INTRO TO CIVL ENGINEERING
INTRO TO CIVL ENGINEERING CIVL 1961
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Citlalli Reilly on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIVL 1961 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Thomas Zimmie in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/224811/civl-1961-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute in Civil Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Loqmanl TahsinLoqman Dr Thomas F Zimmie Introduction to Civil Engineering 27 March 2014 Summary Civil Engineering Practice in the TwentyFirst Century Chapters 7 and 8 Critical thinking skills are important to civil engineers and indeed to anyone facing significant challenges in the workplaceThe world of civil engineering is no longer isolated from today s political social and economic problems Civil engineers are increasingly called on to provide more than technical solutions Civil engineering solutions must protect the environment and be socially and politically acceptable as well as economically and technically sound Your career is going to require that you develop the critical thinking skills necessary to deal with these types of issues on a regular basisTo put critical thinking into context consider that there are a number of competing alternative solutions to the scenario presented Each alternative has advantages and disadvantages that look different from one criterion to another and from one affected group to another The problem is not linear and onedimensional at all but has at least three dimensions alternative solutions contributions to achievement of goals and impacts on different groups Two elements common to definitions about critical thinking are considering issues from many perspectives and considering what can be known and how something can be knownThe first step in critical thinking is to identify our personal perspectives and possible biases and then consider other possible perspectivesThe logical next step is to identify issues that are different from past experiences Here it is important to move beyond personal perspectives and to understand incorporate and acknowledge other perspectives that may lead to a better understanding of the real problem at handAs such civil engineers must be aware of the needs desires and concerns of society in general A good starting place is to follow public discussions in the news One of the differences between situations faced by both engineering students and practicing engineers is the type of problem being solved During the early portions of most engineers careers problems tend to be structured and to have correct answers The more difficult problems deal with making choices in unstructured situations when the circumstances involve uncertainty and there is no single correct solution More often many solutions exist all of which have both positive and negative aspectsOne of the easiest mistakes to make is limiting our perspective when developing a problem statement to what appears to be the most obvious problemAlthough it can be difficult to determine all the different perspectives to consider engineers can make progress by developing the skill of listening very carefully to the requests of clients and probing deeper into the situation The problemsolving process involves the steps Problem identification Establishing the decisionmaking process Goal setting Establishing decision variables and determining how success is measured Involving stakeholders and decision makers in the process Studying the variables problem environment and constraints Finding alternative solutions Evaluation Studying impacts and stakeholders who are impacted Decision Implementation Civil engineers must continue to grow in their professional knowledge and anticipate how critical thinking skills are needed Estimates for the useful halflife of an engineer s knowledge are sometimes given to be as short as 4 to 7 years The implication is that engineers must continually update their level of knowledge and skills Although no one knows for sure how fast technologic information will continue to grow there is no dispute about the need for engineers to pursue more and better knowledge throughout their careers College graduates agree that learning to communicate better is important As a group engineers are not known for their communication skills although many defy this stereotype Regardless of the setting the ability to communicate can often mean the difference between success and failure in a project and ultimately in a career The bestkept secret may be that civil engineers are very effective in public forums where the dialogue driving the democratic process takes Loqman2 placeWhen asked about what they need in engineers employers often list communication skills higher than technical skillsHaving good ideas is one part of the equation being able to express them is the other Civil engineers have a special duty to communicate with the public and decision makers about the good and bad effects of civil workst is also important to listen and question well to clarify to learn and to develop relationships In the management arena communication is the key to good leadership and dealing with communication problems is often the most important step in making an organization or relationship the best it can be We communicate to inform explain persuade evaluate problem solve build relationships and build teamsCivil Engineers deal with many audience types and written and verbal communications must span a wide breadth of styles The audience s needs limitations and vocabulary dictate the style and content of writing Internal audiences are groups within an organization external audiences are constituent groups outside an organization Effective engineers or in fact anyone who wants to succeed in life will be interested in improving their communication skills Success in individual communications involves skill quot g 39 eg 39 analysis have been developed to improve communications and there are many books on the topicWritten and verbal communication is important to civil engineersThe ability of engineers to write well is important early in their careers and the importance grows as technical and management communications become more complex Some engineers have become famous for publishing books in areas such as the history of technologyGood verbal communication begins with listening and there are positive and negative factors to consider Positive factors include showing interest and understanding identifying and analyzing the problem from a neutral viewpoint helping to solve a problem and avoiding evaluation of the other person s position Negative factors are illustrated by arguing interrupting judging and evaluating jumping to conclusions and pushing the other