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by: Josie Nienow


Josie Nienow
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This 80 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josie Nienow on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4370 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/224876/psyc-4370-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute in Psychlogy at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.




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Date Created: 10/19/15
PSYC 4370 Cognitive Psychology Lecture 8 Memory Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Hansjdrg Neth amp Christopher Myers CogWorks Laboratories Cognitive Science Department Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Halftime Feedback on PSYC 4370 1 What is different than you expected 2 Likes amp dislikes a What do you like about the course b What do you dislike about it 3 What could we do better Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Overview Memory as a Creative Process I Imwduc on t What events do people remember over their life span I Ho W are How do we create memories by memories created combining what happened with I 39 creative mental processes Causes of I What kinds of things can cause memory errors distortions of memory I What does memory research tell us about errors in eyewitness testimony and about remembering traumatic events Some practical implications Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Autobiographical memories Flashbulb memories Constructive memory Inferred memories False memories Practical consequences Remembering Personal Experiences Autobiographical memory Episodic memory for dated events in our lives U Example Your arriva How are these events remembered Conway 1996 3 layers of knowledge Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Nested Layers of Autobiographical Knowledge Conway 1996 Maxim Arrival at Eventspecific college knowledge Orientation week General event College Lifetime period H Years gtl Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter 7 Life Span Memory Some events about your own life are remembered better than others eurprisel m Exampee mieetoneea traneition periode Pillemeret al 1996 College alumni display enhanced memory for beginning of freshman year and end of senior year Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 The Reminiscence Bump Schrauf amp Rubin 1998 Enhanced memory for episodic and semantic facts of adolescence amp 30 ASS yearold39s memoryforevents N 01 Reminiscence bump N o T Percent of memories O U m 0 0 1 O 20 3O 40 50 60 Age at time of event Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 The Reminiscence Bump cont d Two explanations 1 Lifenarrative hypothesis personal identity is determined in those years 2 Cognitive hypothesis Encoding is better in periods of rapid change followed by relative stability gt Question How to argue for 2 Find people who experienced rapid changes at different life periods Hypothesis Reminiscence bump should shift Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 The Reminiscence Bump cont d Schrauf amp Rubin 1998 Shift in the reminiscence bump due to late emigration US immigrants 35 in 203 vs 303 3 25 Emigrated at g age20 24 E gt 20 Atage34 35 a 15 amp attenuated E 0 f 2 1 v reminiscence bump 0 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 Age at time of event Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter 7 Demonstration What did you do on Sep 09 2001 What did you do on Sep 11 2001 What did you do on Dec 11 2001 Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Flashbulb Memories FbM Phenomenon Shocking and emotionally charged events tend to be remembered very vividly and more detailed than other events a Examples Nov 22 13 Jan 28 i986 rst 3 1995 Sep ll 2pm Question Do these phenomena highlight a special memory mechanism Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 FbM A Special Mechanism Brown amp Kulick 1977 FbM are created by a special now print mechanism Conditions for invocation emotionally charged circumstances high consequentiality of events Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 FbM Evidence for a Special Mechanism Hamann et al 1999 PET Emotionally charged images lead to higher amygdala activation and were more likely to be remembered I et al MemoryofMargaret amygdala damage no enhanced Tha equot es gquot quot memory for emotional events 1 Aquot Memory better for UK subjects because of higher consequentiality UK US Conway et al 1994 Higher consequentiality of events correlates with better memory 50 Memory accuracy Nationality of subjects Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter 7 FbM No Special Mechanism Neisser 2000 