Chapter 10 Textbook Notes
Chapter 10 Textbook Notes HIST 145
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Notetaker on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 145 at Towson University taught by Dr. Andrew Diemer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see HIST 145 - HIST OF U.S. TO THE CIVIL WAR in History at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Chapter 10 Slavery and the Nation 17901828 Pages 279 303 American Portrait Lucretia Cof n Mott and the Free Produce Movement p 279 0 Born 1793 Nantucket MA 0 Parents were Quaker 0 Member of the Society of Friends which expelled those who owned slaves 0 Family dependent on Northern merchant economy which was indirectly dependent on Southern slavery gt Eventually expanded the business to include trading cotton 0 Quaker Elias Hicks preached that participants in the anti slavery movement must not only advocate for the emancipation and rights of slaves but also reject the luxuries that their labor has provided gt Lucretia and her husband formed the Free Produce Movement that produced alternatives to cotton and sugar 0 Quakers realized that political action was needed since the boycotts of slavery produced goods weren t strong enough Southern Slavery p 280 0 Slaves worked as field workers house servants in mines mills etc 0 They were all slaves despite their job because they were defined and treated as property Property in Man 0 Slaves codes were established since this property were humans and their behavior needed to be regulated and controlled 0 Slaves were defined as personal property giving their owners the right to buy and sell them as they pleased 0 When Congress established that it was going to ban the slave trade in 1808 the demand for slaves grew and slave traffickers increased the amount of slaves they delivered 0 The invention of the cotton gin gt cotton plantations in the new western states gt northern slave owners sold their slaves to these farmers 0 Slave owners encouraged slave reproduction seeing the additional profits they could gain from it The Domestic Slave Trade 0 Internal slave trade was a well operated business with 1020 employees per firm including bosses clerks guards and agents in offices in cities like Charleston Richmond and Baltimore 0 13 of slave children were separated from one or both parents during the western slave trade 0 13 slave marriages in the upper south were destroyed Plantation Slavery 0 Typical large cotton plantation owned by a single white family and manned by a large of slaves 0 Cotton plantations Spring planted seeds Summer hoeing the plants Fall picking the sticky cotton Even though slavery existed in America way before the introduction of cotton plantations this increased the demand for slaves and set a consistent use for slaves 34 of southern slaves lived on plantations w 10 other slaves Size of plantations Sugar plantations were the largest w 30 slaves Rice plantations came next in size Then came cotton and tobacco farms The wealthiest in the South were families who owned hundreds of slaves and several plantations Sugar plantations Crop cycle 13 months gt planting overlapped w harvesting gt overworking slaves Sugar has to be processed immediately gt buying only adult males and few women therefore few children Sugar plantations were in the hottest swampiest parts of the South gt high death rates gt purchasing more slaves Rice plantations Slaves stood in ankle deep mud in the coastal tidewater regions of SC and GA Swamp fields were snake infested Slaves were given a specific task for the day House work Sugar wash chop and squash the cane Work day tended to be longer masters constantly calling them to do things Masters tended to abuse them since they were more often in reach Other slaves 58 Carpenters ironworkers boatmen spinners weavers seamstresses dairymaids etc American Landscape Gowrie The Story of Pro t and Loss on an American Plantation p 284 Gowrie rice plantation 265 acres on a large island in the middle of the Savannah River 1833 owned by Charles Manigault Ran the plantation from his home in Charleston Winter slaves burned the old stubble in 15 fields and leveled plowed the land Spring women planted seeds Irrigation systems opened to ood the fields As plants grew the fields were drained in order to weed and hoe the plants Fields were ooded twice more Ditches canals traps and drains needed to be cleaned Women hauled mud to make to create systems to prevent clogging the ditches etc Gowrie had 119 slaves gt family and community environment Slaves given tasks and once finished had free time to grow gardens and raise chickens to sell and trade Gowrie faced high death rates Other Varieties of Slavery Slaves worked in stores hotels salt mines coal mining cutting lumber making boats gold mines copper mines etc Less than 3 of Southerners lived in cities there were fewer cities anyways compared to the North Planters who escaped malaria season Domestic slaves Free blacks Southerners would look to NY and PA for services luxury goods gt using slaves to make butter cheese tools they would purchase Reforms to slavery were based on the fact that slaves worked better when they were well fed housed and clothed America and the World The Demand for Raw Cotton p 287 By 1790 700000 slaves in the US 15 million bales of cotton produced 250 a slave Slaves populated VA NC SC and MD By 1830 2 million slaves in the US 366 million bales of cotton produced 1500 a slave Slaves populated VA NC SC less in MD KY TN GA and AL International cotton market was unstable War of 1812 Collapse of credit in 1819 Value of cotton uctuated Resistance and Creation Among Southern Slaves Slaves lived day to day with the choice of whether or not to speak up rebel or run away One slave was branded on both sides of his face so he put poison oak on his skin to remove the branding and ran away One female slave who was separated from but eventually reunited