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Forensic Psychology

by: Gerardo Little

Forensic Psychology PSYC 405

Marketplace > Radford University > Psychlogy > PSYC 405 > Forensic Psychology
Gerardo Little
GPA 3.67

Michael Aamodt

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Michael Aamodt
Class Notes
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gerardo Little on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 405 at Radford University taught by Michael Aamodt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/224712/psyc-405-radford-university in Psychlogy at Radford University.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
Detecting Malingering De nitions I Malingering I Dissimulation e Faking bad a Faking good exaggerating downplaying symptoms symptoms 7 Examples 7 Examples Defendants pleading inmates applying for NGRI parole inmates getting thelr Applicants applying for own pnson cells pollcejobs Veterans claiming Patients being released TSD from mental hospitals Methods for Detecting Malingering and Dissimulation I Nonverbal cues during clinical interview I Scores on psychological tests I Comparison ofsymptorns to norms Most NGRI Patients are Schizophrenic Rogers amp Shuman 2000 Disorder Percentage Schizophrenic 622 Personality disorder 120 Organic disorder or mental retardation 58 Mood disorder 50 Other 1 16 Comparmg Symptoms to Norms The Psychological Disorder I Malingerers e Overact theirpart 7 Are eager to call attention to their symptoms 7 Use absurd and inconsistent thoughts 7 Symptoms may not t a diagnostic category 7 Claim the sudden onset ofadelusion 7 Present themselves as blameless within their feigned illness Rogers amp Shuman 2000 6 Signs of Malingering I Rare symptoms I Improbable and absurd responses I Indiscriminant symptom endorsement I Unlikely symptom combinations I Contradictory symptoms I Symptom severity Comparing Symptoms to Norms Characteristics of the Crime I Nonmalingerers seldom have a p Malingerers are likely to have nonpsychotic alternative I Nonmalingerers seldom planned or prepared for their crime d m ttt ttms Types of Hallucinations Rogers Thatcher amp Cavanaugh 1984 Percentage or tactile About 13 of insane defendants have hallucinations compared to 1 ofinsane defendants Comparing Symptoms to Norms The Hallucination I Real hallucinations are intermittent rather than continuous I 56 of real psychotics say that their hallucinations could be due to their imagination I Real schizophrenics try to make the hallucinations go away Comparing Symptoms to Norms Auditory Hallucinations 88 ofreal hallucinations are from outside the head 7 Usually outsidethe body 7 Sometimes from a body part 75 ofreal psychotics hear both male and female voices 76 hear the hallucination in both ears 98 ofhallucinations are spoken in the person s native e u Most auditory hallucinations are brieflt20 seconds Real psychotics can iden 39 y 7 See race age and emotional state ofthe voice 7 The tone volume and rate ofthe voice Most auditory hallucinations ask for an interaction or a response from the person Comparing Symptoms to Norms Visual and Other Hallucinations I Real Visual hallucinations 7 Normally are in color 7 Usually ofnormal sized people I Real olfactory hallucinations are usually of unpleasant o ors Comparing Symptoms to Norms Responses to Questions 0 Malingerers 7 More likely to repeat or answer questions slowly 7 Have contradictions in their accounw of a crime 7 Will o en repeat their Words exactly When asked to repeat What they said 7 Show concentration 7 Seldom remember things correctly M l l Delusions A delusion is a patently false belief about external reality that is rmly held despite obvious and incontrovertible proof to the contmry An insane delusion in a delusion that caused the crime or behavior under legal question to occur Delusions differ from overvalued ideas a The certainty ofthe inaccuracy a The rmness andpermanency ofthe belief Delusions are found in 77 of people found to be insane versus less than 3 ofthe sane Below you will nd a description of a killer who is pleading NGRI Highlight or underline each statement that you think indicates he is malingering and brie y indicate why you think the statement is a sign of malingering Circle each statement