INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY BIOL 1010
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This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arianna Veum on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Michael Hanna in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/224827/biol-1010-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute in Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
m Reports mpypdf Qumment Qumments Advanzed Lwnauw aeip rams Incl Table 1 Characteristics of representative unguiates digestive systems headgear dentition and foot morphology Human characteristics are included for comparison Table 1 The table above includes a chart of the data regarding horn types digestive tracts and dentition of ungulates and humans 3mm In Emugyrtab Reports 0 de Mm Azmbat 2 Ed yaw Pm Qazument Lummems anms 1am Advanzed wmaqw 5er 9 AM ant2012 J ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY EMS OF NATURAL SELECTXON OR THE YREBERVATION 01quot FAVORED RACES IN HE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE 1w UBAHLES DARWIN MA LL11 E 11 s wrrn nonms an mmwnoxs Lm nuuan wrn39 Theories of Evolution 391 H E L A W S w 39 All life derived from one ORGANIC LIFE original ancestor I ERJSJIUS DARM JN JED5125 a VOL m evolutionary change In 39llll 39nlllD EDI39INMTORIEETID more complex forms Erasmus Darwin mquot r mm r n a u 1801 Lurmm I HILOSO MI I Ii ZOOLUGIQI39E Lamarck 1809 39 All changes in the organic as well as the inorganic world are the result of natural laws not miraculous interposition Acquired characteristics William Paley THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION OR THE PREERVATION 0F FAVORED RACES 1N TEE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE BY 13mm M 21 LL 13 E R3 W 39 ADDITIONS A39 601188311053 Ml mm AND M HOUSE Humor IN TWO FOLUHES VOLUME I Alfred Russel Wallace 1858 THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO THE LAND OF 139le RANGITTAN AND THE BIRD HF PARADISE A XARlLH39IVE 0F TRAVEL ITII STUDIES OF MAN AND NATURE BY ALFRED R USSEI V A LLA CIquot umnn m quotmmh lsu Mun Luvquot 11139 DOVER l L39BthL39l39lNS INC NE YORK A Mechanism for Evolutionary Change Can we doubt remembering that many more individuals are born than can possibly survive that individuals having any advantage however slight over others would have the best chance of surviving and of procreating their kind This preservation of favourable variations I have called Natural Selection or the Survival of the Fittest By this process of descent with modi cation new species can arise by gradual change from preexisting species Thus species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations The variations of a species however slight would affect either favourably or adversely prolonging existence An antelope with shorter or weaker legs must necessarily suffer more from the attacks of carnivora Thus any variety having slightly increased powers of preserving existence will inevitably acquire a superiority in numbers The continuation of varieties further and further from the original type appears to have no definite limit The superior variety would then alone remain and would have replaced the original species 1 Video Darwin s Dangerous Idea AN ESSAY ON THE is PRINCIPLE 0F POPULATION on A I39IEII39 OF ITS FAST AND PRESENT EFFECTS ON HUMAN HAPPINESS WITH AN INQUIRY INTO Ol39 PROSPECTS IllSPECTING l lll IUTIIRI39 REMOVAL 0R JIITIGNI39ION OF THE EVILS WlllCll I I OCCASIOSS THE Rav T R MALTRU MA FILE Tl quotLl W1139JlWIPMIANMIUII IIMLAMV dhniul N quotIH VW Ail It39lllln l mnw In ml mmnm mum lIML 39rI IV h Many more individuals are born than can v t possibly survive We cannot fail to be struck with the prodigious power of increase in plants and animals 39 Whether slowly or rapidly their natural tendency must be to increase in geometrical ratio that is by multiplication 39 The physical laws to which mankind is subjected are not different from those that prevail in other parts of nature How does Evolution Really Work Video th39lwww nh 39 39 himl Watch video 4 Which statement is true about evolution by natural selection A Evolution continually improves organisms so that the species now living are better than all earlier organisms that have ever lived including those that have gone extinct B Natural selection results in evolution because some phenotypes are better adapted than other phenotypes C Evolution acts on individuals to change allele frequencies in the present generation39s gene pool D In each generation individuals change such that they are better adapted to the present environment Variation Having collected and analyzed thousands of 4 specimens from all over the world Darwin J 7 and Wallace were experts on temporal amp spatial variations within species 39 W K i S l i N 7y 9 m 1 a w 3 1 Both realized that variation in traits invariably caused differences in the ability of individuals to survive and reproduce Thus Natural Selection depended on variability within a population without variation natural selection could not occur Darwin amp Wallace did not understand the underlying causes of variation since they knew nothing about genes and genetics Where does variation come from Chromosomes and genes Nearly all genes have multiple forms or alleles two alleles are needed to trace inheritance Genes encode the information used to generate the phenotype and are heritable Individuals in a population represent the genetic pool or genetic resources of the population Mutations or changes to the