Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Lifespan Developmental Psychology PSYC 230
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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gerardo Little on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 230 at Radford University taught by Jenessa Steele in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/224718/psyc-230-radford-university in Psychlogy at Radford University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
First gt Cover Prosocial Behavior Part I Parenting Part II Marriage Divorce Remarriage Part III Late Life Relationships and Caregiving Week of April 2 d 0 Prosocial Behavior 0 Part I 4 Parenting Styles 0 Four different styles differ on 3 dimensions Acceptance and involvement Control Autonomy 0 1 Authoritarian 0 Little acceptance and involvement 0 Very Much control 0 Little autonomy granting o What might children of authoritarian parents look like in behavior and academics 0 2 Permissive 0 Much acceptance but little involvement 0 Very Little control 0 Much autonomy maybe too much too early 0 What might children of authoritarian parents look like in behavior and academics 0 3 Uninvolved Parenting 0 Little acceptance and little involvement 0 Little control 0 Much autonomybut does not grant just does not care 0 What might children of authoritarian parents look like in behavior and academics 0 39 4 Authoritative 0 Much acceptance and invoivement o Reasonabie Cori roi 0 Reasonabie autonomy granting o Coriaidered the best parenting styie o What might chiidren ofauthoritariari parents iook iike ii i behaviorand academics Part II Marriage Divorce Remarriage o R ecaiiingErunlenbrenner s ecuiugicaitheury o Micrusystem ieveiirecigrucaisuciaiizatiun EidiiEdiunai chiidrensuciaiize payemsiusi as parents SuciaiiZE chiidren o Famiiy as a suciai system 0 Suciucuituraiand hi uricaichanges E ects un ramiiy pincesses Direct and Indirect I Interactions Between Parents and Children Maritai reiatinnship gs Parenting f deveinpm em n m Single Adults 0 Being single Dramatic increase in percentage in 2000 Myths and stereotypes Advantages and disadvantages Common problems Forming intimate relationships With other aooits Loneliness Finoing niche in marriage orienteo society Percentage of Single Adults 30 to 34 Years of A e n m Cohabiting Adults 0 Dramatic rise in cohaoiting oerore marriage Higherin countries other than the U s Cohaoiting tenos to tie snortelived in U 5 Comparing eohaoitation to marriage Advantages ano disadvantages or conahmng Increase in Cohabitation in the US pi m 0 Married Adults 0 Mamaitvends cnangmg maievemaie eguamy in manage nae created muveivagiie intense mamai veiatmnships Mae aguna remain angie iungev Average u s mamage iastsjust uvevB years u 5 am a manymg suciety divuvce rates aiewmg R eiigiun in uences mamage in same cuituves internatiunai cumpavisuns in mamage Increasein Age at1g Marriagein us i pi M5 Timing of Divorce and Age of Divorced Adults 0 If divorce occurs it usually happens early in marr39age Stress of separation and divorce pose risks for psychological and physical dif culties Psychiatric disorders and hospital admission clinical depression and a ohoiisrn Psychosomatic disorders Concerns of custodial and noncustodial parents Divorce Rate in Relation to Number of Years Married Percent at divurcees Vears married Effects of Divorce on Children 0 Children Mere likelytu show peereradiostrnent Who are socially mature and responsible shewtew behavioral problems th d licult temperament etten have problems cuplng With dryeree o Adiosrnent improves it duced by dryeree parents harmonious and authumawe Communicating with Children About Divorce 0 Explain separatiun o Separatiun nutcnild sfault o Maytaketime in feel better 0 Keep duurupen furfunner discussiun o Pruvide as much nntinuity as pussible u 0 pp mm iidiiuy u Divorce and Children s Emotional Problems mm vimm Dlvaiced Iiimead rm m wmw 7quot Mn SingleParent Families in Different Countries N1 pi mu 0 Remarried Adults 0 Complex histories and multiple relationships make adjustment difficult Only onethird stepfamily couples stay remarried 0 Types of Stepfamilies 0 Divorce and Widowhood creates stepfamilies Stepfather Stepmother Blended or complex o In stepfamilies children Show more adjustment problems In simple