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Introduction to Nutrition

by: Mrs. Bernadine Nikolaus

Introduction to Nutrition NUTR 214

Mrs. Bernadine Nikolaus
GPA 3.77

Amy Freel

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Amy Freel
Class Notes
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Bernadine Nikolaus on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 214 at Radford University taught by Amy Freel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/224710/nutr-214-radford-university in Nutrition and Dietetics at Radford University.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
Powerful Protein 1993 Wadsworth Publishing Bumpanya lTF What are proteins String of amino acids 20 common amino acids Amino acids are to proteins as Letters are to words What are amino acids Groups of diverse chemicals All have nitrogen Have very different other parts called side chains Some are essential i How specific Each AA is important Order is important Any deviation can result in defective protein Example Sickle Cell Anemia 1AA incorrect Essential Must be consumed in your diet Body cannot make these chemicals Out of the 20 amino acids 9 are essential So what does that mean about non essential amino acids So we make protein You eat protein foods made up of amino acids or AAs Inside your cells cell machinery can change some the AAs into different AAs Or use the AAs that you ate To make the proteins that you need So when you need protein Cell machinery strings together the appropriate AAs If you are missing a nonessential AA then what u If you are missing an essential AA then what Finishing touches of AA production Start with the proper string of AA Chain takes twists turns Sometimes ends up as a coil or spring sometimes as a glob Final shape is important in function The strand mils as this quotribbonquot damanstratas 1 Why do we need protein Growth and quotw 39 3 Maintenance of Muscle Connective Tissue Bones and Teeth Enzymes Hormones More Functions Antibodies FluidElectrolyte balance AcidBase balance Transport roleexample V And sometimes Protein is used as an Energy Source rumrrrmnrm wrlfarliare In v How much Protein do we need 15 of total calories from protein RDA 08 gkg or 036 gIb current weight Assuming enough fat and CH0 for energy V Who Needs More Protein Growing children Athletes People with Burns Surgery Pregnancy Is Excess Protein toxic More than 2X the RDA can lead to Dehydration Calcium loss Strain on liver and kidneys Single amino acids the magic bullet True or False certain amino acids helps to Build muscle Grow strong fingernails Cure herpes infections In some people 3gd or less of lysine Sleep better In some people tryptophan beware of rare blood disorder Lose weight Relieve depression In some people tryptophan beware of rare blood disorder Taking excessive amino acids for these conditions runs the risk of Problems with absorption of amino acids leading to deficiencies Treating something ineffectiver and doing more harm than good Protein Deficiency Is it a problem in US World Poverty 60 of world under 2000year US11 million kids under age 12 hungerpoverty USelderly on fixed income Why do People Become Vegetarians Animal lovers Cost Religion Save the planet Health aspects Vegetarians Come in All a Types Vegans Lacto ovo vegetarians Lactovegetarians w I Junk fOOCI vegetarians Two Types of Proteins in Foods Complete Has all the essential amino acids Incomplete Missing one or more essential amino acids Food Sources of Complete Proteins ANY food that comes from an animal SOY Food Sources of Incomplete Proteins Grains Nuts and nut butters Beans Vegetables Cereals V Create a Complete Protein Health Benefits for Vegetarians 2 X dietary fiber than average diet Low in Sat Fat and Cholesterol Generally Lower in Calories Lower risk of cancer heart disease and obesity Which Vegetarians Have Special Needs Children who are GROWING From babies to teens 1 Pregnant and breastfeeding moms How About Vegetarian Athletes What Could Be Missing For amp Vegetarians I Iron 812 Calcium Vitamin D I Zinc What Could Be Missing For Meat Eaters WmmMA wmmmc Folate Fiber Minerals VI VII VIII Test a Pregnancy b InfancyChildhood c Protein d Minerals Functions of Sodium a In Extracellular Fluid b Sodium is essential for muscle contractions and nerve impulse c AcidBase Balance d FluidElectrolyte Do we eat too much salt a Symptoms i Water Retention Edema swelling ii High Blood Pressure Hypertension