that would be consistent with an actual schizophrenic Q You mentioned to three different people that you are hearing voices A Yes I hear them constantly Q Tell me about them A I just started hearing them two weeks ago The voices are coming from outside my head the voices are three females anal two males Does your partner also hear voices No That39s why I am not responsible for the killing anal he is What else can you tell me QgtQ I have hallucinations of these huge people chasing me They are all wearing very colorful clothes I m sorry I didn t quite hear that P I said I have hallucinations of these huge people chasing me They are all wearing very colorful clothes That s what Ithought you said Do you think you could be imagining all this I might be Did you know the person you are accused of killing QgtQ It was myformer boss whofireal me Malinger 3 Practice 2 Below you will nd a description of a person claiming NGRI Highlight or underline each description that you think indicates the person is malingering Circle the statements you think support insanity Q A P gtgtgt Tell me about the voices that told you to kill radical feminists There were several voices that were always outside my head They were usually male but sometimes werefemale You mentioned to the detective that you also had hallucinations Yes I didn39t always have them But when I did they were in color and seemed to involve Playboy centerfolds Do you think that you could have been imagining these images No They were real I did everything I could to make them go away Have these voices been talking to you for a long time No they started about a week ago Did your partner also hear these voices I don 39t know What did the voices say to do with the money you would inherit They didn39t say Anything else you want to tell me Is there anything else I want to tell you I also smelled things Terrible odors that reminded me of the death I saw in Vietnam Malinger 4 Practice 3 Below you will nd a description of a killer who is pleading NGRI Highlight or underline each statement that you think indicates he is malingering and brie y indicate why you think the statement is a sign of malingering Circle each statement that would be consistent with an actual schizophrenic Write a short a few words explanation for your decision next to your underline or circle Q P P Mr Spiccolli You told the arresting of cer and the desk sergeant that you are hearing voices Yes I hear them every now and then Tell me about them The voices have been in my head for years Sometimes the voices sound like my mother and other times they sound like Mr Hand my old high school teacher Does your partner also hear voices No That39s why I am not responsible for the killing and he is What else can you tell me I have hallucinations of 20 feet tall people chasing me They are all wearing very bright red hats yellow socks and blue suede shoes I m sorry I didn t quite hear that I said I have visions of these huge people chasing me They are all wearing very colorful clothing That s what Ithought you said Do you think you could be imagining all this I might be Did you know the person you are accused of killing It was my estranged spouse Malinger 5 Types of Delusions Rogers Thatcher amp Cavanaugh 1984 0 Paranoid 53 0 Ideas of reference 36 0 Control 22 Grandiosity 20 0 Thought insertion 9 Exercise on Detecting Malingering Using Validity Scales from Standardized Tests I MMPIZ is most common I Types ofScales 7 Standard validity 7 Special malingering scales 7 Special dissimulation scales 7 Standard clinical scales 7 Supplementaryresearch scales Mills T MMPIZ Standard Validity Scales L deliberate unsophisticated faking good F faking bad K subtle defensiveness Back page infrequency scale Fb 7 40 items Measures faking bad on items in the later part othe test Variable response inconsistency scale VRIN r 67 pairs ofiterns Measures inconsistent responses 7 Scores of geatethan 14 indicate inconsistent responding and invalidate the clinical scores True response inconsistency Scale TRIN 7 Measures tendency to pick true or to pick false MMPIZ Special Malingering Scales I Gough s FK Scale I Cofer s MalingeIing Scale MP or Cof I Wiener s SubtleObvious Scale MMPIZ Special Dissimulation Scales Gough s FK Wiggins Social DesiIability