families adjust better Show fewer depressive symptoms overtime 0 Gay and Lesbian Adults 0 Similar in satisfactions and need to nd balance as heterosexual couples Satisfaction s loves joys con icts Needs romantic love affection autonomy equality More exible in gender roles than heterosexuals Prefer long term committed relationships Lesbians usually do not have open relationships Increasingly creating families with children Amount of Same Sex Couples with Children Pip m 0 Part III Late Life Relations late We divorcei i Marital Relationships rem reglvll ig arriage ca 3 Siblll ig Relationships 3 Grandparentirig Relationships 5 Friends 5 Families ofOlderGay Men and Women Marital Relationships in Late Life 0 52 ofwomeri 6574 married 25 75784 e 77 ofmeri 6574 married 71 75784 0 Why 0 Most important relationship forolder adults 9 2 gt1 E e ii Women less likely D be marriedthan White DrHlSpanlE alder w men HighEl leDlEE Yates and highevmuvlalilyvales umi iaciaiemni gmups Marital Relationships in Late Life 0 W Over the lifespan marital satisfaction follows a Ushaped Jnction high in beginning decline and high again in late life WHY Couples who are married atter age 65 report in comparison to younger couples 9 Fewer arguments Fewer marital problems More positive interactions Marital Relationships in Late Life 0 Marital Satisfaction in Late Life 0 Older couples also report Agree on basic values and goals Division of household labor usually traditional Perceive themselves a compatible Have a GREAT deal of intimacy 80 con ded in spouse most ofthe time Kissed spouse daily Laughed together frequently gt90 said spouse was their best friend Great ability to resolve con icts Marital Relationships in Late Life 0 W 0 After Retirement Forthe most part relationships do not change that much However women who continued to work after husband s retirement were more likely to be dissatisfied with their marital relationships esp if husband unwilling to do more household tasks Marital Relationships in Late Life 0 Less than 3 of all marriages last 50 years y Cohort effects in the future 0 Effects oflate life marriage on wellbeing Married older couples have better health than divorced widowed and unmarried older adults Just being married has protective health effects for m However for women the marriage must include Husbands who said tneir rnarriage was Satlsfyll ig Husbands who are happy energetic and fun Marital Relationships in Late Life 0 Divorce By 2010 divorce rates 65 to be over 50 Role of children even more important cohort If remarried how much and what kind of care to stepparent Most agreed depended on quality of relationship earlier on in life Children of divorced parents felt less obligation to care for parents than those of married parents particularly forfathers Marital Relationships In Late Life 0 Remarriage in Late Life 0 Usually remarry for companionship o Tend to be very successful 2 ofwidows 20 ofwidowers 0 Single in Late Life 5 ofolder adults VERY important to have ties with other family members esp women Ex uncles aunts parents siblings cousins nieces nephews O en more independent and used to living alone compared to widowers o ParentChild Relationships 2 most important relationship for an older adult 0 Described as permanent and involuntary 0 have higher levels of wellbeing regularly and express a lot of affectio o If argue argue over 6 issues Differences in lifestyle or habits Childrearing practices Religion Politics Work Habits 0 Older adults with positive relationships with children 0 Most older adults have contact with their children 39 n 0 ParentChild Relationships 0 Economic status and garent child relationships Middleclass children likely to move away to seek employment Older adults then likely to move near children but rely on friends and paid services Workingclass children likely to stay close to home for employment and stay closer to aging parents however cohort shifts 0 ParentChild Relationships 0 Solidarity determined by Frequency of interaction Amount of interaction total time Amount of positive sentiment about family mem ers Level of agreement on beliefs and values Degree in which services are reciprocated Geographic proximity ParentChild Relationships 0 Reciprocity of support shifts over the lifespan Parental support for children peaks in early 50 60 still