New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Tre Skiles


Tre Skiles
GPA 3.56


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Earth Sciences

This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tre Skiles on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ERTH 4690 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/224836/erth-4690-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute in Earth Sciences at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/19/15
This Week s Lecture as much as we can cover sported SoilSe InSitu Soil Formation and eathering Soil Types and Global Distribution Landscape Reduction Soil Environmental Properties Terrestrial Biosphere SoilWatershed Biogeochemistry Hubbard Brook 15092005 140946 Intro 9 Origins 9 Solid Earth 9 Pedosphere 9 Biosphere 9 Atmosphere 9 Hydrosphere Shortwave radiahcn Soil and InSitu Soil Formation What are the components of soil mec hen ice weathering 39 parent material WEN5L r ullrlual chemical FMS5 weathering 5095 tempe re 39 elds malsture parent material SOIL Chemistry Key Concepts 0 Mineral stability high T minerals weather easiest that s why beaches have quartz sands o Solubility determines order of secondary mineral formation 0 Surface properties sorption retention sequestration o Redox and Biota bugs are active players A little plug for Aqueous Geochemistry ERTH 4690 Spring 2006 NaAISi308 H H20 A1OH3 gibbsite Na 3310Mq NaAISi308 H 25H20 05A1281205OH4 kaolinite Na 10Mq More nIno For Amman Gennhemiq rn PR TH 4600 Qm ino 7006 25 I I I I I I l l I I I I I l 3 35 TE 9 E 4 U Kfeldspar 2 2 m 45 395 Gibbsite Muscovute E E Time Reaction Progress abra Man on 29 2001 Too much plug for Aqueous Geochemistry ERTH 4690 Spring 2006 Baa alt waatha ring pmdua 13 in Hawaii IUD EH ED ight Pan ant in Total Sail E Mean Annual Randal inc has After GD Shannan 1953 Natural Factors Determining Soil Properties IZIZII39g 311i 3111 3 Relief ll ParE t material 1 SOIL TAXONOMY 12 Soil Orders Geli SOlS perma ost soils with permafrost Within 2 m of the surface HiStOSOlS organic organic soils Spodosols podzolic acid soils with a subsurface accumulation of metalhumus complexes podzol Andisols soils formed in volcanic ash OXiSOlS lateritic intensely weathered soils of tropical and subtropical environments laterites Verti 801 S clayey soils With high shrinkswell capacity Aridisols orthic CaCO3containing soils of arid env With subsurface horizon development caliche Ulti SOlS soils With a subsurface zone of silicate clay accumulation and lt35 base saturation M01 ll 801 S chernozemic grassland soils With high base status AlfiSOIS luvisoliC soils With a subsurface zone of silicate clay accumulation and 335 base saturation Inceplisols brunisolic soils With weakly developed subsurface horizons Enti SOlS re gosolic soils With little or no morphological development m TAVvNOMY 1i ostwithin 2 m of I ubsurfsce 3601an v vmimy d veJ Luih 7 Lllv u nu lllunl Spodosol Podzolic Soils SOIL STRUCTURE Dhorizon leaf litter organic material Ahorizon plough zone rich in organic matter Bhorizon zone of accumulation chorizon weathering soil little organic material or life Rhorizon unwealhered parent material Figure 51 3 irksmm rupmntatrun slumng mrfarmulmn 15 I fundrm Uflhe l39eIatumlnp nIween tlmmlr mu vegelaimu winch alters pmvnt mnh rm over Irnz39 Srnrl r39mmg Hm L SSe S mpmurr must vrgamuslw whvre prmnmmm and h mn l39alums are lug1 x ww w Wm 731 590mm 1 m Ag mm m m mam m a 0333 lammin mu m Atmospheric circulation Coriolis Force HADLEYCMCULAIION CH1 If CO0L l COOL Hf Prevailing Winds drive surface m r f 006311 currents 300 EQUATOR 30 N T ikku Lecture Soil and Water Balance extremely wet and dry areas of the warm 2 rainfall rainfall exceeds 2 am I er ati on changes in soil amp vegetation ada ted from W Laroher F39h iolo ioalF39lant Eoolo JET393 1mg 1 F39 rs El or J A W am potential 1 303 rainfall wapnrm39u 5 40 III temperature x 5 mm W 1 Pro le through eastern Europe HWto SE tundra taiga I deolduous steppe desert Eli 311 The PEDO SPHERE Monerae P 1 Fire Figure 513 39hcmnn r rupruwntutwn shunm smfbnmluml as I mdran Uflhe relatmmhm bvlwean L39lmmrv and vcgcmnml winch aim mrrut mmmovmmm Smlr n39mmx NIUSI15HHI 1 mcp Aquot quot 39 r 39 M1 Controls over Soil Formation 0 Parent Material 0 Climate 0 Topography 0 Time 0 Potential Biota oHaman Activities Landscape Reduction Erosion As drainage basins evolve the system approaches a quotdynamic equilibriumquot whereby the total mass of rock weathered chemical physical is removed from the basin This means no net accumulation of weathered material soil pro le may change composition but not thickness or mass Example Black Hills South Dakota Springs draining limestone to Cheyenne River TDS 150 to 2280 mgl