GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 1200
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josie Nienow on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1200 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Christopher Hubbell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/224875/psyc-1200-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute in Psychlogy at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY QUIZ 3 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 9 The ability to reach for objects accurately while remaining unaware of seeing them is called blindsgyhtand indicates that consciousness is not a property of all parts of the brain In Libet39s studies of people39s awareness of the intention to move their hands he also measured electrical activity in the brain prior to the movement This electrical activity was termed the readhes potential A task that requires a person to listen to one of two messages presented simultaneously one to each ear is called a diabetic listening task Inhbition of return is a reduced tendency to perceive a delayed target stimulus when the target39s presentation is consistent with a nonpredictive cue A person undergoing hypnosis CANNOT decrease her or his hypnotic susceptibility While in a hypnotic state Zippy was told by the hypnotist that although he would not remember these instructions when he was in a normal state again he would sing the song quotFeelingsquot every time someone asked him how he was The hypnotist woke him from the trance and asked him how he was feeling Arnold broke into song looking rather puzzled by what he had done This is an example of posthypnotic suggestion and amnesia As the night goes on periods of REM sleep yet longerand episodes of slowwave sleep get shorter If sleep repairs the wear and tear of the day39s activities on the body then active people should need more sleep each night than sedentary people Research on REM sleep deprivation in animals indicates that REM sleep may play a role in the learning of complex tasks PET scans of human subjects who watched colored rectangles for changes in shape color or speed of movement showed increased levels of brain activity in brain regions that analyze shape color or speed of movemth CHAPTER 13 Eating is the result of a regulatory system We often make assumptions about whether a person is highly motivated or unmotivated or somewhere between the two on the basis of The sireyfh of behavioral responses The body39s shortvterm store of nutrients depends on glycogen Research has shown that prenatal exposure to higher levels of androgens in females is associated with a higher than average rendency reward homosexuality A primary role of the ventral prefrontal cortex seems to be Translating emotional reactions info appropriate feelings and actions Hohmann39s research showed that the higher the damage on the spinal cord the less infense his or her feelings are According to the textbook aerobic exercise has been found to reduce the hearf s response to menral stress Friedman and Rosenman39s questionnaire for type A and type B behavior patterns is administered in a manner rhaf a emprs fa elicif type A behavior During the skills acauisifion and rehearsal phase of stress inoculation training the client learns problemsolving skills specific to the stressor and how to implement them Stress inoculation training usualy fakes place in a clinical seh ing CHAPTER 16 Mental health professionals holding The psychodynamic perspective view mental disorders to be The result of Infrapsychic conflict A problem with the DSMIVTR system of classifying mental disorders is its reliabilily In contrast to Those suffering from a quotneurosisquot people suffering from a psychosis experience delusions In some cases obsessive compulsive disorder has been Traced to birth trauma Paul Bernardo is an example of a person diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder Hallucinations are to perceptions as delusions are to beliefs The genotype for schizophrenia probably predisposes some people to become suscepfbe in le disorder A mother frequenle reassures her young son of her love However his expressions of affection Toward her are promple rejected The conflict in which The son finds himself is known as a double bind Actuarial judgments are more accurate Than clinical judgments because more dafa can be organized and retrieved by using statistical procedures As a gag you and your roommates decide to check yourselves into a mental hospital just to see if you can pull it off You Tell The absolute Truth in response To every question you are asked except that you insist that you hear voices telling you That you are evil If your experience were the same as Rosenhan39s in 1973 you would be committed to the mental hospital with a diagnosis of schizophrenia for about 3 weeks CHAPTER 17 Wier was among the first persons to recognize that people accused of practicing witchcraft were probably suffering from mental illness Countertransference is to the therapistas transference is to the client In the beginning stages