FbM reflect ordinary memory processes Conditions of invocation Frequent narrative rehearsal Decay and inaccuracies FbM are often distorted in plausible ways due to knowledge expectations Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter 7 Narrative Rehearsal Hypothesis I l 39139 WE WILL NEVER FORGET SEPTEMBER 11 2001 Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 FbM Evidence against a Special Mechanism Neisser amp Harsch 1992 Challenger in 1986 vs 1989 Increased distortions were affected by common knowledge Specifically Increase in TVmemories from 21 to 45 Schmolck et al 2000 OJ Simpson in 1995 vs 1998 Increased inaccuracies gt Decay mechanisms it seems unlikely that socalled flashbulb memories differ from ordinary episodic memories in any fundamental way p 44 Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 FbM Evidence for amp against Talarico and Rubin 2003 911 at 912 vs 1632 weeks later DETAILS BELIEF 6 m m 2 r 390 5 E 0 5 0 In u E E quotw e a 3 E 4 E 395 3 D 2 vi 3 2 1 7 42 224 1 7 42 224 Days after event Days after event a b gt llluSIon of better memory Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter 7 Inaccurate Memories 50 Schmolck et al 2000 tn 0 2 mechanisms 4 Decrease of remembered so lack of memory g o 20 Increase of actual g inaccuracies amp 10 O 15 32 15 32 Months after verdict Don39t remember Responses that gt Memory 352312 Construction of actual events expectations Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter 7 How Memory is Constructed Possible memory errors omissions changes constructions fabrications Constructive approach to memory Memory actual events knowledge experiences expectations Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Evidence for Constructive Memory Bartlett s 1932 War of the Ghosts repeated reproductions lead to culturally conforming reconstructions and assimilations Bahrick et al 1996 Educated guesses Remembered grades are inflated 80 of the time Explanations a positive events are better remembered Loftus 1982 b constructive best guess selfenhancement Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 10 Source Monitoring amp Misattribution Jacoby et al 1989 becoming famous overnight Acquisition Immediate test Read Read names Wait nonfamous from acquismon 24 hours names plus new nonfamous names and new famous names Q Which are famous Delayed test Same as immediate test Result blurred rememberknow distinction Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 due to familiarity amp source misattribution False Memories due to Experience Bransford amp Johnson 1973 Hammer Acquisition Test Read pounding Have you seen Experimental nailsquot sentence this sentence and 5 others Read quotlooking for Have you seen control the nailquot sentence this sentence and 5 others Result percent of sentences identified as seen before Errors 57 20 Results Knowledgebased inferences lead to errors increased occurrence with action statements Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 11 False Memories due to Experience Schema knowledge of the typical components of an experience Brewer amp Treyens 1981 False memories due to office schema Script Schema for action sequences or events Bower et al 1979 schemabased insertions into doctor visit story Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Remembering A List of Words Demonstration Please remember the following words Bed rest awake tired dream wake night blanket doze slumber snore pillow peace yawn drowsy Common result Deese 1959 sleep is falsely remembered due to association Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 a Personal Biases I Egocentric bias Tendency to remember positive traits about oneself Sanitioso et al 1990 I Consistency bias Tendency to remember attitudes and behavior consistent with past attitudes and behavior Positive change bias Tendency to perceive things as getting better Sprecher 1999 Conway amp Ross 1984 Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Consistency Bias Marcus 1986 attitudes towards social issues equal rights legalizing marijuana affirmative action in 1973 vs 1982 05 Correlation llt Actual 1982 vs Actual 1973 Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Actual 1982 vs Recalled 1973 13 Memory 75 Video Recording Memory record is imperfect Errors of omission incomplete selective Errors of commission distortions modifications I Question Why has memory system been designed evolved in that way Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 a Why should we have Bad Memory Luria 1975 Shereshevskii s virtually limitless memory could not forget irrelevant details bad at inductive reasoning filling in the blanks Anderson amp Schooler 1991 We remember relevant and frequent information Allende 2001 Memory is