genome occur at predictable rates for any species human Most mutations are deleterious and are not passed on but many are neutral under the current environmental conditions and are passed on This adds to the genetic diversity of the population Useful mutations may provide an r advantage immediate or under changing barley conditions There are many biological traits Which distribution is the most common Frequency IHIJP Trait A Clicker question Homo sapiens male heights genetic variation in a population Number of Men 60 65 70 Height inches There are multiple genes involved in determination of high More than 15 different chromosomal locations have been discovered that cause height variation Frequency Drosophila wing length 2039 U l I O I 400 450 Wing Length units 500 Natural Selection Captain Fitzroy I EQUATOR Gal p gos Isla ds Marchena Genovesa 33mm EQUATOR amlome Seymour abidaquot Elana Fernandina P39 z 39 SantaCruz Isabela Espanola It occurred to me that it was as if one ancestral species had been taken and modified towards different ends At once it struck me favourable variations would be preserved unfavourable ones destroyed a nmguimMn s 3 C Darwm Anceslm 51mins u pun ulm p r i lurliuluurs PE 1 puma Interactive Learning Activity Evolution in G fortis The medium ground finch Only finch on Daphne Major Handouts For data go to web site Evolution 4 Inclass Download Beakwidthxls in Excel Follow directions in handout and explain the data Please submit the handout as directed for your attendance exercise G fortis Beak Sizes 140 120 100 Frequency Frequency 7 g 9 1390 1976 Beak Width 11 7 a 9 10 1978 Beak Width 11 Mean 94 mm S 96 Mean 99 mm S 100 Why did beak size change Selective Forces Total Rainfall mm 1976 7 1977 1978 i 1400 Finch Abundance l 975 1 977 1 973 Seed Abundance glmz 1 976 1 977 1 978 v Seed Hardness IL m 3 s M 7 u 3 3 73 MM 139 if 1976 1977 197a G fortis so 50 1 4D 39 39 Survival during a 39 0 drought related to bill so depth a 20 39 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Bill depth mm if 7 7 39 The Grants work is regarded as the most significant p v V study of evolutionary change in the past 30 yrs 4 t39 When they began they had 3 main questions Do members of different species compete for food How does such competition affect evolution How are species formed Their ongoing studies aimed at answering these questions have greatly improved our understanding of evolution in natural populations 4 5 0le l mrau r 1 Hm i quotThe most exciting discovery is that natural selection occurs strongly amp repeatedly in environments like the l n x A 39i H A w 1 x x m R Galapagos where climatic uctuations are severe Peter Grant Video Darwin s Finches Phenotypic Consequences of Natural Selection med Directional selection fits the Finch example discussed for beak sizedepth in relation to the environment and the source of food Directional Selection Phenotypic Consequences of Natural Selection 2001 BrooksCole H 1 we 1 Stablllzmg mm Se I e I O n L Range of values ferthe traIt at tIme1 1 W 1 W 39 Intermediate forms is em em are favored and extremes are W eliminated I 1 WWW Range of xalues for the trait at time 3 Range of values for the trait at time 2 Example of Stabilizing Selection Human weight distribution in newborns 100 70 g 50 E 30 C133 3 20 O 8 3 Q 5 10 g g 6i E p 00 lt 3 2 1234567891011 Birth weight pounds Phenotypic consequences of Natural Selection Disruptive Selection Forms at both ends of the range of variation are favored Intermediate forms are selected against 1 w WWW www mwwww 1 1 WIN mwwww mmwww w w w 1w wt ww WW ww Selection for Gall Size Fig 1811 p291 Black bellied seed crackers of Cameroon Live in environment that floods in the wet season and has numerous lightening caused fires in dry season Plants that survive are fire resistant sedges Sedges are two types making either small seeds or large hard seeds Prefer soft seeds but hard survive the fires Only two types of seeds thus mid size beak is less adapted than the extremes Phenotypic Consequences of Natural Selection Directional Selection Stabilizing Selection Disruptive Selection 1wan lueralogyrlab Reports mpwdn Adobe Analyst Pm 7 2 gm Mew Buzumem Qammenb Fazmx but Advanzed mam Help Table 1 SummaIy oi39ungulatc morphological data obtained from dentition and digestive system analysis llnnian lhough not an nngulale was included in the study for reference Crown Digestive Name lneisorsor Diastema CuspType Height System Canines Deepwater Horizon Disaster Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig in Gulf of Mexico April 22 2010 Extent of oil spill Video tracking oil spill httpwwwnvtimescominteractive20100501us20100501oispi trackerhtm Satellite View of Oil Spill View from NASA s Terra satellite on 524 Containment and clean up Consequences xV u quot 39 quotquotI 4 y l V 7 b 739 gt Ecological 7 Economic Remediation Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico Satelite pictures from NASA and analysis from National Geographic indicating that oil is entering the Gulf Loop Current as early as May 18 2010 Impact is greater dispersal of oil Underwater Plumes of Oil Dispersal by Microorganisms in Deep Water r r 7 M iiiii A lesson from microbiology Where did these bacteria come from Low level Gulf contamination provides enough carbon to keep them in existence Bloom when presented with a greater supply of nutrient Requires multiple species to degrade most of the oil Compared to individual species being at a buffet not all eat the same material
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