of therapy systematic desensitization decreases arousal whereas in vivo exposure increases arousal Bandura39s use of modeling to eliminate fear of snakes was successful for 92 percent of those people who participated The first form of cognitive restructuring which is called rationalemotive therapy was developed by Ellis Once a family therapist gains insight into the family structure his or her next task is to restructure it by replacing maladaptive interactions with more effective and functional ones Smith and colleagues39 metaanalysis of the outcome effectiveness of the major forms of therapy showed that any therapy is more effective than no therapy Cozapine an antipsychotic drug that is u5ed to treat schizophrenia affects negative as well as positive symptoms and does not produce tardive dyskinesia A counseling psychologist has a PhD PsyD or EdD and addresses vocational educational or personal issues in her or his practice Ethical standards for psychologists have been established by the American Psychological Association Memorize 1776 1812 1861 1917 1941 Chapter 5 Study Guide 1 In their research both Pavlov and Thorndike sought a principle that would do what A A PRINCIPLE OF SELECTION BY THE INDIVIDUAL ENVIRONMENT THAT COMPLIMENT S NATURAL SELECTION 2 Both Pavlov and Thorndike s research involved what kind of responses A CONDITIONED RESPONses eliciting stimulus 3 Who discovered the relation of a response to an eliciting stimulus that followed it a In Thorndike s procedure the eliciting stimulus is introduced after a response 4 Why is the term operant used to for Thorndike s procedure A THE REPSONCE OPERATES ON THE ENVIRONMENT TO PRODUCE A STIlIULUS U In the classical procedure what does the term unconditioned refer to A THE ELICTING STIMLUS LIKE FOOD 0 Stung by bee now scared of buzzing noise what is the unconditioned stimulus A PAIN FROM STING AND ALLERGIC REACTION gt1 A chewing gum manufacturer has a widespread TV ad campaign that shows beautiful people consuming its product Having seen these ads over a few weeks you find yourself attracted to chewing gum next time you are at a convenience store In this classical conditioning example what is the conditioned response a Being attracted to chewing gum 00 Research using both the classical and operant procedures with hum an infants and adults has confirmed that the fundamental learning process occurs within a short time interval that is it has confirmed which requirement a Temporal contiguity 7 relation between two events that occur close together in time TEMPORAL UIREMENT S FOR LEARNING As a drug addiction which sorts of events becomes CS 0 A sight of the drug smell of drug in the environment where drug use was O In the blocking design the CS2 that was introduced in conditioning phase 2 failed to aquire a CR because it did not evoke what A A RESPONSE THAT IS NOT ALREADY OCCURING i i The first step in training a rat to press a lever consists of placing the animal in a test chamber and allowing it to explore the chamber so that what can occur A HABITUATION H N In leverpressing training with rats once habitation and feeder training have taken place what happens next A ONLY LEVER PRESSES ARE FOLLOWED BY FOOD E Shaping Complex behaviors in children with disabilities involves what A EQUTVALANCE CLASSES or Reinforcing each member of the chain of responses that ultimately leads to the target behavior 4 After a response has been continued with the classical procedure what happens if the US no longer follows the CS A DECREASES THE RESPONSE The response extinguishes H V When the CS is repeatedly presented without the US it leads to what Aextinction Back of Chapter 5 Study guide 16 What is said to occur when CRS are acquired by stimuli that resemble the CS used during training A ST11ULUS GENERALTZATTON 17 What occurs when the same behavior has different consequences in different environments A STIMLULUS D1 SCRTMINATION 18 Who is formally credited with discovering the relation of a response to an eliciting stimulus that followed it A SKINNER 19 When an eliciting stimulus such as a warm embrace follows a learner s expression of appreciation what happens with such expressions A1NCREASE 1N OCCURANCE OF EXPPRESSION 20 The fact that you answer the phone only when it rings is an example of the guidance of behavior by what ARETNFORCER Discriminatory Stimuli 21 Any eliciting stimulus that follows an operant response and decrease the strength of that response is called what A punisher 22 Increased strength of the target response is to decreased strength of the target response as what is to what AREIN39FORCEMENT IS TO PUNISHMENT Acquisition vs extinction 23 The role of automatic conditioned reinforcement in shaping complex behavior is best illustrated by the acquisition of what A LANGUAGE LEARNING 24 Research on taste aversions demonstrates what A INTERPLAY BETWEEN NATURAL SELECTION AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR 25 Insight involves what A INSIGHTFUL PRBLEM SOVLING COMBINATIONS OF PREVIOUSLY CONDITIONED RESPONCES 26 Buskist and millers experiment provided human