fiction and sometimes selective to preserve our selfimage Altmann 2005 Functional role of decay in goal schedang Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 14 Analogy Fast amp frugal Memory Like our perceptual system see Ch 3 our memory system is primarily designed to work efficiently l f l x 39 l xquot l l l N r 739 l V v l Hal 39 l39 j i a 1 it gt Tradeoff Shpeed gt Accuracy Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Suggestive Memory Modification I Question How easily can memory be modified by suggestion Examples Advertisements Political propaganda Misinformation effect memory modification by misleading postevent information MIP Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 15 Misinformation Effects Loftus et al 1978 Stop vs yield sign Loftus amp Palmer 1974 cars collided vs smashed into each other Speed estimates 39 39 34 vs 41 mph Broken glass 14 vs 32 yes Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Misinformation Effect Explanation Loftus et al Memory impairment hypothesis Original memory trace is replaced by MPI But McCloskey amp Zaragoza 1985 Table 71 DESIGN AND RESL LTS or TllE MCCLOSKY AND ZARAGOZA EXPERIMENT 00 Choosing Group What They Saw hat They Heard Afterward HaEm er MP Humincrinbox sc139cwdrircrwnsinthchoxquot l 73 39 l Control Hammer in box toolwnsintheboxquot 75 I v r Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 16 Creating False Childhood Memories Hyman et al 1995 litrlPl iiiedding punch DuBreuil et al 1998 lilriPl Crib mobile wrong memory theow hypnosis Result 61 of recollections Explanation familiarity source misattribution Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Memory off the leash Confabulations sincere but exaggerated and often absurd false memories due to brain prefrontal or medialtemporal lobe damage Hypothesis Normal check for reasonableness of memory is suspended Note This suggest a generate amp test model of normal memory Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 17 Eyewitness Testimony The Problem Fact 1 200 peopleday are incriminated based on eyewitness testimony Fact 2 Errors occur gt Innocent people are convicted Reasons Emotions Familiarity amp source misattributi Suggestion amp consistency bias Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 on Errors Due to Emotions Stanny amp Johnson 2000 The use of weapons Shooting decreases details recalled Percent details recalled About About About perpetrator victim weapon Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Shoot No shoot 18 Errors Due to Familiarity Reallife examples Ross et al 1994 View film of male teacher Experimental reading to students View lm of Test female teacher Pick robber gettl ng fro robbed photospread View film of female teacher CO WDI reading to Note Photospread included male teacher but not actual robber Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Errors Due to Familiarity cont d Results of Ross et al 1994 A60 A 60 o o a E C J g 40 3 40 3 B 2 2 E E E E E 20 E 20 39 E quotE g g I O O E C E C Actual robber Actual robber 39 was in photospread photospread 2 Source misattribution Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 19 Errors Due to Suggestion Wells amp Bradfield 1998 Good you identified the suspect Confirming feedback 54 gt View crime lilml l Pick from photospread Receive No feedback l 40 gt Confidence level ratinu Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 perpetrator not included MIP Disconfirrning feedback l 35 What Is Being Done Eyewitness Evidence A Guide for Law Enforcement Openended gt leading questions Fillers in lineups should resemble suspect description Tell witness that suspect may or may not be in lineup Avoid confirming or disconfirming witness choices httpwwwojpusdojgovnijpubssum178240htm Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 20 Recovery of Lost Memories 19803 Lost memories resurfaced Theory Painful memories become unconscious repression but can be remembered when repression weakens or other events occur Problems Hard to falsify Why special mechanism Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Recovery of Lost Memories a debate about accuracy distortion and suggestibility in memory liizchac ter tees p 25M APA guidelines on Memories of Child Abuse Child abuse is a complex and pervasive problem Most people remember most of what happened Delayed recall can happen but is not well understood Convincing pseudomemory happens but is not well understood Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 21 Questions Announce amp Assignments Final last day of class May 3rd Next Friday Test ll Chapters 9 5 7 Next Tuesday Review session Projects please submit proposals Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 Reflection 8 Commercial Memory