ISSUES IN COGNITIVE SCIENCE
ISSUES IN COGNITIVE SCIENCE COGS 6962
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arne Kulas on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COGS 6962 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/224758/cogs-6962-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute in Cognitive Science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
C Wks Origins amp Functions of Positive and Negative Affect A ControlProcess View Carver amp Scheier I990 Rensselaerigi ii vee A Model of the SelfRegulation of Behavior 0 Feedback Control Loop Rensselaer n Hierarchical Organization of Behavior 0 Powers I973 cascading 0 Concepts gtPrinciples gtProgramsgtetc ideaiized Seifrimage System Concept eve Produce Presentation Principie for ciass Oveiriiding Pro ram ne ence m g ue OApui Function i i 3 Feieience va Peioepiua I DA HCiiOH inpui Syaem Loop Peicepiuai Principie Loop WA Program Loop Emme 909m i Eneci on i Enwonmeni Science Cognitive Difficulty Disengagement ampWithdrawal 0 We incur dif culty amp sometimes fail 0 Momentarily step outside the behavioral stream 0 Examples of simple system interrupters in the form of affect 0 Frustration 0 Anxiety Cognitive Science Dif culty Disengagement ampWithdrawal Cont 0 Assessing outcome expectance liker relies heavin on memory 0 If assessments are favorable proceed else disengage 0 So then were does the affect come in The result of disengagement NO Rensselaer i e Limitation amp Challenge 0 If affect doesn t arise from disengagement then from where 0 Regulating motivation 0 Long term memory 0 Working memory Cognitive Science MetaMonitoring amp Emotion 0 Monitoring is a feedback loop and is fundamental to the control of intentional behavior 0 MetaMonitoring builds on feedback loop is orthogonal to hierarchy loops amp operates simultaneously and in parallel to monitoring Rensselaerf ligl Discrepancy Reduction amp Rate of Reduction Rensselaer 23 Discrepancy Reduction amp Rate of Reduction cont Rensselaer 23 Changes in Rate amp the Abruptness of Change 0 Changes in rate cause changes in affect O The more abrupt an increase in ratethe more the subjective experience incorporates a rush of exhilaration 0 So to further our analogy we re now talking aboutAcceleration Rensselaer igl e Further Processing and Differences Between Immediate and ThoughtOut Expectancies 0 People depend on memories to a large extent for expectancies 0 Expectancies can be influenced by a wide range of info 0 Playing mental scenarios Rensselaerl igl e The Big Picture I Think imwx mcum swim I W w mm w w mam 3 n M ystEm LDDD quot my Pvmm e Luau 133 PvDuvam LDDD mm 3mm Wmvaw Elehawna y Dsmuaae Memaw Issues and Questions Within the Model Dan s Turn Rensselaerl f C Wagks Week 03 Advanced Topics in Cognitive Science Emotion Control of Cognition amp Dynamic Decision Making Rensselaer 222 Week 03 0 Main Reading 0 OrtonyA ampTurnerTJ l990Whats Basic About Basic Emotions Psychological Review 973 3 l 533 I Myers and Deepa I47 cites 0 Responses 0 Ekman Pl992Are There Basic Emotions Psychological Review 993 550553 Hans 85 cites 0 Izard C El992 Basic Emotions Relations among Emotions and Emotion Cognition Relations Psychological Review 993 56l565 Sims 72 cites 0 PankseppJl992A Critical Role for Affective Neuroscience in Resolving What Is Basic About Basic Emotions Psychological Review 993 554560 wdg 28 cites 0 TurnerTJ amp OrtonyAl992 Basic Emotions Can Conflicting Criteria Converge Psychological Review 993 56657l Myers amp Deepa l2 cites Rensselaer 223 wllt04 Meeting Tues 928 at 7pm 0 General 0 Lang P I995The Emotion Probe Studies of Motivation and Attention American Psychologist 505 372385 0 Gray R 2004ntegration of emotion and cognitive controlCurrent Directions in Psychological Science l324648 0 Functional Perspectives o Hudlicka E 2003To feel or not to feelzThe role of affect in human computer interactionlnternationalJournal of HumanComputer Studies 59l2 l32Mukhurjee ampVeksler 0 Functional Modeling 0 Gratch 2004The architectural role of emotions in cognitive systemsUnpublished manuscript Sims ampZhu Cognitive Science wllt05 Meets Thur 930 regular hrs 0 Perspectives Beach L R amp MitchellT R l 978A contingency model for the selection of decision strategiesAcademy of Management Review 3 439449 Kahneman D 2003A perspective on judgment and choice Mapping bounded rationalityAmerican Psychologist 589 697720 0 Emotional Decision Making 0 Mellers B SchwartzA amp Ritov ll999 Emotionbased choiceJournal of Experimental PsychologyGeneral l283 332345 Myers amp Sims 0 BusemeyerRTownsendJT amp StoutJC2002Motivational underpinnings of utility in decision making Decision eld theory analysis of deprivation and satiation ln SC Moore amp MOaksford Eds Emotional cognition pp l972l9Philadelphia John Benjamins Publishing Co Mukherjee amp Zhu Rensselaer 223 Panksepp 0 HS this important 0 2Why is it cited as much as it is 28 times since I992 O 3 Does it relate to our research Should our research and papers take this paper into account Rensselaer Cam