Does eating too much salt cause HBP a Not Alone i Weightexercise ii Eat fruit and vegetables iii Intake of calcium Requirements in Diet a 500mg a day b No more than 2400 mg a day c 1 teaspoon of salt 2000mg Fresh Foods low Processed Foods High How to decrease sodium a Choose fresh unprocessed foods b Less fast foods c Decrease salty snacks d Fresh meat rather than canned Functions of Potassium a Fluid and electrolyte balance b Cell integrity c Nerve impulse transmission d Muscle contractions in the heart Deficiency of Potassium a Most common Electrolyte imbalance b Due to excess losses from i GI tract ii Kidney Stones c Symptoms Xl Xll i ii d Toxicity iv Muscle cramping and fatigue Confusion Muscle cramping and fatigue From Potassium Salt and Supplements Abnormalities in heart rhythm Heart can stop beating Food Sources Most food groups Fresh fruits and vegetables Beans and nuts Pota toe Pota ssi u m a a b c Lean meats dairy products d e s and Tomatoes nd Blood Pressure a High Potassium and Low Salt can decrease blood pressure without drugs Bone Minerals a Calcium V S viii Most abundant mineral in our body 99 in bone and teeth 1 in bloodstream How we become Osteoporotic 1 Always 1 of calcium in bloodstream 2 If it drops below it comes from bones 3 Regulated by parathyroid hormone and VitD Functions of Calcium 1 Maintaining bone mineral density and structure of bones and teeth 2 Nerve transmission 3 Muscle contractions 4 Blood clotting like Vit K 5 Maintaining normal blood pressure Absorption of Calcium increased by 1 VitD Helps 2 Lactose Helps 3 Good Stomach Acid 4 Growth hormones 5 Pregnancy Absorption of Calcium decreased by 1 Lack of VitD 2 Lack of stomach acid 3 High fiber 4 High phosphorus intake sodas Osteoporosis 1 Thinning of bone mass 2 Loss of bone minerals 3 Consequences a Compression of the vertebrae b Increased fracture risk ix Bones for a lifetime 1 Active growth 10 20 2 Peak mass 1540 3 Bones loss 30end of life x Risk factors 1 Lack of calcium in diet Smoking Excessive Alcohol Lack of weight bearing exercise Long term steroid use Agehormones Anorexia Caucasian and Asian decent wwwp s eww Family history 10 Hypothyroidism xi Toxicity 1 Only through supplementations xii Recommendations 1 1300mg lt 18 2 1000mg 1950 3 1200mg after 50 xiii Food Sources 1 Best Yogurt Best Milk Cheese ice cream Calcium fortified foods Soy products fortified Salmon Sardines with bones NP P PF E J Collard and mustard greens broccoli b Phosphorus i Second most abundant mineral in our body ii Mostly found in bones and teeth iii Functions 1 Maintains bone and teeth Part of DNA and RNA important for all periods of growth Energy transfer ATP PP Part of cell membranes phospholipids 5 Acidbase balance iv Toxicity 1 4000 mgday 2 Lowers Calcium in Blood 3 Calcium is pulled from bones greater risk of osteoporosis v Sources 1 All foods from animals 2 Soft Drinks 3 Processed Food c Magnesium i Barely Qualifies as a major nutrient ii Maintains Bone and Teeth iii Energy metabolism ATP iv Nerve transmission v Muscle Contractions vi Protein synthesis vii Deficiency 1 Rarely due to inadequate intake 2 Rare Diseases 3 Gland Kidney Diseases 4 Malnutrition and alcoholism 5 Symptoms a Muscle weakness b Convulsions c Hallucinations viii Food Sources 1 Chocolate 2 Beans legumes 3 Nuts 4 Dark leafy green vegetables 5 Seafood oysters 6 Baked potatoes ix Factoid 1 High magnesium intake lowers blood pressure 2 Magnesium may help PMG symptoms X Trace Minerals a ron i Oxygen transport 1 Hemoglobin Muscle 2 Myoglobin blood ii Deficiency 1 Most Common deficiency worldwide b Zinc 2 Increased needs 3 Increased losses 4 High Risk In USA a Children 6mo to 4 years old b Teens c Pregnancy d Female reproductive years 5 Symptoms a Anemia i Small pale red blood cells b Paleness c Fatigue d What Increases Absorption Less immunity 1 Decreased Iron Store 2 Hemequot iron a Hemequot Food from animals b NonquotHemequot Plant and Animal 3 4 HCI in stomach Decreases 1 High Fiber 2 Calcium and phosphorus a Milk and Supplements 3 Tannic Acid tea and coffee 4 Oxalates spinach Toxicity 1 Only From Very High Doses of Supplements Food Sources 1 Meat Fish Poultry 2 Beans and eggs 3 Dried fruits 4 Iron Enriched breads and cereals Found in muscle and bone Functions 1 DNA and RNA productions 2 Cofactor for 100 enzyms 3 Reproduction gentility and sexual maturation 4 Activates Vit A 5 Immune functions Deficiency


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