participants with instructions that described the actual reinforcement contingencies accurately or inaccurately What did their results show about participants behavior Areinforcement only works when its close to the response 27 What does behavioral research suggest about insight A pg 132134 28 A salesperson that gets paid on commission for every successful sale is reinforced for approaching potential buyers on which kind of schedule A RATIO SCEDULE 29 AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors are both subtypes of what receptor A GLUTAMATE RECPETORS THE PRIMARY EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTER IN THE BRAIN 29 Judith has watched several movues nad televiosn shows that have provided examples of how to defend herself if attacked She is unsure of erself and is quite jumpy while out at night until one day she is attachked and defends herself well Wat 2 types of learning does Iudiths story best represent A imitation Chapter 6 Study Guide N 9 gt V 0 00 O H 0 N The detection of specific properties of stimulus is called what A sensation Detecting the color green is to responding to a green light as what is to what A detecting to responding Light is to radiant energy as sound is to mechanical energy fair pressures in the air read the book this is what he s telling me i The eye is to what kind of energy as the ear is to what kind of energy a Same type of question as number 3 The systematic study of the relation between the physical characteristics of stimuli and perception experience is known as what A psychophysics The lowest value of stimulus that can be detected is called A absolute threshold What is a correct negative A When the light did not ash and judgment was correct The amount of light that enters the eye is controlled by two bands of muscles called what A iris Near sighted ness and farsightedness is caused by changes in what A the length of the eye If your eyes are too short A far sighted Why is visual acuity the sharpest when images cast by the environment stimuli fall directly on the fovea Athe fovea only contains cones which are used to see things clearly when is it bright Saccadic eye movements are used to see A visual scenes The smooth eye movement used to track an object is A PURSUIT MOVEMENTS The amount of energy being radiated from a visual stimulus is referred to as the perceptual dimension of what A BRIGHTNESS THE INTENSITY OF COLOR 15 Which theory of color visions claims that the human eye has three receptors sensitive to color and that each is maximally sensitive to a different wavelength A TRICHROMATIC THOERY 16 In order for a person with normal vision to do the impossible perceive a blue yellow hue A THE GANGLION CELLS WOULD HAVE TO FIRE SLOWLY AND RAPIDLY AT THE SAME TIME ALSO FOR REDISH GREENIUSH HUES 17 What accounts for different sounds A CHANGE IN AMPLITUDE FREQUENCY AND TIMBRETHE COMPLEXITY OF SOUND 18 What are the parts of the cochlea A THE BASILAR MEMBRANE THAT SEPARATES 3 CHAMBERS 19 The auditory hair cells transduce what type of energy A MECHANICAL ENERGY 20 How lowfrequency and highfrequency are sounds encoded A The basilar membrane contain auditory hair cells that are special neurons that detect sound High frequency sounds cause the end of the membrane near the oval window to vibrate and low frequencies cuase the tip to vibrate When the membrane is vibrated the cilia on the auditory hair cells is stretched and that pull is translated into neural activity ion channels open and the cell releases a neurotransmitter to be sent to the brain Conclusion High frequencies are detected by causing different sets of hair to respond and low frequencies cause vibrations in sync with the sound waves and the brian detects these sounds by counting these vibrations N For frequencies below 3000 Hz locating the source of sound involves detecting what Adifferences in the arrival time of sound pressure waves at each eardrum N N What are the qualities of taste A bitterness sourness sweetness saltiness and umami detection of proteins good taste N L The olfactory system sends info to which part of the body A sense of smell sends info to several regions of the limbic systems in particular to the amygdala and to the limbic cortex of the frontal lobe N 4 What are examples of the somatosenses A the body senses include abilities to respond to touch vibration pain warmth coolness limb position muscle length and stretch Ex tickle itch spicy food N Lquot Which regions of the body are the most sensitive to touch and pressure N Go 0 gt1 O A lips and fingertips Muscle spindles are stretch receptors that are located Where A distributed throughout the muscle and are parallel to the muscle fibers inform the brain about changes in muscle length What is the role of photopigment in the transduction of light A When a photon strikes a photopigment the photopigment splits apart into two molecules which starts transduction by causing a series of chemical reactionsstimulate photoreceptorsends signal to bipolar cellsynapsesignal to ganglion cell which then sends a signal to the brain High and Medium frequency