provide some kind of support Remains at about 50 until parents in 705 Around age 75 children give more help than received Black older adults are more likely to provide for adult children longer than white older adults Thus black children tend to give back or reciprocate more than white children ParentChild Relationships 0 Elder Abuse amp Neglect 111 of older adults but often unreported More likely to occur in the family ifsubstance abuse if 0A is aggressive if OA if cognitively or physically impaire WhyAbuseNeglect a CaregiverStrain b Learned Violence Theory 0 Dependency Theory Sibling Relationships Uniquenot only family but ofthe same generation usually Someone you will likely know your entire life 0 As we age our bonds with siblings appear to become more im ortant o Likelyto only provide emotional support 0 Kind of relationship dependent on gender and family composition r who have a sister are more likely to be close with his sibling than if he only had brothers Sister bonds are the strongest Follow a Ushaped pattern as well like marriage Strength o en dependent on earlier patterns of solidarity vs con ict Grandparent Relationships 0 50 of adults become grandparents by age 50 cohort shi 7 65 by age 65 o Downward vs upward extension of grandparenting 0 Styles of Grandparenting Remote Companionate Involved Grandparenting Relationships 0 Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Increase 3 6 over last 30 years RacialEthnic and Gender Differences 39 who takes on this role May be an off time experience Grandparenting Relationships 0 Grandparents Raising Grandchildren Predictors of this role is largely dependent on parental 0 Parental abuseabandonm ent If given this role under these circumstances Grandchildren llkelvto have rnood swlngs behavloral problems argumentatlve problems ln school Olderadults have decllrle ln Wellrbelrlg Worry about keeplrlg up frustrated unable to balance relatlonsnlp wrtn grandchlld However most state they don t regret tnelrnew roles Grandparenting Relationships 0 Quality of GrandparentGrandchild Relationship Dependent on how close the parent is with the grandparent When strongo en grandmothers feelings toward granddaughters just and strong as with daughter Tend toshow great continuity across the genera Ions lf grandparent sees role as central to identity lf grandparent had a good relationship with his her own grandparents The Grandparenting Lifespan 0 When grandchildren are young grandparents spend the most time find this period most gratifying 0 Frequency of contact declines in teenage years into young adulthood years However most college students report Grandparents vital in shaping values identity and religious beliefs 0 Adulthoodreationship becomes strong again More frequent contact 40 weekly contact geographic proximity mattered Stronger ties with grandmothers than grandfathers Gay and Lesbian Relationships in Late Life 0 Very ittle research and a lot of cohort effects Most ga and lesbian older adults report being in a longterm partners ip some repo being in a civil union lGagmen are more likely to have open public39 relationships than es I n 0 0 0 women Adjustment to aging process is best if coming out39 is established Most older gay and lesbian relationships consist of children from previous marriages or ado tion tgmas discrimination lack ofmedical amp social services insensitiv policies inhe itance issues health care professionals etc 0 1 Some report alienation from family due to sexual identity Results in little contact with family and increased contact and dependency on friends in social support network Research has shown that older gay arid lesbian adults social siaipptort networks areiust as large and rich as heterosexual older a u s Family Informal Caregiving o 12 million people need assistance with daily activities 9 age 6569 43 gt age 85 0 Longterm care range of care required by older adults in orderto help them maintain independence and functioning 0 Longterm care is MOST likeyto be provided by family members informal care 00 Family Caregiving 0 Type of Care Provided Walking Family Caregiving 0 Type of Care Provided 8 Instrumental Activities of Daily Living IADLS Light Housework Heavy Housework Getting Around in the Community Using the Telephone Finances Taking Medications Shopping Preparing Meals Family Caregiving