Name up to three ways in which advertisements or political propaganda exploits memory mechanisms 3 pts Mar2505 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors Chapter7 22 finis Mar2505 LAST Everyday Memoryrand Memory Errors Chapter 7 23 PSYC 4370 Cognitive Psychology Lecture 3 Perception Hansjdrg Neth amp Christopher Myers CogWorks Laboratories Cognitive Science Department Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Some Questions Why is perception so complicated Why do we normally not notice this How are objects recognized What is the role of knowledge and intelligence in perception What would be required to build a perceiving machine Feb0105 Perception Chapters Overview N I I The Prooess 39Howdoesgerchiwndigestquot ofpercep on Incomingsmualon an eXIsmg I knowledge I I 7 39How are objects analyzed into features I Perceiving early in the process of perception ObjeCts How are elements in a scene organized I into objects n I s I 4 The quotintelligencequot I What is the behavioral and physiological of perception evidence that perception is intelligent FebO lOS Perception Chapter 3 What are you perceiving right now Some introspective insights about perception Perception is mediated through the senses Vision gt hearing gt smelltastetouch gt balance proprioception Perception is selective see Attention What s perceived depends on the environment the perceiver and the interaction of both Perception involves hypotheses propositions and representations symbolic truthfunctional entities FebO lOS Perception Chapter 3 The case of misperception Sensation bottomup Roger s eye F l 571 Light reflected quotJ from sign Pattern of light and dark is formed on Roger s retina FebO105 Perception ChapterS The case of misperception cont d Transduction Transformation amp Interpretation bottomup topdown diagonally across Processing 139 H N l in brain 1 39 Pattern of light f on retina becomes electrical signal v 4 w 39l39 37 I l i FebO105 Perception Chapter 3 Data Knowledge Perception Expectations and existing knowledge topdown J4 Perception 1 of sign Incoming data bottom up 39 Pattern of light entering eye Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Demonstrations We see only what we know Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Palmer 1975 Context effects Speeded objectrecognition task Contextcongruent objects 80 recognition Contextincongruent 0 40 recognition gt Context can facilitate or inhibit object perception Feb0105 Perception Chapters WWVVTS Although perception seems to just happen it is actually thee dFe39SHItef a complex process Goldstein 2305 p 57 mos Bottomup processing is awe32s the starting point for perception beeaU39S39el39f peFeeptieHquot imagery synesthesia dreams etc Feb0105 Perception Chapters Analyzing Objects into Components Feature approach to object perception Basic idea Analysis precedes synthesis 1 Analysis stage feature units 2 Synthesis stages object units Feb0105 Perception Chapters A Simple Letter Recognition Model too Letter analysis stage quot39quot l I I 392 letter units 3E B C 3amp3 0 ES mumS Feature analysis stage feature units ll lllll llII Stimulus A Feb0105 Perception Chapters PatternRecognition Network v 39 Figure 229 Par ul iiw piliierni39emgiiiimi network promised iiv MchiHlieimi auri Hunwiiiam 1981 m mi39igiiii mm rim minivan by pm39im mivg iituiauuus 0n nmi ai lhilii ii was Connections wiiii armwhvads a imiimir PMvil dllii39 mlmnclinms mm Um S39Jlli fjf 10 mp Feb39c head Cmmecmms iiih rmmdmi imam a iii39JiUiilL iniiiliiim toilinemimis mm Hui strum to the head An A is an El is an 4 isn t it Shared features ARAA But what about Feb0105 Perception Chapters Demonstration THE EHT gt again the importance of context and knowledge Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Evidence for feature analysis I ODUGQR IVMXEW Neisser 1964 888328 33th QUGCDR IXEMWV URDGQO VXWEMI nd Z In a GRUQDO MXVEWI DUZGRO XVWMEI find Z In b UCGROD MWXVlE DQRCGU VIMEXW QDOCGU EXVWIM CGUROQ VWMIEX OCDURQ VMWIEX gt Increased feature UOCGQD XVWMEI RGQCOU WXVEMI GRUDQO XMEWIV overlap between GODUCQ MXNEW 39 QCURDO VEWMIX target and distractors DUCOQG EMVXW CGRD U IVWMEX makes search harder UDRCSQ EVMWX GQCORU WVZMXE GOQUCD XEMlWV GDQUOC WXIM EV URDCGO EMWIVX Feb0105 Perception Chapter3 GODRQC IVEMXW a b Visual Search A Find the 0 among Vs V V V V V VVVV VO VOVVV V V V VV b Visual Search cont d B FindtheR irgogi P Q P P Q PPQP Q P Q P P Q RP F RPPQ QPPQ Visual Search Standard Result Target R Reaction time Target O 2 a Number of distractors Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Feature Integration Theory Treisman s 1986 FIT I Focused Object Preattent39ve attention Perception Stage stage Analyze into Combine features features gt Free floating