sounds cause What regions of the basilar membrane to vibrate A answered before but medium frequencies cause the middle of the membrane to vibrate What do pacinian corpuscles detect A mechanical stimuli like vibrations located in the skin Chapter 7 H N 9 He 0 gt1 00 O H O H H H N H E H gt H V H O Perception is to what as sensation is to what a Responding detecting The optic nerves send visual information to which part of the brain which in turn sends it to which part of the brain a Thalamuswhich sends to the Primary Visual Cortex What did Hubel and Wiesel determine about the geographic map of the retina in the primary visual cortex a There are small blocks of brain tissue associated with small parts of the retina gt named modules Information about shape and color is combined in the visual association cortex located in the lower part of which lobe of the brain a Temporal Lobe Which brain region is closely associated with the perception of threedimensional forms a Parietal Lobe or Ventral Stream A neurological patient has normal visual acuity and visual defection She can also read norm ally but she is unable to recognize objects visually by their shape Most likely she has damage in which part of her brain a Parietal Lobe Prosopagnosia is to what as achromatopsia is to what a Inability to recognize faces Loss of color vision According to Gestalt psychologists how does our visual system analyze visual images a We perceive images as a whole rather than in parts 7 whole is more than the sum of parts From a distance a C may appear to be an This is an example of which Gestalt law a Law of closure How do most psychologists view the template model a Dismissed as infeasible 7 the visual system would have to store an impossibly large amount of templates Research with nonhuman primates suggests what about pattern recognition a pg 193 To 194 One shortcoming of the distinctive features model of visual pattern recognition is that it cannot account for what a Neural recycling 7 ability to perceive the meaning of visual stimuli may eventually rely only on some of the features that are present One criticism of artificial intelligence mentioned in the textbook is what can produce the same result but the brain may perform the task in a completely different way and probably will Serial is to what as parallel is to what a One step at a time multiple steps at the same time The textbook s conclusion about pattern perception is that the brain acts like what a Parallel processer 7 using a massive array of neural networks Recent research by Goodale and Milner suggests that visual perception involves two systems which can be described how a Ventral and Dorsal Streams Back of chapter 7 l 9 gt gt1 00 0 N gt What binocular cue do we use to perceive the distance of objects located within an arm s length a Convergence When viewing nearby objects the angle between the eyes is what when viewing distant objects a Greater As you look down the road the white lines that mark its exterior boundaries seem to converge in the distance As the lines appear to become closer to each other they look farther away This cue to depth is called what a Linear perspective Of the cues used in depth perception both what and what rely on the clarity of the image to determine distance a Texture gradient haze As we move past a visual scene objects closer to us appear to pass in front of objects farther away This depth cue is called what a Retinal disparity Who was the major advocate of the linguistic relativity hypothesis a Benjamin Lee Whorf If all cultures were alike in terms of color categories for which they provide names this finding would say what about the linguistic relativity hypothesis a That it does not apply 7 the languages of the cultures are not effecting their focal color groups Despite changes in the size of the retinal image the same object viewed near and far does not appear to grow larger and smaller This perceptual principle is known as what a Relative size monocular cue size constancy When participants in a research study reported the illusion of movement of a stationary object after watching a moving object there was enhanced activity in the dorsal stream region of which area of the cortex a Occipital lobe In which brain region does three dimensional perception of object size shape orientation and color take place a Primary visual Cortex An important difficulty with the distinctive features model of perception is what a Illogically more complex patterns have more distinctive features and would take longer to perceive Strangely more complex patterns are o en processed faster A stereoscope can be used to demonstrate the role of what in depth perception a That retinal disparity is essential for depth perception When we approach an object or when it approaches us how do we perceive its size a Relative size If you have no difficulty reading naeurl rycclenig as neural recycling you are processing what about the words a The outer boundaries of the words Chapter 8 l 9 gt V 0 gt1 00 O i O i i i N i L The process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be