes are not capable of such an action Ch 24 1 When gene ow between two populations ceases the potential for exists til Concept 241 Your Answer sexual reproduction Correct Answer speciation No Sexual reproduction is one reproductive strategy The cessation of gene ow might indicate a barrier of some kind to sexual reproduction 2 ird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon s warbler as distinct species that lived side by side in parts of their ranges However recent books show them as eastern and western forms of a single species the yellowrumped warbler Apparently the myrtle warbler and Audubon39s warbler LLlConcept 241 Your Answer are almost identical in appearance Correct Answer successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring No Although very similar they are different enough in appearance that they were once classi ed as two species 3 magine that part of a population of South American nches is blown by a storm onto an island far offshore and manages to survive and reproduce there for a period of 10000 years A er that period a climate change results in lower sea levels and the reconnection of the island with the mainland Members of the formerly isolated island nch population can now interact freely with members of the original mainland population Which of the following observations would by itself lead you to conclude unequivocally that the island nch population had evolved into a distinct species LAConcept 241 Your Answer Individuals from the different populations sometimes mate with each other but all of the resulting eggs are sterile Correct The biological species concept de nes a species as a population whose members interbreed successfully to produce viable fertile offspring but who cannot produce viable fertile offspring with members of other species 4 Which one of the following conditions is necessary for speciation to occur w Concept 241 Your Answer sympatric speciation Correct Answer reproductive isolation No This is a speci c type of reproductive isolation not a condition that leads to it 5 At which point in the adaptation of a population is it clear that speciation has occurred LJJConcept 241 Your Answer all of the above Correct Answer Gene pool changes establish reproductive barriers between two populations No Only one of the answers represents the clear formation of separate species 6 rezygotic barriers L39JConcept 241 Your Answer only occur in asexual organisms Correct Answer prevent fertilization of gametes from members of closely related species No They only occur in sexual organisms 7 Whme species of frogs Ranapz39piens Ranaclamitans and Ranasylvatica all mate in the same ponds but they pair off correctly because they have different calls This is a speci c example of a barrier called LJConcept 241 Your Answer postzygotic mechanical isolation Correct Answer prezygotic barrier behavioral isolation No There is no evidence of morphological differences in this scenario 8 Which of the following reproductive barriers actually prevents individuals of closely related species from copulating successfully LLJConcept 241 Your Answer hybrid sterility Correct Answer mechanical isolation No Mating occurs but the resulting hybrid is sterile wo species of water lilies in the same pond do not interbreed because one blooms at night and the other during the day The reproductive barrier between them is an example of LilConcept 241 Your Answer mechanical isolation Correct Answer temporal isolation No This is an anatomical incompatibility that prevents mating 10 ImWhich of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive barrier L J Concept 241 Your Answer One species of frog mates in April but another mates in May Correct Answer Two fruit ies of different species produce sterile offspring No Because mating does not take place this is a prezygotic barrier 11 Where are two groups of pine trees that appear to be very similar phenotypically and genotypically However one releases pollen in January when the female structures of that group are receptive and one in March What kind of reproductive barrier is this LJConcept 241 Your Answer gametic isolation Correct Answer temporal isolation No This is isolation due to the inability of gametes to unite l2 Wm biological species concept emphasizes LJAConcept 241 Your Answer ecological niches Correct Answer the evolution of reproductive isolation No The ecological species concept emphasizes ecological niches l3 ake Victoria in Africa is home to a group of related shes known as cichlids Many of these shes are similar in appearance but have different feeding habits What is the best method for scientists to determine conclusively whether the sh are members of a population that has a lot of variation or members of entirely different species LAConcept 241 Your Answer Study the fossil record Correct Answer Observe the sh in their natural environment for possible instances of interbreeding leading to several generations of fertile offspring No There is an easier way to arrive at a conclusion 14 n practice how do scientists distinguish most species LLAConcept 241 Your Answer by using the paleontological species concept Correct