Panksepp Intro O Ortony and Turner I990 sought to demolish the empirically supported concept that basic emotions even exist at all I would submit that they have fallen into the trap of advocating a focus on logical propositions in an area where actual ndings and the conceptual frameworks derived from the facts should govern our thinking Rensselaer 223 Panksepp 0 Focus on issue of Whether there is any biological and psychological reality to the categorical notion that basic emotions exist 0 strong evidence eXists already for at least four distinct executive systems for basic quotblue ribbon grade Aquot emotions in the brain 0 These are complex systems With multiple neural components more like emotional operating systems Rensselaer 223 Panlltseppthat is a basic emotion O The psychobiological reply is simple 0 there appear to be a limited number of executive neural systems in the brain that instigate and orchestrate the various facets of a coherent set of emotive response physiological behavioral and psychological Not just response components but integrative systems that mediate the primal affective states that characterize the basic emotions Rensselaer 223 Panlltseppthat is a basic emotion O The psychobiological reply is simple O The hierarchical construction of these systems in the brain was guided by evolutionary reinforcement i e selection rather than by the experiences gained by an organism during a single life span the key issue from a functional perspective is whether the constituent components were intrinsically designed to operate in a coordinated fashion as appears to be the case for the emotional systems that l have advocated as being basic Rensselaer gaging Panlltseppthat does basic mean O Ortony and Turner I990 implied that for something to be deemed basic it is unreasonable to believe that it could emerge from other basic systems I would argue to the contrary that from a realistic evolutionary perspective it is to be expected that all of the basic emotional systems must have emerged from other preexisting brain functions from older preexisting components Rensselaer 223 PankseppWhat counts as empirical evidence O The most powerful initial lines of evidence for the claim that there are basic emotional systems would be that one can elicit coherent emotive psychobehavioral response patterns in animals and corresponding emotional feelings in humans through arti cial electrical and neurochemical stimulation of speci c brain areas Panksepp I982 I985 Rensselaer sells Panlltsepp What would you do with them if you had them 0 Perhaps we would nally begin to understand at a mechanistic level some of the most important operating systems of the brain 0 and through that understanding we could potentially alleviate various forms of human or animal suffering in very direct and powerful ways Cognitive Science Emotional Systems as Hierarchically Organized Executive Operating Systems 0 If one envisions emotional command systems as resembling trees with branches reaching into the higher cortices to interact with perceptual and cognitive processes the trunk reflecting the ancient executive cores of the systems and the roots reflecting connections to sensorimotor programming structures of the brainstem one can better understand why there is still so much sterile controversy in this eld If the trunks of the basic systems are organized at a relatively low level of the neuroaxis but the systems ramify widely into higher structures that provide a more plastic cognitive resolution to experience and in humans provide the grist for a multitude of verbal symbols then one can generate a great deal of confusion concerning the nature of the basic systems by simply focusing on the complexity of the interacting branchesl think this is essentially the level of analysis at which Ortony and Turner I 990 remained in their article Rensselaer 223 HOEOS 0 These basic emotional systems can probably participateas essential ingredients in a large variety of related affective concepts 0 Although componential and social constructivist perspectives can make substantial contributions at the highest branches of the emotional quottreequot eg Scherer I988 they cannot realistically deal with the basic quottrunklinequot issues Rensselaer 223 Whoa Tell us what you really think about OampT s attacks 0 Accordingly the analysis of the trunkline issues should become biologized Panksepp l99l and philosophically and psychologically oriented investigators should be encouraged to evaluate the evidence and formal nature of existing claims rather than assuming as Ortony and Turner I990 appear to do that they can formulate credible alternative accounts without a full consideration of the implications of the neurobiological evidence Rensselaer gaging Ortony ampTurner Debates 0 HS this important 0 2Why is it cited as much as it is OTI47 E85 72 P28TO I2 0 3 Does it relate to our research Should our research and papers take this paper into account Rensselaer Cam
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