with her mother worked as a seamstress to keep her aging mother from having to work Another female slave was forced into sexual relations with her master when she was only 15 so in the hopes of making him angry enough to sell her she slept with another master and had two children by him 1800 a slave named Gabriel was taught how to read and do carpentry He was able to work alongside free men who eventually moved out west Gabriel planned to meet in the woods of Richmond take control of the city free slaves and kill the majority of whites His plans were discovered after hundreds of slaves had been recruited He and 27 others were executed 0 1811 a slave named Charles led 500 slaves in a march on New Orleans burned fields destroyed crops gathered weapons US troops stopped them killing 60 slaves and putting the heads of Charles and 15 others on posts along the road as a sign to other slaves 0 Fredrick Douglass worked for a man who consistently beat him until one day he fought him and after 2 hours the man gave in and never beat Douglass again 0 Religion Slaves converted to Christianity and made it their own Slave preachers used the story of Moses as hope of their days of bondage ending Dancing singing and clapping were included in their services Slavery and National Development p 291 0 Even without ever seeing a slave northern merchants may transport southern produced goods or goods to benefit slaves Slavery and Industrialization in the Northeast 0 Cotton saved the economy of the north as they were able to make textiles and clothes gt transporting to overseas markets gt more slaves in the south Slavery and the West 0 1819 Legal Alabama Mississippi and Louisiana Replicated southern economy not many towns traded w coastal cities Not legal Ohio Indiana and Illinois Replicated northern economy small farms connected to townscities which were market and manufacturing centers This division took place at the Ohio River 0 Cincinnati Queen of the West Transported wheat corn rye livestock to Pittsburg New Orleans and goods to farmers End of War of 1812 gt using Mississippi river extending to the Gulf of Mexico gt steamboats working up river Had 10000 residents when it officially became a state 0 Ohio had a black code that prohibited blacks from moving into the state unless they could prove that they were free gt required them to purchase papers from the county 0 Indiana Illinois abolished slavery in their state constitutions As a territory Illinois prohibited free blacks but allowed slaves to be rented to Illinois to work Illinois was so proslavery that the elected proslavery politicians into the legislature and came shy of having a proslavery governor Slavery and the Laws of the Nation 0 After the Constitution NY and NJ abolished slavery Northern emancipation completed 0 Congress reenacted the Ordinance of 1787 no slaves in the northwest 0 Congress prohibited importing new slaves in 1807 stated in the Constitution The Constitution did not include the word slavery The Constitution protected slavery where it already existed 35ths clause Article IV nation is responsible for protecting an owner s property Fugitive slave law illegal to aid an escaping slave SC jailed free black sailors afraid of what their in uence would have on slaves This was copied LA NC AL GA FL and TX Free Black People in a Republic of Slavery Free blacks were prohibited from owning weapons and having occupations that would put them in contact with slaves Many free blacks sought connections with white communities incase they were captured and enslaved and needing authority to free them New England allowed blacks to attend school with whites In other states blacks were segregated in schools churches theaters hotels streetcars ferries railways and even cemeteries Border states did not allow free blacks to enter Some states put property restrictions on free blacks in order for them to vote something not needed for white males In Philadelphia free blacks est 40 self help societies American Colonization Society Founded by Andrew Jackson Henry Clay Francis Scott Key Daniel Webster etc Believed African Americans would only succeed in Africa their home By 1816 the majority of slaves had been born in the US 1819 received 100000 from Congress and sent out its first ship in 1820 The federal government excluded blacks from being in the military and delivering mail The Politics of Slavery p 298 Northerners believed 7 out of the 8 presidents had been elected due to the 35ths clause The Missouri Compromise 1819 11 states were free and 11 were slave states Missouri was now applying to be a state First state from the Louisiana Purchase which would lead to future states possibly become slave states if Missouri did Northern congressmen Congress has the right to prohibit slavery in a territory Southern congressmen 5th Amendment allowed slave owners the right to carry slaves into new states Con ict ended when Maine applied to be a free state Henry Clay suggested that slavery be permitted in Arkansas territory but not in the rest of the Louisiana purchase bill passed in 1820 1821 Missouri became the 24th state Antislavery in the 1820s Southerners joined a new party called the Democratic Party Collapse of antislavery politics Colonization A cover up for slave holders to get rid of free blacks 1826 General Colored Association of Massachusetts 1829 An Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World by David Walker Telling blacks to take their freedom into their own armed hands Conclusion p 276 Slavery was not a big deal in the Constitution of 1787 because The majority of northern states had abolished slavery Slavery had been limited in expanding into the west The southern tobacco economy was declining The new cotton gin revived the southern economy gt Increase in the demand and dependence on slaves 1820s ended politics dealing with slavery for the time period
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