o M Provides Care Gender Differences Why Children Son vs Daughter Spouse Husband vs Wife Family Caregiving and Burden o What is caregiver burden o How might caregiver burden lead to elder abuse Family Caregiving amp Burden 0 Personality may predispose people to feel amp report more burden 0 higher levels of neuroticism associated with more burden from caregiving even when they were doing less amp even when their child was higher functioning The Science of Aging and Religion Life expectancy 80 75 l l 70 Never Lesslhan Weekly Morethan weekly weekly Religious attendance Julie Hicks Patrick PILD Weth giniaUnithity Religiousness in America BIRTH COHORT AGE gig 1901419 191019 192029 193039 194949 195059 1960 ON 1029 3039 37 36 34 32 4049 39 4a 37 38 5059 46 44 45 40 6069 53 46 4s 45 70m 54 57 52 50 8 El 52 COHORT u u u u u u u 11 TOTAL 5911 5611 4911 4611 4311 3611 3311 2911 95 0f Americans repurt a religiuus 0r spiritual affiliatiun 85 repurtattending services at least uncasiunally a H increases in religiousness with age AND decreases across different generational cohorts u o Weaknesses in the literature McFadden Brennan ampPatrick 2003 Almost all studies are correlational designs NonWestern NonChristian and atheistic groups 39 d Focus on public or organizational religiousness often more differences within a religious denomination than hetween denominations It is necessary to examine broad indicators ofwell being not just physical health mammal Il l ll Religion and Age in the United States Gallup Falls 2001 2002 What we measure matters Percent BelleflnGod Membership lmponance Attendance Patrick amp Kinney 2003 3 Tested the roles of age religious beliefs and organizational religiosity in the prediction of depressive symptoms and positive affect 3 Data provided by 129 younger and older adults 5 Beliefs including usefulness of talking with a minister religion provides comfort religion is important Wt iiiumi4il hut lly ORGANIZATIONAL RELIGIOSITY RELIGIOUS BELIEFS iNlVilQllthlUHIlUNlY Does religiousness influence behavior 3 Good Samaritan study anecdotal and historical examples of hypocrisy 3 Bonner Koven amp Patrick 2003 using 68 older adults and hypothetical vignettes tested whether public religious behaviors prIvat religious behaviors and subjective spirituality predict prosocial behavior i t llanhlUnnuKlH Higher spirituality was associated with increased likelihood of prosocial behavior B eta Public religiosity 310 207 271 PIivate religiosity 093 139 123 Subj ective spitituzlity 077 behavmrsw 67 59 2767205E 123 assncizmadwithluwer levels at depressive Fewer privzm religinus ere Vixx imimaL39iuuhln Patrick amp Steele in press 8 Examined the frequency and content of prayer among 130 adults lFatnckampKInney20035ample 60 younger M 215 70 older adults M 749 38462 were men 3 Limits only a few domains of prayer were included and we did not query whether the prayers were petitionary in gratitude etc Ii imlnhil 39nnualn Frequency amp Content of Prayers 8 A 4point scale Never Rarely Sometimes Almost Always assessing frequency of prayer in general about one s own health about others health about money about society leViinnlennuxliy Crossdomain comparisons ople prayed more frequently about others health than their own health more frequently regarding their own health than for society and more frequently 39 I r El Other health El Own health u u about money ISociety IMoney Age amp Gender Effects 3 AGE DIFFERENCES Older adults reported more frequent prayer in general an frequent prayer about Society than did younger adults a 3 2 3 GENDER DIFFERENCES Women prayed in general about their own health about others health about money MORE OFTEN than did en VluquplimiL 39nnualn Age amp Gender Effects 3 in Prayer Domains In Own Others39 Money Society General Health Health l alumna mama FormMen x ouammenl Religiousness Experience and LateLife Decision Making Sample included 100 younger adults and 78 older adults Sonnbag amp Patrick 2004 2005 WcanjgmiaUnivcmty Vignettes 38 Lowemotional salience consumer Awoman bought some thlngs torher daughterthat turned out to be clearly defectlye She tnes to return them to the store but the managerwlll do nothlng about lt What should the woman do 38 Mediumemotional salience family A sseyeareold woman llyes alone ln herthlrd tloorapartment ln the clty