Honors Introductory Psychology
Honors Introductory Psychology PSYC 121
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This 41 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ozella Cassin on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 121 at Radford University taught by Amanda Shapiro in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/224722/psyc-121-radford-university in Psychlogy at Radford University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Module 2 Research Strategies How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions What to expect gtThinking like a Psychologist gtThe Scientific Method gt 3 Main Methods of Research gt Import Concerns in Psychology Anything seems commonplace once explainedquot Dr Watson Thinking Like a Psychologist gtThe limits of intuition and quotcommon sensequot Thinking Like a Psychologist gt Hindsight Bias I knewitaIIalongquot phenomenon WREAT WATE R ETYRN ENTRY GRABE BARGE Thinking like a Psychologist The 39Scientific Attitude Curiosity Skepticism Humility Critical Thinking She39s a witch The Scientific Method gtThe way in which psychologists test theories through research and experimentation gtWhat is a scientific theory Scientific Method gt Hypotheses o Testable predictions 0 Use operational definitions gt Parsimony o Occam39s Razor 0 Example gt Replication replication replication is prevent biases Scientific Method Theorize i Report Results Hypothesize Evaluate Test Scientific Method Theories are developed and analyzed through the 3 Main Methods of Research 1 Descriptive a Case Studies b Naturalistic Observation c Surveys 2 Correlational 39 entation Case Study gt Studying one individual in great depth in the hope of revealing universal principles 39 39 Genie quotWild Childquot gtHM advantages amp s of case studies Naturalistic Observation gt Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring stua ons l39 gtJane Goodall Surveys gtTechnique used for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes or behaviors of people gt Studies many cases at once gt Must watch for wordinr Mt39 gtWhat are the advantag s of survey f r7 5 45 ff aldwes wopuea aldwes BAHEJUBSBJdBH uonelndod Mugqezumauag o sanssI Correlational Method gt When surveys andor observations find a relationship between a traitbehavior and another traitbehavior gtAllow for prediction but not explanation 0 Correlation does not implv causation elation onexistent correlation Correlation Coefficient gtThe extent to which two things relate gt1e1 gt Positive or Negative Relationship gt Strength of the Relationship 0 Strong 08 0 Moderate 05 0 Weak 03 Scatterplots Positive Negative VA R00002 VA ROOOOZ l I l l I I 600 3m 4m VAROOOO39I VAR00001 Focuses on the possible effects of one or more factors Manipulates the factors of interest and holds all other factors constant Best way to isolate cause and effect Variables 0 Independent Variables what is ariable what is measured Experimentation gt Random Assignment 0 Experimental Group 0 ControlComparison Group gt Placebo effect gt Double blind procedure Experimentation amp Correlation D i O n a I 1 could cause P b I e m S Low selfesteem 1 amp2 Depression or ld Depggsion cou cause Low selfesteem Third Variable or Low selfesteem Problem 3 F a madam or biological and predisposition Depression Feedback Reliability and Validity gtReliability 9 consistency gtValidity9 0 External Validity Generalizability 0 Internal Validity Cause and effectquot Important Concerns in Research gt Generalizability gt Culture and Gender gt Ethics Biology and Behavior Everything psychological every idea every mood every urge is simultaneously biologicalquot Module 3 Neural and Hormonal sttems D What to Expect l Early Beginnings t S Neurons lNeural Communication I How Neurotransmitters Influence Us f i The Nervous System t i The Endocrine System Early Beginnings D 1800s Franz Gall and Phrenology D 1900s lncrease in our knowledge of the brain D Biological Psychology Neurons D Parts of a Neuron Yerminal branches nf axun foln mncfmns with ather cells Dendrlles vecewe messages mm mm cells Axon messages zwz 2 body Me en39s lifgs supuon center Myelin sham cm215m axon olsome eumns and hellps speed s n neural impu se Neural impulse eleurkal slgnal traveung down me axon Neural Communication D Synapse a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron t3 ie The Synaptic gap or cleft Neurons D Neurons transmit messages if Stimulated by signals from sensory receptors iiiTriggered by chemical signals from other neurons D Signals can be it Excitatory l lnhibitory Neurons D Once stimulated a neuron fires an impulse called the Action Potential DThe Action Potential will only fire if 41A neuron receives more excitatory signals then inhibitory signals above the Threshold level Jurist met DAction Potential Propem aaaa me ppppp ad Neural Communication El Neurotransmitters fE Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps ifE Bind to receptor sites Sending neuron Action potential Vesicle containing 7 neurotransmittersig quotin if Releases electric cha rges to i p O te n U a I i n t h 8 re C e i Vi n g n e u n receiving neuron Neurotransmitter 3 Re u pta ke How Neurotransmitters Influence Us There are dozens of different neurotransmitters amp they all travel along a How Drugs Influence Us Neurons Things to HORMONE 02 D What is a W 1 neuron a D Parts of a neuron 7 D How neurons communicate D Neurotransmitter s il How they influence us i EHow drugs w t r39wo rsr ml The Nervous System D An electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the Peripheral Nervous System PNS Cl C S a n e Nervous 3 system Central Peripheral brain and spinal cord l c 7 Autonomic controls Somatic controls selfregulated action of voluntary movements of internal organs and glands skeletal muscles l Sympathetic Parasympathetic arousing calming The Nervous System D Information travels through the nervous system using 3 types of neurons t Sensory neurons t Motor neurons t lnterneurons Central Nervous System k D Brain amp Spinal Cord D Neural Networks D Spinal cord connects the CNS to the PNS Peripheral Nervous System PN l D Connects the CNS to the body s sensory receptors muscles amp glands spimm through nerves 391 M Peripheral nerve El v Nerves A l MAM Peripheral Nervous System D PNS has 2 main components fg Somatic Nervous System tE Autonomic Nervous System lSympathetic lParasympathetic The Nervous System w nlc mm 6 Co lllll l tkalm stripad Control month muiclul or atd mulclu hu hurl Ind gland Endocrine System B Set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream D The Body s quotslowquot chemical communication system Endocrine System D Hormones D Pituitary gland
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