person into a corner Another venue for verbal communication is the public presentation or speech Public presentations include a wide variety of situations such as the following Teaching a class speaking before a local board or commission Giving an invited speech Making a technical presentation at a convention Giving testimony to a legislative group It is important to have effective opening and closing statements use clear graphics for illustration pace the presentation and finish on time engage the audience and be confident so that any nervousness will not show Everyone occasionally misspeaks mishears and misunderstands It is important to concentrate on what the speaker is saying without trying to add anything to the meaning What the speaker has said must then be reflected on The speaker should be asked for additional clarification when needed It is important that the person listening understands what has been said and repeats what was understood in his or her own words It is also important to be aware of cultural influences and differences in communication styles Providing feedback is an important skill Never give criticism when angry instead allow 24 hours to put things in perspective Avoid being confrontational or personal and focus on the true problem Never take criticism personally even if it is given personally Use active listening to try to understand the problem from the manager s point of view Never immediately agree or disagree with information and allow 24 hours to honestly assess feedback Loqmanl TahsinLoqman Dr Thomas F Zimmie Introduction to Civil Engineering 27 February 2014 Summary Civil Engineering Practice in the TwentyFirst Century Chapters 5 and 6 The design process is the focus of civil engineering and a complex and multifaceted activity Engineers think of the design of bridges as the selection of a structural form and materials However the design process encompasses many additional elements Design is a tangible object that can be seen through the drawings of the structure All elements of the design of the bridge come into play including the number of lanes the bridge should have the projected mix and weight of the traf c the reasons a particular location on the river was chosen as the bridge site the reasons a bridge was chosen instead of a tunnel and the reasons a highway was needed rather than a rail system Design and planning are not separate activities Instead they are two points on the infrastructure life cycle continuum which also includes construction operation rehabilitation replacement and demolition and decommissioning The design process takes place as long as the piece of infrastructure39s life cycle Civil Engineering projects are nearly always unique and large in scale The planning and construction of these projects have traditionally not considered maintenance replacement or decommissioning Engineers are involved throughout the infrastructure life cycle including planning conceptual design preliminary design final design construction operationmaintenance and rehabilitation replacement or decommissioning demolition All these stages revolve around the role of infrastructure in serving society Conceptual design usually part of the planning phase is the point in the process at which the need for a project is identi ed and the first set of options is developed This stage is important because it is when many of the project s options are identi ed and screening is done It is important for engineers to be broad minded during this step considering both structural and nonstructural options In the preliminary design phase a selected set of options is assessed in more detail This requires a more detailed investigation of the options that remain under consideration It may be tempting to use the conceptual design phase to select the preferred option and then jump directly to the nal design phase but the preliminary design phase offers eld investigations that might be too costly for the number of options under consideration in the conceptual phase The nal design phase is used to develop the design details and drawings as appropriate for the selected option The bulk of detailed analysis is done at this stage Since the project is so large one engineer or group of engineers might work on the footings for the bridge another on the bridge substructure and a third group on the bridge superstructure The work of each of these groups must be integrated into the overall design requiring a high degree of coordination and cooperation among the various teams to meet the project specifications After designs are completed design review tools e g value engineering can be used to check whether the design is optimal for the cost Design reviews have the attraction that if applied early in the design of a project substantial savings may be realized The goal of the construction phase is to build the project as close as possible to the nal design including cost and all other constraints It s important that the designed project is constructed An important step in the construction process is the quality control QC and quality assurance QA process which culminates with the nal inspection and acceptance activityConstruction project management is an essential element in the solution of infrastructure problems Project management as a generic skill extends to many other types of projects as well The actual management of multifaceted projects is a complex undertaking and there is no direct easy recipe for success The role of the infrastructure manager and the engineer in inspection of constructed work is obviously important in determining the final quality of work Inspection determines that the work has been completed according to the plans and speci cations The ASCE has begun to emphasize quality in construction as part of its leadership role in the construction industry LoqmanZ The operations phase is not well understood by some civil engineers because not all engineering structures require operation Dams locks and water and wastewater treatment plans are projects that are operated Even smaller or less complex projects may require operational procedures that are developed by engineers Operations management is a discipline within industrial engineering that includes production management facilities management maintenance management and information management The maintenance phase of a project requires engineering expertise similar to that needed for the operations phase Maintenance protocols and procedures are usually developed by engineers familiar with both project design and operational requirements Deferred or inadequate maintenance of civil infrastructure is a major problem throughout the world Closing a water treatment plant or a water main or even a bridge for an extended period for maintenance