INTRO TO CELL BIOLOGY
INTRO TO CELL BIOLOGY BIOL 2120
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ezequiel Schaefer on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2120 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see /class/224835/biol-2120-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute in Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Cell Bio Review for Exam 1 ECM Receptor and Cell Junctions I What two types of proteins are notorious for their characteristic strength due to coiled coils 0 Intermediate filaments and collagen I Collagen are triple helices assemble into fibrils then into fibers I What two types of proteins include disulfide bonding between two polypeptide subunits o Fibronectin and antibodies I Fibronectin dimmers are linked near Cterminus I What type of bondsinteractions are disrupted when elastin is stretched o Hydrophobichydrophilic I What ECM component is responsible for the attraction of water in collagen fibers 0 Proteoglycans I core protein with lots of sugar attached 9hydrophilicity9 attracts sodium 9attracts water I Why is it important that cells have mechanisms for finetune control of ECM degradation and remodeling with tissues 0 Cells need to be able to rapidly respond to their environments I Proteases degrade ECM proteins and protease inhibitors prevent degradation by proteases I What type of integrin cluster is associated with actin filaments o Focaladhesionscontacts I What type of integrin cluster is associated with intermediate filaments o Hemidesmosomes I What type of cell junction blocks diffusion of plasma membrane molecules 0 Tight junctionsll Cytoskeleton I What two types of cytoskeleton proteins exhibit treadmilling o Microtubules and microfilamentsactin I During the crawling of cells what type of actinbinding protein acts on the minus end of actin to allow growth from the positive end only 0 Capping protein I Which type of cytoskeleton component uses ATP to grow 0 Microfilaments I What does the polymerization of Gactin monomers form 0 Factin filamentous I Which protein binds existing actin filaments to create new nucleation sites 0 ARP23 I What cytoskeleton protein is composed of alphabeta heterodimer subunits o Microtubules 0 What cytoskeleton protein has no known polarity 0 Intermediate filaments 0 What cytoskeleton proteins main function is strength 0 Intermediate Filaments is intracellular transport 0 MTs is cell locomotion o Microfilaments 0 What is the name of the nucleation site for MTs o GammaTurC 39 What cytoskeleton protein is the main component of nuclear lamins 0 Intermediate Filaments I Forms strong cage inside nucleus 0 What motor protein transports cargo to the positive end of a MT 0 Kinesin to the negative end 0 Dynein Membranes 0 Through what type of interaction does an integral membrane protein anchor itself into the interior or phospholipid membrane 0 Hydrophobic 0 What is the name of a protein that is associated with the cell membrane through weak electrostatic interactions with a transmembrane protein 0 Peripheral membrane protein 39 What protein secondary structure is typically found in the lipid bilayer of proteins that span the membrane 0 Alpha helix 0 What enzyme is responsible for transporting individual phospholipids from one phospholipid layer to the next 0 Flippases 39 What is the name of the 3C sugar alcohol found in a phospholipid o Glycerol Nucleic AcidProtein Methods 0 What does gel electrophoresis separate individual molecules by 0 Size I Rate of movement is inversely proportional to size ie smaller molecules can move through pores of gel easierfaster and are found at the bottom of gel I What detergent is ionic and therefore denaturing 0 SDS I SDS is used during gel electrophoresis to negatively charge the molecules I What detergent is nonionic and not denaturing 0 Triton X 100 What is the name of the genetic engineering technique that allows one to insert a GFP into a foreign organisms genome o Transfection What is the specific characteristic of a specimen that changes the velocity of light and is responsible for the phase shift observed in phase contrast microscopy 0 Specimen density I Density changes light velocity changes phase of light wave phase plate converts this into brightness difference I Dark regions observed have max phase shift max density I What type of microscopy allows for the visualization of the light emitted by an excited photon 0 Fluorescence I What is the name given to the property of microscopes that enlarges an image but doesn t necessarily make it any clearer o Magnification I What is the main disadvantage of Electron Microscopy o The organism must be dead Proteins I What is the name of the bond that links to 2 amino acids together 0 Peptide bond What level of protein structure is characterized by hydrogen bonding 0 Secondary I Name a common structural motif 0 Betaalphabeta motif hairpin loop motif 2 beta sheets linked by a random coil helix turnhelix two alpha helices linked by random coil I Name a protein we discussed in class that exhibits quaternary structure 2 of these 0 Hemogloblin 0 Antibodies I A change in protein shape is directly related to what 0 A change in protein function Nucleic Acids I What is the name of process that turns a gene into RNA 0 Transcription I What is the name of the process that turns RNA into a polypeptide 0 Translation 0 What are the 3 component of a nucleotide o Phosphate group sugar nitrogenous base 0 What type of bonding is responsible for the interaction between 2 adjacent bases on opposite strands of DNA 0 Hydrogen bonding 39 What is the bead on the beads on string analogy o Nucleosome 0 What is a nucleosome composed of o Histone proteins 0 What is the form of DNA that has the highest packing ratio 0 Chromatid I Nucleosomes 30nm chromatin fiber looped domains heterochromatin chromatids 0 What is the name of bond that links nucleotides together 0 Phosphodiester bond Sugars 0 What atoms does a carbohydrate contain 0 CHO I quotcarbohydrate C and H20 39 What is the difference between alpha and beta glucose molecules 0 C1 of alpha points down C1 of beta points up 0 Humans can t digest betaglycosidic bonds cellulose 0 What is the difference between ribose and deoxyribose o Ribose has hydroxyl group on C2 0 What molecules can participate in hydrogen bonding with H o O F N electronegative attractive interaction Drawings 0 Nucleic acid RNA or DNA 39 Peptide ditri Antibody phospholipid