PHIL100 CH. 3 NOTES CONT.pdf
PHIL100 CH. 3 NOTES CONT.pdf Phil 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 100 at Colorado State University taught by Daniel Alvarez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Appreciation of philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
0 False Descartes is a skeptic because he used skeptical doubt o Rationalism O The school of thought that placed emphasis on and accent on the tools of reason 0 Reason is the primary means by which we can obtain knowledge 0 What kind of knowledge do we end up with At the end of it we can have knowledge that is absolutely certain 0 Not only can we end up with knowledge that is certain it really does represent what it says outside of the mind and perception o A priori knowledge 0 Prior to sense experience 0 The knowledge that we can obtain without sense 0 Mathematics 0 Innate ideas 0 Some rationalists believe that knowledge is embedded in the mind before birth 0 Commitment that we have ideas put in the mind before birth 0 Meno Socrates story 0 First rationalists O Socrates Plato 0 Were committed to the idea that there is knowledge 0 Universal or abstract knowledge 0 Example humanity 0 Knowledge are beliefs that are true and justified O Plato 0 World of souls 0 Where the soul came from outfitted with knowledge 0 When the soul goes to the physical body the mind forgets 0 Knowledge and learning is a matter of regaining or recollecting things we already know 0 Descartes 0 Certain that he exists as a thinking thing 0 quotI think therefore I amquot 0 God 0 Solipsism O quotI can be sure of my own ideasquot 0 Empiricists all reject innate ideas 0 John Locke o Representational realist 0 Secondary qualities subjective color taste smell 0 Primary qualities objective motion mass velocity volume 0 Tabula Rasa Locke way of saying the mind is like a blank tablet 0 George Bishop Berkley Ultimate reality is mental spiritual Metaphysical realist There are no material physical objects apart from the mind independent of the perceiver Secondary qualities are mind dependent they occur in the mind No physical material matter existing independent of the perceiver For a thing to be it has to be perceived 0 David Hume Little tolerance for the idea that God exists Senseimpression vivid vivacious Idea decayed memories of the original sense impression o The three anchor points of empiricism O The only source of genuine knowledge is sense experience Without experience they claim we would lack not only knowledge of the specific features of the world but also the ability even to conceive of qualities such as colors odors textures sounds and tastes 0 Reason is an unreliable and inadequate route to knowledge unless it is grounded in the solid bedrock of sense experience According to the empiricists every idea concept or term must be tested by tracing it back to an original experience from which it was derived They believe that the primary role that reason plays in the acquisition of knowledge is to organize the data of experience and draw conclusions from it The mind needs something to reason about and where would it get this but from experience 0 There is no evidence of innate ideas within the mind that are known apart from expenence When we come into the world as infants empiricists argue the mind is a black tablet and experience must teach us what we need to know Rationalists disagree among themselves concerning what ideas are rational and quotinnatequot Empiricists would say that such universal truths are either 1 expressions of the relations of our ideas or 2 generalizations from experience 0 Empiricism in the ancient world Aristotle O Aristotle on the possibility of knowledge For the question is knowledge possible Aristotle would be quick to answer quotYes obviouslyquot Aristotle said we can know the laws of logic 0 Aristotle was the first one to set out the basic laws of logic One logical principle is the law of noncontradiction states that it is impossible for something to be A and notA at the same time 0 Aristotle and the role of reason Aristotle would answer no to Does reason alone provide us with knowledge of the world 0 quotPrior to experience the mind is like a blank tablet until experience makes its mark on the tablet of the mindquot 0 For Aristotle then intuition is an additional step beyond the process of induction Through intuition the mind has the power to recognize or come to know for the first time universal truths that are lurking within expe ence O Aristotle on the representation of reality 0 Aristotle says yes to the third question does our knowledge represent reality as it really is o Substances physical things quotare the entities which underlie everything else and Everything else is either predicted of them or present in themquot 0 All knowledge is based on experience 0 Knowledge is always based on the fundamental realities called substances