may be impossible The planning and design of the project may require redundant operational capabilities Preventive maintenance heads off problems and is the most common maintenance operation in organizations Corrective maintenance involves repair replacement and rehabilitation of facilities Corrective maintenance requires a decision Is the de ciency serious enough to warrant entering the planning programming and budgeting activity leading to a request for capital If the problem is major the budget activity incorporates information about new standards and growth forecasts to lead to decisions about rehabilitation or replacement MMSs include condition assessment preventive maintenance and corrective and major maintenance and the decision support system will provide the information and data needed for these activities The rehabilitation and replacement process is one of the most challenging and exciting for today s engineering students Much of the infrastructure developed over the past 50 years is in need of rehabilitation or replacement The major concern in rehabilitating or replacing the current infrastructure is that it is in use and providing a service that must continue The decommissioning and demolition process is the final phase of the infrastructure life cycle Similar to the rehabilitation and replacement phase this phase has not traditionally been considered in the design process The growing awareness of life cycle costs and environmental consequences of infrastructure projects has brought this issue to the forefront Computing and analysis tools are used throughout the design process Data management and visualization development of information through analysis and modeling of data and presentation of information to facilitate decision making are the categories the tools fall intoEngineering models are an integral tool used throughout the design process Models should not be presumed correct unless they have been thoroughly tested and all models should be tested in some fashion before their results are used as part of the design process Civil engineers compute the loading for a building and then use the structural design codes to identify the appropriate size of the structural members These building codes represent the standard for design requirementsThe infrastructure life cycle is deeply affected by quality in the constructed project This has been recognized by the ASCE which has provided a manual on quality in the constructed project People are concerned with rising liability costs standards of performance by which construction professionals are judged and relationships among members of the construction team So it was agreed that the ASCE would prepare a comprehensive manual on quality in the constructed project Civil engineers work more in management than do other types of engineers and can assume a variety of management roles including project manager public works manager and consulting fiim managerCivil engineers manage many things including people resources activities and teams in both private rms and public agencies In addition they manage construction projects and business contracts and they develop management systems They also manage public sector organizations e g city or public works agencies private sector rms eg consulting firms contracting companies and facility operations e g traffic controls water treatment plants The term manage means to direct or control the use of something using authority discipline or persuasion Management is the act of managing supervising or controlling Management is distinctly different than design analysis reporting and other tasks that civil engineers are trained to do and requires a different skill set Management involves decisionmaking activities surrounding goal selection and attainmentThe eld of management has many interesting facets and universities companies and agencies around the world give much attention to studying and improving it An understanding of management theory involves the simple concept that management tasks or stages include planning Loqman3 organizing directing and controlling These tasks involve anticipating what must be done and making plans assembling the resources and team needed to complete the work orchestrating the solution process and sustaining it after the solution has been developed For engineers these tasks often correspond to planning designing constructing and operating a structure facility or system The terms oversimplify the issue however because there is much more to civil engineering management regulatory frameworks human resources HR issues and legal issues to name just a few Management is an inqu output process Input includes labor energy capital land equipment services information and other necessary resources The organization and everything it does the production system is then the transformation process that produces the output of goods and services Leadership is another quality that is important in Civil Engineers The difference between management and leadership often arises as a discussion topic When confronted with difficult problems most people believe that strong leadership is needed Leadership is an essential quality in all endeavors without it not much happens The difference between leadership and management is that leaders inspire followers to achieve objectives whereas managers allocate resources and carry out other management functions without necessarily getting people to follow Leadership is an incredibly important quality in getting things done and it comes in many forms Regardless of their positions civil engineers can exercise leadership by developing a valid vision to accomplish something worthwhile and taking the initiative to get it donePlanning is an important part of management The planning process consists of de ning goals developing alternative solutions selecting the best solution and putting it into action Risk management is a skill required by civil engineers Risk management skills are needed in assessing the risk of a particular ood drought or wind damage scenario in assessing the risk of a particular type of failure or in assigning a probability to any type of outcome such as being sued for nonperformance or some other scenario Whatever the risk it is the job of engineers to temper it by margins of safety design factors insurance programs performance bonds and other instruments for risk management Civil engineers often find themselves working with insurance companies bond houses or other providers of risk management instruments Engineers working in private practice nd they must carry liability insurance to protect themselves against financial loss Organizational theory is a social science taught in schools of business and industrial psychology It considers the interaction