features gt Objects Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 10 Test Illusory conjuctions Treisman amp Schmidt 1982 red 131 blue p Q 1 yellow FIT cont d Features like color curvature angle form an alphabet of vision Tina l a l K Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 6 11 Caveats Attention amp Topdown Mediating role of attention Focus on shapes can eliminate illusory conjunctions Role of knowledge Topdown processing can channel perception Feb0105 Perception Chapters Recognition By Components RBC Biederman 1987 The basic component of perception are 36 geons 3Dshapes Three properties View invariances size rotation translation Discriminability l Resistance to visual noise Feb0105 Perception Chapters Image courtesy of G Diaz 12 Cylindrical Segmentation 0 Nurse Humun slnch Q Perceived Constituent Obj a ct G 9 ons EU 5 meMe APE Figure 2 xwnmnrmmv m mnw Lmulmr Mum k mm hm nHmlm H mums mmmm Inml Mun x leumm mm Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 ll Cylinder Cone Pyramd 4 Football Horn waneglass Figure 219 GmmmHvd 1m1dm In hlhll uhiml HIP ININI 1in runl39elwnlx III H Hll39dl am I quot1139 MN 1 Thu nhimw lt ml 1w Ivsu39im39d in K39I11M Ilw Innwnwnl 0 4 mme IlUllrlI Sll dpL alongi an axis Ilndm39 cm tr mmm dlmlL d slmiglu mix innu I uil tlv Ullll39 l Ix vx alum vl wwu ulll L 5 Mmmm u sulmrv nnnnuuls as n mm vs nlmui d slrui hl axis Anwir dn I39untbdll d lil39lIP uwumis MILI lle39n umlmgls L15 il mews along I Slimth is Ilnrn a xin iv rznlllv mzh as H Hums amngnrm39wtlr1I5 inH Ii HHHI39HUIS mun cwanulx Memng I nnmu wgmn39lllulinn mum Imu39kmi hv nrl nux hum Buuwuuu m 41 Feb0105 umgvl 7 Evidence for RBC I Biederman et al Omnplete Component Ema 1987 1993 2001 1 em gt Robustness of L 1 z l 4 9eonpreservmg i w Perceptions IN I I r L L 4J Feb0105 Perception Chapters Summary so far Both FIT and RBC theory assume an early perceptual analysis of objects into parts FIT which basic features assembly modulated by attention RBC perception of 3Dshapes Next How is the environment organized into separate objects Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Perceptual Organization Early 1900s Structuralism assumed that perception consisted of sensations a b Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 15 The Gestalt Approach Perception is governed by laws of erce tual or anization P P 9 v0 la b C Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Gestalt Principles not Laws Pragnanz simplicity good figure C2ng a b Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 16 Gestalt Principles cont d Similarity E Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 a 00 Gestalt Principles cont d Grouping due to similarity 39939 9 was Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 17 Gestalt Principles cont d Good continuation Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Gestalt Principles cont d Proximity nearness 00000 000000 00000000 000000000 000 0000 W E Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 18 Gestalt Principles cont d Common fate Feb O1 O5 Perception Chapter 3 Gestalt Principles cont d Famiiaity Feb O1 O5 Perception Chapter 3 19 The Problem of Perceptual Organization How is the array of perceptual inputs segmented into different objects Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Gestalt Principles o o o o o X X X X X o o o o o X X X X X o o o o o a b A D Feb0105 Perception Chapters 20 Other Segments Speech Recognition ThissenTenCeishArdtorEad Anna Mary Candy Lights Since Imp Pulp Lay Things lllwllllllwllllw SP EECHS EGMENTATION gt topdown perception of Gestalt Feb0105 Perception Chapters Heuristics amp Algorithms Gestalt principles as perceptual heuristics or fast amp frugal algorithms 21 The Intelligence of Perception Objects need to be separated intellectually Parts of objects 39 can be hidden0bvect l 1 Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Object 2 Inverse Projection Problem The stimulus on the receptors is ambiguous x I Image on retina Objects that create the same image on the retina Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 22 Light amp Shadow Changes in illumination can be more salient than object boundaries Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 More Heuristics Occlusion heuristic a Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Figure 550 The gray areas are the same in a and b but they become perceptu ally organized into ve B s when an occluding blob fills in the missing parts offhe letters From Bregman 1981 23 Light amp Shadow Demonstration Light amp Shadow cont d Lightfrom above heuristic b 24 Light amp Shadow cont d Shadow Illusion Feb0105 Perception Chapters Origins of Perceptual Intelligence Candidates Knowledge experience learning Environment nature adaptation