Scale S d Edwards Social DesiIability scale S D Desirability Scale L K g MMPlZ Standard Clinical Scales Hypochondiiasis Hs I Depression D I HysteIia Hy I Psychopathic Deviate I Pd Paranoia Pa Psychasthenia Pt S chizophIenia S c Hypomania M a I Social IntroVersion Si I M as culinity femininity Mf Which Scale is Best Research Strategies I Known group comparisons I Motivated groups approach I Fake good or bad I Simulate another person Which Scale is Best Research Method Moderates Effect Sizes Aamodt 1990 Research Strategy F FK Known group 148 54 Motivated groups 70 72 Fake bad V normal population 440 440 Fake bad V forensic population 387 204 Which Scale is Best Research Results Research clearly indicates e F is best for detecting malingering e Tscore greater than 120 indicates malingering I No other Validity or clinical scales add incremental Validity Aamodt Dwight amp Surrette 1996 I Intelligent people with knowledge of the MMPIZ are able to successfully malinger Pelfrey amp Aamo t 199 People who have been coached to escape detection can successfully malinger Rogers Bagby amp Chakraborty 1993 mi H m Serial Killers WINJEP HY quotif FBI Dr M1102 Aamudt Radfnrd University maamudt adfurd edu HumansWm Types of Multiple Killers of Victims 4 2 3 of events 1 1 3 oflocations 1 2 3 Coolingoffperiod no no yes Serial Killer Frequency Hickey 2002 r 337 males and 62 females inU S from 18001995 r 158 males and 29 females inU S from 19751995 Gorby 2000 r 300 international serial killers from 18001995 Radford University Data Base 6052008 rs 7 137 senalkile US 1199 lntemanunal m General Serial Killer Pro le Demographics I Male 7 Our data base 88 3 r Kraener Lord amp Hellbrun 2004 study of157 senal klllers 96 I White 7 717 of all senal klllers 68 In Kraerner et al 2004 r 73 ofmale senal klllers r 87 of female serlal klllers I Average intelligence 7 Mean of 103 In our data base medlan 102 r n 104 I Seldom involved with groups annual mm General Serial Killer Pro le Age Race N Mean Our data 2008 1404 287 Kraemer et al 2004 157 31 Hickey 2002 285 annual mm General Serial Killer Pro le Demographics 7 Average age is 287 Males e 28 49 is average age at rst kill 11 lSLhe youngest Kody scottr Gang member 7215 the oldest Ray Copeland 7 Jesse Pomeroy Boston in the 1870s Kllled 2 people and tortured 8 by the age of14 spent 58 years In solltary eon nernentuntll he dled Females e 30 15 is average age at rst kill 11 lsyoungest Nlary Flora Bell 6615 oldest Faye Copeland General Serial Killer Pro le Race Race US US amp International N71168 N71827 White 717 717 Black 224 169 Hispanic 48 56 Asian 07 56 A Problem with Profiling 0 Typical Serial Killer Profile in the Media 7 A white male in his mid to late twenties 0 Statistics U S Serial Killers 7 Male 894 7 White 717 7 Mid to late twenties 279 7 White male 698 7 White male in his mid to late twenties 18 mm mm Serial Killing is a White Thing 9802006 Serial Killers 1980 1990 2133 1195 513 955 Race African American Serial Killers 44 lakeEird 13 eylunes 34 Brandon Thulmer L renzn Griyard 23 Wa e Wrurarn k nesLErDeWayne TumEr 2n Mitchell Hulun 12 Lhamel Eurse 17 Maury Tmy vals l at c m luhnM a r unn Manning Jackson Lee a nyd Malim 3mm 3 15 R d swhile Fred Glover me 0 Dale an Jackson my 5mm 1 sad lrunald ampReuben Taylor 14 Vm Gr 5 oral EugEne Waus Jesse Lee c nuks mm W sm Gre Manuel Moore J c x Srrnnn ClareneeWalker Race Hispanic Serial Killers 25 Juan Corona I 8 Augustin Chacon 23 Adolfo Constanzo 7 Fernando Cota 15 Richard Ramirez I 7 DianaLumbrera 12 Roben Diaz 7 DavidVillarreal 11 Juan Chavez I 6 Juan Cordoba 10 Eddie Seda 6 PaulRuiz 9 Lloyd Gomez o Efren Saldivar 9 Rolando Garcra 5 Ramon Hernandez 9 DorotheaPuente 5 Richardo Caputo Race Proli c White Serial Killers 60 Gary Ridgeway I 33 John Wayne Gacy Dr Michael Swango Bruce Davis Donald Evans I 32 Patrick Kearney 50 Edward Eastman I 29 Charles Cullen Amy ArcherGilligan I 27 Dean Corrl 41 Gerald Stano Elmer Henley I 37 Donald Harvey Herman Mudgett I 36 Ted Bundy L 4 Gerard Schaefer Serial Killer IQ I MediaInternet I Rape 7 High IQ 7 Yes 99 02 I Our Database N 104 3 N0 107 94 7 Mean 103 6 I Method ofKillirlg 7 Median 102 7 Bomb 138 7 Range 577 165 7 Gun 107 7 Hands 101 unanniinm Intelhgence The Smart 165 DeboraGreen 130 165 Ted Kaczynsk 155 r LawrenceBlttaker 