of organizational structure people and psychology with communication and coordination being key concepts The organization will have titles such as department division section branch or unit Each management unit needs a director or manager and the individual positions within the organization must have job descriptions Each unit of the organization plans its work with mission statements goals objectives and unit plans and budgetsOrganizations have four basic levels policy executive middle management and workerIn all organizations workers and managers are engaged in either of two basic activities doing or deciding what needs to be done In some ways this distinguishes managers and workers but it is actually more complexManagers must be able to make effective and timely decisions When decision making is effective the organization expects quick and effective action Otherwise morale suffers and rumors feed on uncertainty The decisionmaking process is actually about the same as the problemsolving process Professional decision making involves both making decisions cognitive process and caring about them affective process Define the situation state the goal generate ideas prepare the plan and take action is the sequence of operations needed in a situation Loqmanl TahsinLoqman Dr Thomas F Zimmie Introduction to Civil Engineering 20 February 2014 Summary Civil Engineering Practice in the TwentyFirst Century Chapters 3 and 4 Civil Engineers have been active members of society from the very beginning They build railroads and highway systems in the opening frontiers Then to sustain development they built water supply systems Today they re creating new systems to handle growth and urbanization throughout the nation Civil Engineers have been involved greatly in ensuring the survival of generations of people They provide shelter from the elements from weather oods earthquakes and other threats Housing also involved community planning and construction development Codes and standards were developed for the building industry as a means to ensure building could hold up ef ciently against the elements Another important part of survival is security and disaster mitigation It s the preparation for and recovery from disasters There has been a lower disasterrelated death rate in the United States as a result of building codes and strict enforcement of these codes Civil engineers have also been part of response an remediation teams for disasters such as oods and hurricanes Public Health is yet another key factor of survival This includes clean water wastewater air quality hazardous waste management and occupational health and safety which is the environmental component of civil engineering Clean water depends on the quantity and quality of the water There are water crises all over the world this includes droughts contamination and imbalance between supply and demand The issue of clean water and transportation of water has been dealt with by hydraulic engineering In New York City the water comes from the Catskills Extensive systems of dams reservoirs and canals were built to provide water for farms and cities in the southwest Wastewater management refers to the disposal of contaminated water from use in farming and industry and the treatment of this water before discharge so that it doesn t degrade the environment Energy is another great necessity in survival Civil Engineers assist in developing fossil fuels hydropower nuclear energy and renewable energy such as solar and wind power In earlier times dams and mill wheels provided energy Nowadays there are larger energy projects After survival has been taken care of people become focused on improvement through growth and development this includes building cities creating businesses and leading better lives in general Infrastructure and economic development can be seen through the built environments connected by networks that provide transportation and communication are supplied by water and energy systems and generate water streams that must be processed The driving forces of this development are growth demographic changes increased expectations patterns of living deteriorating systems telecommunications and increased complexity of systems Transportation as a component of growth refers to the railways highways waterways tunnels and nally space exploration Space exploration is perhaps the nal frontier of civil engineers who will design habitats for humans in space as well as pilot space vehicles A great example of the impact of transportation on development is the HonshuShikoku Bridge system in Japan which is a tremendous array of bridges that connect two key islands of an advanced nation As a component of growth and development energy enables settlement and industrialization Steam engines electri cation gasoline engine and nuclear energy are responsible Energy allows the development of modern cities large industry complexes and sprawl caused by lowcost energy policies and proliferation of automobiles The entire intemet and communications revolution of our generation is dependent on energy supply There is an artistic side to Civil Engineering It has cause dramatic consequences in the world of art Civil engineers design colossal structures such as skyscrapers dams and bridges whose sheer size and magnitude brings on awe and beauty Civil engineers have to feed the aspirations of nations and individuals The Great Exhibition of 1851 resulted in the Crystal Palace France tried to then outperform Britain with the Eiffel Tower Another subject of pride is the world s tallest building For many years the Empire State Building held this title Then the World Trade Center took over followed by the Sears Tower in Chicago This aspiration spread intemationally as the tallest tower now is the Burj Tower in UAE At the time of the writing of this book it was the Petronas Towers Structural Engineers have built many beautiful creations with signi cant artistic value Civil Engineering is a creative profession and contributes to society in multiple levels LoqmanZ There are unintended consequences and problems associated with largescale projects Each project is unique and therefore has its unique set of problems Civil Engineers operate in public domain where success and failure is apparent to everyone An example is the Interstate Highway System which caused more people to migrate to urban centers for jobs and commute from suburbs and this caused unintended traffic congestion Energy side effects are air pollution strip mining cooling water problems on sheries nuclear accidents and global warming Waste Management side effects are ground water pollution land lls hazardous water problems dangerous hospital and toxic wastes and nuclear waste Built Environments have unintended effects of congestion