mainly Call Mg HCOg39 from 23 springs Cheyenne River carries 143 X 106 kgyr TDS If average rock density is 27 gcc Total volume removed 143 x 106 kgyr 27 kgm3 53000 m3yr Total landscape reduction by chem weathering 53000 m3yr 39 x 109 m2 area 14 mmkyr 0 Dominant controls topography slope surface material vegetation9 Uplift Rates Additional Aspects of Soil Chemistry pH is the negative log of the hydrogen ion H activity effective concentration in solution and is a measure of the active acidity of the system pH strongly affects nutrient availability through its effects on cation exchange Cation exchange capacity CEC re ects the capacity of a soil to hold exchangeable cations on negatively charged sites on the surfaces of soil minerals and organic matter Base saturation is the percentage of the total exchangeable cat ion pool that is accounted for by base cations the nonhydrogen nonaluminum cations In general cations occupy exchange sites and displace other ions in the sequence HA13gtHgtC212gtMg2gt1ltzNH4gtNa As with cations anion absorption depends on the concentration of anions and their relative capacities to be held or to displace other anions Anions generally occupy exchange sites and displace other ions in the sequence PO4339gtSO4339gtC139gtN0339 The high CBC and base saturation provide buffering capacity that keeps the soils from becoming acid When additional H is added to the system in solution in acid rain for example it exchanges with cations that were held on cation exchange sites PEDOSPHERE SUMMARY SOIL thin film over Earth39s surface in which geological and biological processes intersect The physical soil matrix provides a source of water and nutrients to plants and microbes and is the physical support system in which terrestrial vegetation is rooted The physical and chemical characteristics of soils strongly in uence all aspects of ecosystem functioning which in turn feed back to in uence the physical structural and chemical properties of soils Soils are also a critical component of the total Earth System They play a key role in giant global reductionoxidation cycles of carbon nitrogen and sulfur Soils mediate many of the key reactions in these cycles and provide essential resourl biological processes that drive these cycles Intro 9 Origins 9 Solid Ea h 9 Pedosphere 9 Biosphere 9 Atmosphere 9 Hydrosphere Shortwave radiahcn Biosphere The TERRESTRIAL Surface Environments Consider the surface of the earth About71 Water 29 Land 149 billion hectares Of the 149 billion hectare of land surface on Earth only7 7 is vegetated land 23 is desert plus icecovered plus semidesert or simply rocky Of the 115 billion hectares that is vegetated about17 or 19 billion hectares have been directly in uenced by human activities deforestation grazing agriculture fuel wood industrial and waste pollution The environmental and ecological diversity in terrestrial systems like its marine counterpart largely is re ective of this physical framework Temperaturehumidityclimatic variations Soil and terrestrial surface water are the quotsubstratesquot of terrestrial biota Water transport from one reservoir to the next is the principal means by which biological nutrients and quotwastequot are transported within the terrestrial environment as well as in and out of it TemperatureHumidityClimatic Variations Hadley cells and perturbations from the norms Koppen Climatic types ATropical Humid B Dry CTemperate Humid D Cold Humid E Polar Soil Types previous lecture Biomes Biome large ecosystem in which relatively uniform climatic conditions lead to uniformity of plant communities Tropical rainforest Seasonal tropical forest Midlatitude forest Boreal forest Tropical grasslands Midlatitude grasslands Desert Tundra Mediterranean forest and scrub Biomes can be associated with specific temperature and precipitation regimes changes in soil amp vegetation ada ted from W Laroher F39h iolo ioalF39lant Eoolo JET393 1mg 1 F39 rs El or J A W am potential 1 303 rainfall wapnrm39u 5 40 III temperature x 5 mm W 1 Pro le through eastern Europe HWto SE tundra taiga I deolduous steppe desert Eli 311 Another way of looking at it Mann nnnmli Immrli HI 3quot I Maj or Terrestrial J I Blornes m quot1539 I n 1 39 Vi Iquot II quot I J 39 l 51 1 10 150 25039 250 am m 400 Mean annual pm p m m an Dominant Forest Type Current FIA r WhiteHedJack Pine I SpruceFir LDngleaf Slash Pine Loblolly Shortleaf Pine Oak Pine 0a k H in 1mmr Oak GumCyrpress ElmPL sh Cm ton wood Maple Eeech Elirch I AspenBirch 1 No Data El White HedJackF ine I SpruceFir LnngleafSlash Pine I LnblollyShartleafpine I OakPine I OakHickory E Oak GumCypress D 3 El E1 Elm sh Cm ton wand Major changes in NY and NE USA


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.