She has few ylsltors and rarely goes out She complalns that she mlsses belng wlth others and that she doesn t want to be a burden to hertamlly What should the woman do 38 Highemotional salience end of life man has lust been told by hls doctor that he has less than one yearto llye The last seyeral months othls lllness wlll lllltely be yery palntul The man ls thlnlltlng about commlttlng sulclde What should the man do ll tiullmil 39nnualn 382 Age x 3 Domain x 7 Strategy ANCOVA with repeated measures on the last 2 factors Age differences in the types of strategies erated across the domains The strategies generated related to age spirituality and religiousness 38 Post hoc 2 Age x 4 Strategy repeated measures ANCOVA within each domain to examine the pervasiveness of religiousness and spirituality High Salience EndofLife Decision Strategies within the Endof LWe Domain Religion ernerged as a strategy in tne end of life decision only age differences ernerged in tne other3 strategies as Well i eek Sucial Seek Suppun ruirnai Suppun MAiiuinitiL39nmrxiiy Age and End of Life Decisions 38 Five mutuallyexclusive decision outcomes were coded rom the participant s total written response to th vignette Commit assisted suicide 3 Chi square analyses Signi cant age differences emerged in the endof life outcome 124N16611 3plt Vuihipinml 39nnuaiiy Overall age differences in Endrneril39e Decisions Defertu Others Decisinnal Outcomes I Younger Adults 1 Older Adults ost hoc 12 analyses examined age ettects 117 each endrofrli ged only forthe dectston to ght 7 51 lt 01 outcome Age differences emer againstdeath 12m N 166 Suicide Assisted Suicide Is it really age 0 examine whether individual characteristics 39 39 ed multinomial predicted endof life d logistic re 39 religiousness spirituality and selfasse the DVs were the ve endof life decisions 38 The overall model was signi cant with 77 N 1634208 correctly classi ed 9800 Only r 39 a99 124t N endof life ecision eliglousness 124 N 16 113 163 934 uniquely predicted e gender ssed health and the VIQ NAilutlllle39lllu39l il 38 Examination of the Betas revealed that people lower in religiousness were more likely to endorse assisted suicide 3 62 Standardized Regression Coefficients Age Gender Religiousness Spirituality SAH FightDeath 10 93 6 12 63 AcceptDeath 01 31 17 00 52 Suici e 00 34 32 08 68 39 quot 02 28 62 12 84 SAHSelfrAssessedHaltn plt us VistVttnlnhtL 39nnuain Language Lecture 2 of 2 Week of February 25m 2007 Language Development in Infancy Milestones Crying Cooing Babbling Gestures First Words Receptive vocab exceeds spoken vocab Common first words Language Development in Infancy Vocab expansion 18 mos 24 mos Vocabulary spurt Overextension Underextension TwoWord Utterances Telegraphic speech Language in Early Childhood Ages 23 Grasping of language rule systems may make mistakes Understand phonology amp morphology Overgeneralizing Morphology study with fictional words Language in Early Childhood Understanding Syntax Semantics Language MiddleLate Childhood Vocab amp Grammar Reading Wholelanguage speech Basicskills andphonics speech Blending amp segmentation Writing nnl m Peer Relationships Ch 15 ll Peer Relations rum El Peers defined El Why are peer groups important for social emotional and cognitive development I Discussion of typical development of peer groups in infancy childhood El How are peer relations different from parental relations How dot ey influence one another HUI peer Relations El Peer groups I Strongly desired I Unique values peer culture I Standards for behavior peer culture I Social structure leaders followers I Organized based on proximity I Organized based on similarity I Largely unchanged over years unless change classrooms still largely unchanged llllllllllllll Peer Relations El Peer Acceptance likabilily among peers Not necessarily mutual as We see in a friendship I Onesided More accepted rnore friends and rnore positive reiauonsnrps ruin l How to measure Peer Relations El Sociomelric Techniques Ask kidsto nominate peers Wholhey l llte and dial llte Rate on a scalefrom like very much to l llte very little How to measure Peer Relations trim a Results ur suciumetri technique arl akiasr Club 9 E eer nutcumes given gruup assignment ziam rnm une uftlwese Either 13 are average Emotional Development Attachment What Are Emotions 