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Organizational Psychology I

by: Gerardo Little

Organizational Psychology I PSYC 650

Marketplace > Radford University > Psychlogy > PSYC 650 > Organizational Psychology I
Gerardo Little
GPA 3.67

Nora Reilly

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Nora Reilly
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gerardo Little on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 650 at Radford University taught by Nora Reilly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/224711/psyc-650-radford-university in Psychlogy at Radford University.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Psychology Terms Organizational Psychology is the scientific study of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settings 2 A formal organization is one that exists to fulfill some explicitly stated purpose and that purpose is often stated in writing 2 An informal organization is one in which the purpose is typically less explicit than a formal organization 2 Psychology is the scientific study of individual human behavior and mental processes 3 This means that organizational psychologists use methods of scientific inquiry to both study and intervene in organizations using a systematic databased approach to studying organizational processes and solving organizational problems 3 Even though we are looking at organizations individual behavior is the mediating factor Groups and organizations do not behave people do 3 0 Psychology is the application of the methods and principles of psychology to the workplace 3 The ScientistPractitioner Approach captures the dynamic interaction between generating scientific knowledge and the application of that knowledge for some practical purpose 5 Science and practice are not independent and in fact often feed off each other 6 Historical Influences Chronological Summary of Major Historical Influences on the Field of Organizational Psychology during the 20th Century Table 11 page 11 Early 19005 19205 19305 19405 19505 Development and growth of Scientific Management Taylor beginning of the scientific study of organizational structure Weber Hawthorne Studies growth of unionization immigration of Kurt Lewin to the United States WWII publication of Vitele s book 39Motivation and Morale in Industry development of the Human Relations perspective Lewin conducts action research projects for the Commission on Community Relations and establishes the Research Center for Group Dynamics at MT 19605 19705 19805 19905 2000 present US involvement in Vietnam Division 14 of the APA is changed to IndustrialOrganizational Psychology multilevel perspective in organizational psychology increasing attention to nontraditional topics such as stress workfamily conflict and retirement Increasing globalization of the economy changing workforce demographics increasing reliance on temporary or contingent employees redefining the concept of a job Advances in communication technology continued increases in globalization greater flexibility in work arrangements boundaries between work and non work less clear Early O was more than 0 Hugo Munsterberg Walter Dill Scott and Walter Bingham were pioneers on the In side around the turn of century 9 Nonpsychologist Frederick Winslow Taylor developed the principles of scientific management 10 0 Those who perform work tasks should be separate from those who design work tasks Workers are rational beings and they will work harder if provided with favorable economic incentives Problems in the workplace can and should be subjected to empirical study 0 O Nonpsychologist law history Max Weber left his legacy in the field of organizational design 0 Developed notion of bureaucracy as an organizing principle I Employees know exactly what they are supposed to be doing I Lines of authority are clearly stated I Advancement and rewards are based on merit and not on nepotism or social class 11 o Wrote about topics such as leadership power and norms at a time when these topics were largely ignored 12 Beginning of the 0quot side was the Hawthorne studies 13 Collaborative effort between Western Electric Company and researchers from Harvard between 19271932 to investigate impact of environmental factors such as illumination wage incentives and rest pauses on employee productivity 0 Productivity increased regardless of the changes in level of illumination THE HAWTHORNE EFFECT people will respond positively to any novel change in the work environment 0 Later studies found that 0 Work groups establish and strongly enforce production norms 0 Employees respond differently to different styles of leadership Around same time another big influence was unionization o Forced organizations to consider for the first time a number of issues that are largely taken for granted today Also around same time Kurt Lewin fled Nazi Germany and took a post at the University of Iowa Child Welfare Research Station 13 0 Action research is when researchers and organizations collaborate on research and use those findings to solve problems 14 The scientistpractitioner model can be traced back to this WWII had a tremendous impact on the growth of Organizational Psychology 0 Women were needed to fill many positions in factories while men at war 0 Harry S Truman integrated the military 15 o WWII also served as impetus for studies of morale and leadership styles 0 Problems with low morale and desertion gave this practical importance 1953 Publication of Morris Viteles39 book Motivation and Morale important because in 1932 his book Industrial Psychologycontained very little on the field Signified the arrival of Org Psychology playing a broader role in Industrial Psych Also post WWII the human relations perspective emerged the way organizations had traditionally been managed kept employees from being creative and fulfilled on the job By early 1960s an equal partner with Industrial Psych 1960s1970s Vietnam led to cultural changes in America Many young people questioned conventional social norms and traditional societal institutions such as education government and the legal system Less and less common for people to blindly follow authority organizations had to find methods of motivating employees other than simply offering financial incentives or threatening punishment Harder to find people who focus exclusively on work 15 Division 14 of APA changed from Industrial Psych to ndustrialOrganizational Psych in early 70s 15 Organizational psychologists made advancements in theory and research Salancik and Pheffer 1978 proposed Social Information Processing Theory SIP as alternative to more traditional need based theories ofjob satisfaction and job design 16 Staw and Ross 1985 impact of personality and disposition on job attitudes Watson and Clark 1984 impact of personality and disposition on perceptions ofjobrelated stress James and Jones 1974 Rousseau 1985 recognition that forces at both the group and organizational levels impact behavior in organizations More focus on nontraditional topics like workfamily issues Greenhaus amp Buetell 1985 jobrelated stress and health Beehr amp Newman 1978 and retirement Beehr 1986 shows interests beyond management concerns 1980s2000 consisted of three main trends Possibly the most significant event was the breakup of Soviet Union and fall of Communist regimes 0 Many of these nations have also attempted to establish freemarket economies Managing and motivating employees is different in stateowned businesses from freemarket ones Another trend is the aging of the workforce and becoming more ethnically diverse 0 Will likely lead to bigger focus on retirement 0 Will be called on to investigate cultural differences on organizational processes such as socialization communication and motivation Third trend is move from highly specific jobs to more temporary projectbased work Dejobbing o This impacts the psychological contract between the organization and the employees I What does the organization owe its employees What do the employees owe the organization I It is increasingly common for individuals to hire themselves out on a project or per diem basis 17 o How does an organization maintain a consistent culture and philosophy with a relatively transient workforce o Is it possible to motivate a temporary employee to perform beyond an average level of performance 91101 made organizations aware of the need for having plans in place in case of emergencies Other recent trends have been technological change increasing use of telecommuting and other flexible work arrangements and increased globalization 0 Advances in communication technology allow things to be done much quicker than 20 years ago 0 This allows more flexibility in working arrangements but also makes it more difficult to separate work and nonwork lives summary 19OrganizationalPsychology is the scientific study of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settings While it is a legitimate field of study in its own right org psych is actually part of the broader field of O Psychology Organizational Psychologists use scientific methods to study behavior in organizations They also use this knowledge to solve practical problems in organizations this is the essence of the scientistpractitioner model the model on which most graduate training in ndustrialOrganizational Psychology is based Thus those with training in Organizational Psychology are employed in both aca emic and nonacademic settings Historically Organizational Psychology was slower to develop than the industrial side of the field The event that is usually considered the historical beginning oforganizational psychology was the Hawthorne studies although many other events and individuals have helped to shape the field over the years and will continue to do so A constant thread through the history of the field is they dynamic interaction between science and practicein most cases for the betterment of organizations and their employees


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