160 Charlene Gallego 7 may 18 aquot 7 Marcel Petiot 152 Carroll Cole 148 Gary Heidnik 130 145 Ed Kemper 136 140 Charles Albright 140 Robert Browne 138 Michael Carson 13o Ted Bundy 125 134 Thomas Dillon 7 Angel Resendez r Gaald Schaefer 129 Paul Knowles 129 Randy Craft 128 John Christie 128 Joel Ri dn 127 James Debardeleben 126 David Copeland at o Intelligence The Not So Smart mot mu Derrick Todd Lee mot oooo Lorenzo Fayne at V Louis Crame Christine Falling IO ow Hubert Geralds 75 Coral Watts 75 Many Graham 78 Marie Noe 0 Tommy Lynn Sells 4 Zoo Man Huskey Joseph Kallinger Otis Toole oooooooooooo 0an Henry Lee Lucas Danny Rolling 00 V Family Comparison Serial Killers U S Population Birth parents 79 6 76 1 Adopted 7 8 2 5 Relative 7 3 3 1 Foster home 3 2 0 4 Orphanage 1 6 Abandoned 0 5 N 3 72 2000 Census Birth Order Comparison Serial U S Killers Presidents Population First Born 31 7 Middle Born 27 7 50 0 15 90 Youngest 25 3 14 3 28 36 Only Child 15 3 2 4 27 39 N300 2000 Census new mm General Serial Killer Pro le Unstable home 37 Absence of loving and nmturing relationship Physical ailments and disabilities Head injmies Triad 7 bed Wetting 7 re starting 7 animal torture Childhood Effects of the Family Child Abuse Cumpmsun of Serileillers m the GenerzlPupulztinn Mitchell amp Azmndt 2005 Type ofAbuse General Senal Killers Population Physical 6 36 Sexual 3 26 Psychological 2 50 Neglect 18 18 other 6 Not applicable w k v w A 70 32 A Strange Way to Raise a Child Gary Heidnik I 3 years old I Didn t clean room properly I Father hung him by his feet out of a 3rd story Window A Strange Way to Raise a Child Henry Lee L ucas I 3 years old 7 Mother forced him to watch her have sex with strangers I 7 years old 7 Mother made him go to school dressed like a gir 7 Mother beat him when his teacher gave him a pair of shoes I 10 Years old 7 Mother s lover showed him how to kill animals and then have sex with them A Strange Way to Raise a Child Danny Rolling 6 months 7 Father kicked him into aWall 1 year old 7 Father beat him When he crawled Jnny 68 years old 7 Father beat him twice a Week 13 years old 7 Father handcuffs him to brother beats them leaves them outside A Strange Way to Raise a Child Robert Garrow 1 year old 7 Father made him kneel for hours in the comer 2 years old 7 Mother splits his head open with a croWbar during a beating 5 years old 7 Knocked unconscious When mother hits him in the head With a piece ofWood 6 Years old 7 Beaten unconscious by his father 7 Made to Wear his sister s bloomers out to play General Serial Killer Profile Forensic History Triad Most have a criminal history 7 87 3 Were previously arrested 7 75 0 had spent time injail or prison Many received prior psychiatric treatment Many spent time in a forensic unit 63 killed prior to their serial killing Categorizng the Serial Killer I Killer I Motive 7 sexrace age 7 sex 7 7 power 7 psychopathology 7 nancial gain I Crime Scene I Victim 7 type ofweapon 7 sexrace age 7 use oftonure 7 occupation 7 attempt to hide body 7 personality 7 location Type ofvictirn Spouse Randorn Specific specific Motive Farnily strangers Type strangers Employees Patients Money Black cenaaet cest Lethal Wlduw Killer Cutter Caretaker Sex Disurganized Organized Lust Lust Thnll Disurganized Organized Thnll Thnll Power Bluebeard Angels uf Death Revenge Revenge Psychosis Visionary Hate Missiunary Attention Munchausen Munchausen No mo ive Anasueial Types of Serial Killers Visionaries I Psychotic told to kill 7 paranoia schizophrenia 7 1 ofkillers are psychotic Henn et al 1976 I Examples 7 Herbert Mullin 7 Miguel Rivera 7 Joseph Kallinger Herbert Mullm r Crimes 7 Operated dunng1972r1973 7 Killed 13 In Santa Cruz CA 7 Shutmust ufhs metme 39 V1539 7 Vmees tuld hm tn shave his head and bum ms pems with a ergarene he ubeyed 7 Vmees tuld hm tn kxll m urder tn prevent a catastxuphxe eathquake Joseph Kallinger Crime 7 Operated dunng1974r1975 7 Murdered 3 m N and FA meludmg une ufhs suns 7 Rubbed and assaulted many uthers 7 H1513 year uld sun as hrs w aeeumph ision 7 Tuld by Ged Lhmugh alarg head m e neadng h tentacles m murder yuung buys and sever merr genitals Harvey Carignan y smashmg mer skull wrm a hammer Vision 7 uldby Ged m kru Wumen 7 Sad ddn39neu mm why Types of Serial Killers Missionaries