Answer by using the morphological species concept No This refers to morphologically discrete species that are known only from the fossil record 15 Which species concept de nes a species as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history IJConcept 241 Your Answer ecological species concept Correct Answer phylogenetic species concept No This concept views a species in terms of its ecological niche its role in a biological community 16 Sometimes two phenotypically different populations interbreed to a limited extent so that it is difficult to determine whether they are clearly separate species This is not a concern to scientists because this LAConcept 241 Your Answer may indicate that the formation of a new species is in progress Correct This could indicate that although a reproductive barrier is becoming established it is not yet complete 17 Which of the following organisms are most likely to be subject to allopatric speciation LUConcept 242 Your Answer fruit ies on bananas and fruit ies on oranges Correct Answer pine trees in Alaska and pine trees on the island of Madagascar No This certainly does not represent a strong geographic barrier 18 According to the experiment of Diane Dodd can adaptive divergence of allopatric fruit y populations lead to reproductive isolation LJConcept 242 Your Answer A er several generations the formation of a reproductive barrier behavioral isolation was evident but not absolute Correct The starch ies were more apt to mate with other starch ies and the maltose ies were more apt to mate with other maltose ies but some interbreeding still did occur 19 n which of the following groups has sympatric speciation been most important L41 Concept 242 Your Answer lngi Correct Answer plants No Fungi are not nearly as in uenced by sympatric speciation as are plants 20 ME a new species of plant is to be produced by means of allopolyploidy from two parental species that are 211 4 and 211 8 how many chromosomes would you expect in the somatic cells ofthe new species LiConcept 242 Your Answer 6 Correct Answer 12 No The two gametes would be 71 2 and n 4 They would combine for a total of 6 which a er doubling would be 12 21 A new species can arise in a single generation LAConcept 242 Your Answer in a very large population spread over a large area Correct Answer if a change in chromosome number creates a reproductive barrier No It normally takes many generations for sexually reproducing organisms to speciate 22 mhe Galapagos nches collected by Darwin are thought to have descended from a very small parent population Different species of nches that are con ned to only one or two islands most likely arose by LJConcept 242 Your Answer gene ow Correct Answer allopatric speciation No Gene ow would be more likely to prevent speciation 23 n the case of the Lake Victoria cichlids sympatric speciation has been shown to be driven by L Concept 242 Your Answer habitat differentiation Correct Answer sexual selection No Although habitat differentiation has been suggested as a possible mechanism for sympatric speciation in the lake sexual selection has been shown to be a factor 24 n a hybrid zone which of the following would tend to lead to reinforcement LA Concept 243 Your Answer all of the above Correct All of these factors can reinforce the reproductive barriers between populations 25 n the Lake Victoria cichlids what appears to be contributing to fusion of different species LJJConcept 243 Your Answer Murky polluted water is reducing the viability of cichlid eggs Correct Answer Murky polluted water is making it difficult for females to visually select for males ofthe same species No Unless the pollution was directly selecting for or against hybrid eggs such a situation would have no bearing on lsion of species in the lake 26 mAccording to the punctuated equilibrium model of evolution L JConcept Your Answer none of the above Correct Answer the tempo of evolution consists of abrupt episodes of speciation among long periods of equilibrium No One ofthe other choices is correct 27 Womparison of human fossils with living humans seems to show that there have been no signi cant physical changes in Homo sapiens in 30000 to 50000 years What might an advocate of punctuated equilibrium say about this LJConcept 244 Your Answer Lack of change is consistent with the punctuated equilibrium model Correct In punctuated equilibrium new species change little a er budding from their parent species 28 What is the rst thing that must happen in order for speciation to occur LJConcept Your Answer The populations must become reproductively isolated Correct Answer Gene ow between populations must be interrupted No Although reproductive isolation is necessary for speciation according to the biological species model reproductive isolation is unlikely to occur until gene ow is interrupted and the populations have diverged genetically to some extent 29 ow many genes must change in order to form a new species LJConcept 244 Your Answer 4 Correct Answer There is no set number of genes or loci that produces a new species Genetic and environmental factors interact
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