0 Feeling or affect in a state or interaction characterized by Behavioral expression Conscious experience Physiological arousal 0 Positive and negative expressions What Are Emotions o Facial expressions of basic emotions Biological namre same across cultures 0 When where and how to express emotions are not culturally universal 0 Biological rootsbut shaped by culture and relationships Emotional Regulation 0 Effectiver managing arousal to adapt and reach a goal Involves state ofalertness or activation States can be too high for effective functioning Early Developmental Changes In Emotions Primary emotions 018mos Infant Crying Infant Smiling Fear Stranger Anxiety separation protest Selfconscious emotions 18 2yrs Fear 0 First appears about 6 mos peaks at 18 mos o Stranger anxiety infant s fear and wariness of strangers intense between 9 and 12 mos Affected by social context stranger39s characteristics Individual variations 0 Separation protest crying when caregiver leaves peaks about 15 months of mu mm autumninn mam n s m V 2a 2 WWW Separauon Protest m Four Cultures 39 Mum Wmquot mummy a Social Referencing Reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a specific situation Ability improves in second year of life Many 14 to 22moniholds look at mother39s face as source Emotional Reg ulation and Coping Infanls use selfsoothing strategies for coping Later in infancy attention is redirected or infant uses distraction to cope By age 2 toddlers use language Contexls in uence emotional regulation Early Childhood 0 Young children experience many emotions o SelfConscious Emotions Pride shame and guilt First appear about age 2V2 Gender and behavioral differences exist Ability to re ect on emotions increases with age Emotional regulation affects peer relations Developmental Changes In Emotions During Middle and Late Childhood Adolescence 0 Time of emotional turmoil but not constantly o Emotional changes instantly occur with little provocation Girls more vulnerable in depression Adolescent moodiness is normal Hormonal changes and environmenta experiences involved in changing emotions Selereported Extremes ofEmouons by Adolescen A B their Paren Aanmm II Mumquot my i39l39 Ad ulthood Adapt more effectively when emotionally intelligent Developmental changes in emotion continue through aclJIt years 0 er 39 report better control of emotions A Changes W P Negative Emou on Across m Years 27 hmlivn Emmmn scam quotmm So emotionalselect tyTheory Definedpremisesresearch time Ie becom Older aCLIIIS e more selective about meir social networks 7 P ace a h h g maxmze posmve emouona expenences 7 Spend more ume Mm farmhar mdwwdua s provwdmg rewardmg re atwonshwps 7 Seek more emouorrre ated goa s man know edgere ated goa s Mode ofSocxoemouona Se ecuvm Purim m mmmna mm quotmanname n4 mames mum 1 knuw e aa Inlanzv Aumemm Mldmenue Olam of Attachment 0 Attachment close emotional bond between two people Theories of Attachment 0 Erikson first year of life is key time for attachment development Sense of trust or mistrust sets later expectations 0 Bowlby stresses importance of attachment in rst year and responsiveness of caregiver Four phases of attachment in rst 2 vars Individual Differences and the Strange Situation o Ainsworth s measure of Infant attachment to caregiver The procedure and classi cation Categories The Significance of Attachment Secure attachment in first year is important foundation for psychological development Some developmentalists believe too much emphasis on attachment bond in infancy Caregiving Styles and Attachment Classification Secure Sensitive to signals available Avoidant Unavailable or rejecting Rsistant Inconsistent Disorganized Neglect or physically abuse crasmlmral campansan ar Attachment r wsmi Putin mim lll WWW arm in Mothers and Fathers as Caregivers Maternal interactions usually center on childcare activities 7 Feeding 7 changing dlapers 7 Bathing Paternal interactions more liker to include play engage in roughandtumble acls Ad olescenue Attachment to parenls 7 Secure attachment to both parel iB posltlvely related to peer and friendship relauons 7 Dismissingavoidant attachment de7 emphasize importance due to caregiver rejection 7 Preoccupiedambivalent attachment 7 Unresolveddisorganized attachment insecure adolescent high fear due to traumatic experiences