GEO 101-007 Chapter 11 Notes
GEO 101-007 Chapter 11 Notes GEO 101-007
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Gintovt on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101-007 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. William Lambert in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see The Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
GEO 101007 101415 Chapter 11 A Biography of Earth Human History Pyramids of Giza 4500 years old Human history 0000001 of Earth history if geologic time were to be squeezed into one day White Cliffs of Dover Part of North Downs Formation Cretaceous Period 14566 mya Millions of coccoliths per cubic cm Slow StartActionpacked Ending Based on our current scientific understanding the first part of Earth s history was devoid of life and an extremely hostile environment About 542 million years ago there was an explosion in the diversity of living organisms Many mass extinctionsquot have helped to shape the history of life on earth The Hadean Eon 4570 3850 million years ago Spans Earth formation to first appearance of continental crust Little is known about the Hadean little preserved Differentiation occurred causing heavy metals core to separate from lighter elements crust Earliest rocks were likely destroyed by period of intense meteorite impacts Hell on Earthquot Moon formation questions still remain about the environment Early atmosphere water methane ammonia hydrogen nitrogen carbon dioxide sulfur dioxide The Archean Eon 3850 2500 million years ago Begins with the first appearance of continental crust 80 of present continental crust formed Plate tectonics was starting to develop debatable First life thought to be present 3800 3500 0 Chemical molecular fossils or biomarkers o Isotope signatures 0 Fossil forms fossilized bacteria Stromatolites distinctive mounds of sediment produced by mats of cyanobacteria Atmosphere high in carbon dioxide and nitrogen little oxygen Proterozoic Eon 2500 524 million years ago Spans almost half of Earth s history GEO 101007 101415 Larger plates and continents formed 90 of continental crust Atmosphere became oxygenrich Shields formed broad lowlying region of exposed Precambrian rock Cratonic platforms formed strata burying shield Rodinia an early supercontinent Ediacaran fauna first multicellular organisms Great oxygenation event dramatic increase in atmospheric oxygen around 2400 million years ago due to photosynthetic organisms producing oxygen and other environments not be able to absorb oxygen Snowball Earth a proposed state of Earth in which Glacial conditions were found globally 0 Many organisms went extinct 0 C02 from volcanic activity is thought to have warmed earth enough to melt ice Phanerozoic Eon 524 million years ago to present Diverse organisms with shells or skeletons Supercontinents formed and broke apart Mountain ranges formed happening today Subdivided into 3 Eras o Paleozoic o Mesozoic o Cenezoic The Early Paleozoic Era Cambrian Ordovician Periods 542 444 million years ago 0 Epicontinental seas shallow seas that may have supported many organisms Cambrian explosion 20 million year period of dramatic diversification of life based on fossil record Conodonts resemble tiny jaws may have belonged to tube like animals 0 Trilobites The Ordovician Period ended with a mass extinction perhaps because of a brief glaciation and associated sealevel lowering The Middle Paleozoic Era Silurian Devonian Periods 444 359 million years ago On land vascular plants with woods tissues seeds and veins for transporting food and water rooted for the first time 0 Plants were able to grow to larger sizes than previously T iktaalik first amphibian to crawl onto land and inhale air with lungs GEO 101007 101415 The Late Paleozoic Era Carboniferous Permian Periods 359 251 million years ago Relatively cooler sea level dropped land exposed and high amounts of organic material produced eventually coal 0 Pangea formed First reptiles appear 0 Dragon Fly with 25 foot wingspan 0 Giant millipede Mass extinction due to asteroid impact or increased volcanic activity gt95 of all marine life went extinct The Early and Middle Mesozoic Era Triassic Iurassic Periods 251 145 million years ago Pangea starts to break apart was together for 100 million years Iurassic period dinosaurs TRex lived during the Cretaceous Period not Iurassic The Morrison Formationfound in the Midwest 0 Can find dinosaur bones The Late Mesozoic Era Cretaceous Period 145 65 million years ago Sea level rose dramatically ooding much of the continents Atmosphere was very warm A shallow sea divided presentday North America Very active west coast Not just dinosaurs 0 Giant turtles 0 Larger animals 0 quotmodernquot fish appear The KT boundary event 0 K Cretaceous Period T Tertiary Period 0 150million year long rein of dinosaurs ended quotinstantlyquot o 90 of plankton species and 75 of plant species went extinct Chicxulub Crater The last ice age 0 Ended about 11000 years ago
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