pollution crime and other social conflicts Ways to promote positive consequences of civil engineering work include government incentive investments and public education We stride to create projects based on sustainable development appropriate technology and smart growth There is government incentive for environmental restoration and natural resources management Infrastructure stimulates growth and creates jobs In the end the goal is to maintain the positive consequences of a project while minimizing the negative unintended consequences Principles of sustainable development include anticipation and prevention fullcost accounting informed decision making living off the interest quality over quantity respect for nature and future Civil Engineering combines technical work with management for economic progress environmental management and social welfare More civil engineers advance into management that do other types of engineers Civil Engineering work and careers are multidimensional In general engineers apply resources to create devices structure processes and systems through the design process to meet the needs of society Engineers require a body of knowledge organized according to discipline occupation industry skill or craft or problem area The unique skill that all engineers need is design The trends in engineering include the need for higher degrees extensive continuing education and training and diversity There are six large system types in the world of Civil Engineering transportation water wastewater management and environment energy communications and the built environment The lines between them are often blurred The technical areas of Civil Engineering are Construction Engineering that deals with building construction heavy constructions utilities and specialty contracting Environmental Engineering that deals with water wastewater waste management air quality and ecology Geotechnical Engineering that deals with foundations tunnels retaining walls liners and related problems Structural Engineering that deals with buildings bridges and offshore structures Transportation Engineering that deals with roads highways bridges urban transit railroads aviation aerospace and water transportation and finally Water Resource Engineering that deals with planning and management of water resource systems ood control irrigation systems canals pipelines and dams The functions of Civil Engineers include consultation and advice feasibility studies eld studies environmental studies reports cost estimates design drawings and documents testing construction administration financial studies expert testimony and preparation of operations manuals Civil Engineering work is highly varied The types of work includes design of facilities and systems project management environmental studies communications construction administration cost estimates regulatory work facility management and operation nancial studies organizational management project evaluations use of computers and information technologies business development and marketing data collection and analysis legal support research testing and advisory services Loqm a n 1 TahsinLoqman Dr Thomas F Zimmie Introduction to Civil Engineering 6 February 2014 Summary Civil Engineering Practice in the TwentyFirst Century Chapters 1 and 2 Civil Engineering is a constantly changing profession Civil engineers are not only expected to know the technical rules and practices but also the business side and nances Students are therefore expected to have knowledge of subjects that go beyond the standard engineering curriculum Therefore they require continuing education in engineering computing and other fields The main roles of a civil engineer include building and managing infrastructure and sustaining environmental resources The major subjects studied by a civil engineer include water resources transportation structure 39 39 engineering The areas of Civil Engineering practice include construction technology buildings and structure l t quot water 39 engineering water resource engineering and disaster and emergency management Success as a civil engineer depends on background education experience motivation and luck A A A1 and A A A I and The history of Civil Engineering takes place in four main phases Early civilization to 1775 17751900 19001975 and 1975the present The word civil engineering was first coined in 1768 to refer to engineers who serve civilians The word engineer went through many manipulations such as engynours yngynore enginer ingenier engyner etc starting in 1325 These were terms used for builders and makers of things Early Civilizations achieved many great feats in the civil engineering eld The Great Pyramids built by the ancient Egyptians the Parthenon built by the Ancient Greek out of marble on a limestone base the Roman Coliseum built with a retractable membrane roof and the Pantheon are just a few examples of the great accomplishments in buildings and structures In Asia there was the Great Wall of China built to protect against the Manchurians and the Indus Valley built in the south Asian region In the Americas there were the Incas who created the royal estate of Machu Picchu Civil Engineering took another turn during the Renaissance when the Italians built beautiful palaces and religious and civic buildings In 1771 Civil engineering became more widely recognized as the British held meeting to charter the Institution of Civil Engineers In 1802 the rst US engineering school was built at West Point The ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers was chartered in 1852 Civil Engineering societies were organized in Holland Belgium Germany and France At this time the United States was still largely unsettled and infrastructure was limited After the Civil War public works organizations were built Infrastructure was developed haphazardly due to the correspondence of public and private operations The Industrial Revolution created a new demand for Civil Engineers During the 1900s an increased availability of cars increased the need for streets and road The Great Depression hit in the 1930s when the need for better infrastructure became recognized as Government programs created jobs in these areas to work on many differentcivil engineering projects In the 1970s there was heavy legislation on environmentalism that added a new dimension to Civil Engineering The period from 1975 to the present ushered the Information Age This time created new challenges for civil engineers In the 1980s there grew a widespread awareness of global concepts such as sustainable development and focused attention on problems of poverty water and sanitation in developing countries During the 1990s the United States ourished economically and this induced a demand for infrastructure systems