Kill to Cleanup world Examples 7 Juseph Frankan m gamma We meAemAmmms Wameewnmem meemynyww a Megan Killed mast wuelmmgacers 7 Carmll Cule Carroll Edward Cole nmes 7 Operated dunng1975719 n 7 Killed atleast 13 wumenm several western states A Mission 7 Rid the wurld ufluuse wumen 7 All his mum cheated un their slgm canbutherwlth Cule Types of Serial Killers donists Kill forfunor pro t u types 7 Lust Killers km fur saxual grati ea un Oxgnmzed Disargnmzed 7 Thnll Killers kin futhe Lhnll ufkillmg 7 am Killers 0 Examples of Lust Killers I Organized Killers I Disorganized Killers 7 Ted Bundy 7 Arthur Shawcross 7 John Gacy 7 Richard chase 7 chris Wilder 7 Jeffrey Dahmer 7 Kenneth Bianchi 7 Danny Rolling 7 Ed Kemper Hedonists Gain Killers Black Widows I The Crime 7 Kill husbands lovers or relatives for nancial gain 7 Almost alwayswornen 7 Almost 90 use poison to kill their victims I Examples 7 Diana Lumbrera killed her 6 children for insurance 7 Nanny Hazel Doss killed 4 husbands 2 sisters 1 mother 7 Lydia Trueblood killed 4 husbands 1 child brother inlaw 7 Amy Gilligan killed 5 husbands several palienls Hedonists Gain Killers Cost Cutters I Crime 7 Kill to save money I Examples 7 Joseph Briggen Kllled lz ranch hands when thelrpay was due Fed Lhepeople to his pnzewming pigs 7 Georg Grossman Kllled over 50 people punhe meal inlo hlshotdogs 7 Joe Ball Joe Ball Operated during melate 193 s Killed at least 5 probably 14 vmitresses athis tavern The Sociable Inn i Texas Threth m into a pllwmd 5 alligators in me back ofthe tavern HedonistsGain Killers Lethal Caretakers Profit The cdme 7 Klll pahentsfurpm t Usual Wumen Examples 7 Dunhe Pueme kllled 7 elderlytu cash suclal seeumy eheeks 7 Antulnette Sclen kllled lz elderlypanents su that she e uld take thelr assets n2 Hahnpulsuned 5 elderly men she cared furtu getthelr lnsurznce Types of Serial Killers Power Seekers Kill to exert power ovel strangers Examples l 7 Ted Budd 7 Davld Berkuwltz 7 Angela Buunu 7 Edward Kemper Power Seekers Angels of Death The Crime 7 Usually wnmen e Klll nataents fur feellngs ufpuwer annl enntml Examples Genene lanes 7 As anurse she lnllenl hetween l lannl 45 bables hy mjectlng them Wth amusele relaxant T m ehlnnnle e Damd ll vey ls an example ufamale angel nfnleath e Gwennlnlyn Graham annl Cathenne wen Gwendolyn Graham and Catherine Wood Killed 5 patients in Alpine Manor a nursing home Initial plan was to s ell MURDER with the rst letter in the last name ofeach victim Graham did all the killing and Wood kept wateh Power Seekers Blue Beard Killers Males who kill then spouses 7 James Watsnn Henry Landu Romanced more than 300 women out of their money during the early 1900s in France Ran personal ads to meet his women Married and killed 10 ofthem In their bodies in an oven to dispose ofthem 397 I Fall 39 r Lethal Caretakers Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy The Crime 7 Kill or hurt others in order to be admired for curing them or to get sympathy or the death ofaloved one 7 Mostly females Examples 7 Beverly Allin injected insulin and potassium into 25 39 died 39 39 39 day period 7 Martha Woods 27 respiratory attacks in 9 children resulted in 7 being killed 3 were her own children Types of Serial Killers Revenge Killers Kill for revenge Examples 7 ManhaVlfise Killed3 family members opposing lael marriage 7 Ellen Etheridge Killed 4 ofher s stepchildrm because she was jealous oftheir relationship with lael husband artha Johnson Had 4 lights with her husband A er eaeh ght suffocated a child as revenge Types of Serial Killers Antisocial Personalities I De nition 7 Pattern ofirresponsible orharmfulbehavior 7 Lack ofconscience r Ignore social rules and laws 7 Impulsive r Fail to learn from punishment Examples 7 Gang Members 7 Criminals who kill for no reason The Crime Scene S erial Killer Tyne Crime Characteristic Disorganized Oganized Body dis gured hidden Sex a er death before death unsuccessful successful Weapons nds at scene brings Viciousness torture quick Sophistication low high learns each time The Crime Scene S erial Killer Tyne Crime Characteristic Disorganized Oganized Totem not taken taken Follows crime in news no yes Victim high risk low risk Gets to crime by Walking bus drives


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