useful to the brain s memory system is called what a Encoding When you were a child you probably learned a rhyme for remembering the alphabet This was a technique that helped out with what of this information one of the basic cognitive processes of memory a Storage Rehearsal is often useful for transferring information from what memory to what memory a Short term memory to long term memory Unlike shortterm memory long term memory is what a Memory in which information is represented on a permanent or nearpermanent basis When Sperling s subjects were asked to recall as many of the 9 letters as they could how many did they typically recall a 3 Because shortterm memory processes information from sensory memory and from long term memory Baddeley referred to it as what memory instead a Working Memory Suppose that you have been given a short list of words to memorize After you have read through the list once you discover that you can remember the last four words easily The result is an example of what a Recency effect Which kinds of lists should be the easiest to remember a Short lists with similar words or word that are related pg 220 to 222 According to Conrad s research on phonological shortterm memory which kinds of error would someone be LEAST likely to make a visual Ashley suffers from mild conduction aphasia What does this mean a Inability to remember words that are heard although they usually can be understood and responded to appropriately Caused by damage to Wernicke s and Broca s area What did the participants in Shepard and Metzler s research report that they did when they had to decide whether the geometric shapes were identical a They formed an image of one of the drawings in their heads and rotated it until it was aligned the same way as the other one As she was driving to work Margie was in serious auto accident When she woke up in the hospital she could not remember anything about the accident or what had happened to her just before it took place Margie s failure of memory illustrates what a Retrograde amnesia Salaam is studying a list of psychology terms by associating each of them to everyday experiences In this way she is trying to make the terms as relevant as possible to her life Her method of studying illustrates what a Method ofLoci Deep processing involves what a Analysis of the complex characteristics of a stimulus such as its meaning or its relation to other stimuli Lquot 0 l 00 O O N N L 4 N Lquot O gt1 00 O L O What kind of processing involves using either shallow or deep processing to rehearse information a Effortful processing You know that each chapter in your text contains a chapter preview and that the key terms in each chapter are found at the end of the chapter This information was likely encoded into your memory through what a He said it s a broad answer just choose the answer where its like we know it already encoding in long term memory Techniques or strategies that are specifically used to enhance memory are called what a Wemonic system If your remembered a list of items by associating each item with the rhyme one is a bun two is a shoe and three is a tree and so on you would be using what a Pegword method Memory for personal events is called what a Episodic memory To remember that people park cars is an example of what memory To remember where you parked yours illustrates what memory a Semantic memory episodic memory An accomplished cellist s memories of how to play a Bach sonata on the cello are what a Implicit memory The inability to form new longterm memories AFTER brain damage occurs is called what a Anterograde amnesia What are the symptoms presented by people with anterograde amnesia a Cannot remember what has happened since cannot learn names of new people will be surprised when seeing old person in mirror The Stroop effect involves what a Indicates that even when we try to suppress a wellpracticed memory it tends to be retrieved automatically when the appropriate stimulus occurs ie color or words and what the word is Contextual variables that aid recollection are termed what a Retrieval cues Rogoff and colleagues found that once certain cultural biases in educational training were controlled children living in Western and nonWestern cultures performed similarly in what a Remembering toys and story Which word when used in the question How fast were the cars going when one of them into the other would likely result in the greatest estimate of speed by an eyewitness to the accident a Smashed Failure to retrieve information when more recently learned information interferes is called what a Recency effect The failure to retrieve information we know we possess in the memory sin that Schacter refers to as what a blocking The fact that people who are congenitally deaf sometimes make acoustical errors when they repeat letters presented to them on a screen implies what a lmplies that a lot of information is stored acoustically You know what it sounds like so you comprehend it while congenially deaf people haven t heard of the words
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