Evolution adaptation natural selection Special neural hardware physiology Feb0105 Perception Chapters 25 Experiencedependent Plasticity Gauthier s 1999 Greebles FFA response gt Neurons in fusiform face area FFA become specialized Feb0105 Perception Chapter 3 Greebles Faces JI Before training After training 26 Perception as the gateway to cognition Recurring themes in the study of cognition Invisible processing Representation Bottomup amp topdown processing Heuristics amp knowledge Behavioral amp physiological approaches Feb0105 Perception Chapters Elaboration An Example Why is proofreading my own writing so difficult Phenomena Perception in context topdown processes Gestalt principles Theories Treisman s 1986 FIT Experiments Syntax vs semantics modes of processing Davacchi et al 2003 Ch 1 How to investigate this further Compare accuracy amp speed of correcting one s own vs someone else s text Control for error frequency amp types Feb0105 Perception Chapters 27 Questions Assignment amp Reflection Questions CogLab Visual Search Experiment Reflection 4 Find amp make your own perceptual illusion How does it work What does this reveal about ordinary perception Due Monday Feb 7 Feb0105 Perception Chapters 28 PSYC 4370 Cognitive Psychology Lecture 10 Problem Solving Hansjo39rg Neth amp Christopher Myers 0 Works Laboratories Cognitive Science Department Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Demonstration Please name some examples of problems Scheduling events prioritizing among goals Being on time Getting a degree Earning money investing money Buying a car choosing a location to live to study deciding whatwhere to eat Algebra Arithmetic etc gt Blurry distinctions between problem solving reasoning and decition making De nMons Problem any discrepancy between a g present situation and a desired goal Bransford amp Stein 1984 Problem too broad thus Problem There exists an obstacle between a present state and a goal and it is not immediately obvious how to get around the obstacle Lovett 2002 Note Interactive concept cognitive agent task amp task environment Apr11435 Problem Solving Chapter 11 g De nMonscontd Murray GellMann about Richard Feynmann Dick s method is this You write down the problem You think very hard closes eyes and presses knuckles to his forehead Then you write down the answerquot from Gleick 1992 p 315 Problem Solving any attempt by a cognitive agent to reduce or eliminate a perceived problem what you do when you don t know what to do Payne 2003 Apr11435 Problem Solving Chapter 11 Overview assassins as may nnpmam mum mm I Wmmmmmm Anntwtns m mmquot mm um mth Haw m Dmhlnmi m mzlvnl by mm n npvmlch mums Du anme man Ivunuxpms mm m mmm Cynan Huwtmwc quotmomma mama mmm mmm mm mm m mum wmm The Gestalt Approach I Adapted from Gestalt theory of perception I Gestalt a whole pattern a form or a configuration x whole gt 2 parts I Investigated nonroutine problems Insig htful Apes Kohler 19205 Sultan banana amp boxes l7 7 7 Applies Prublem Sulvmg Chaplet ll Problem Solving as Restructuring Problem Solving Problem perception Reorganization and restructuring of a x problem representation Example Circle with radius r How long is x thlzm ll the length DI the radius is I what isthe length of line x 9 Amrllr Prublem Sulvmg 0mm 11 Problem Solving as Rerepresentation I Solution to circle problem requires perceptual insight X Solution The length cl me linex I r Insight in Problem Solving v Insight problems Q sudden solution Ahal experience v Question Are insight problems qualitatively different from other problems Metcalfe amp Wiebe 1987 insight vs algebra problems warmth judgments every 15 sec 7ptscale Metcalfe amp Wiebe 1987 Examples of noninsight problems Solve forx 15 x 10 25 Factor 16y2 40yz 2522 Aprr11705 Problem SolvingCnapter11 Metcalfe amp Wiebe 1987 Examples of insight problems a Triangle problem Move 3 pins so that the Aprr11705 Problem SolvingCnapter11 triangle faces downwards Metcalfe amp Wiebe 1987 Examples of insight problems 3 a o a Solutiontothe o o 03 triangle problem Applies Problem SnivingChaptErll amp Yet another insight problem Start state 6com problem Goal move coins to make a circle Constraints a Every move must be Goal state slidenotlift and b must move a coin to touch two others 0 only 3 coins may be moved Applies PrublemSnlvingChapterll Metcalfe amp Wiebe 1987 Examples of insight problems b Chain problem opening a link 20 closing a link 30 how tojoin 4 pieces for 150 b Aprrllro5 Problem SolvingChapterM Metcalfe amp Wiebe 1987 Examples of insight problems Solution to the chain problem Aprrllro5 Problem SolvingChapterM Metcalfe amp Wiebe 1987 I Results 71 h L a Noninsight Q problems w l L Perceived warmth a increases gradually M I m Insight problems i Perceived warmth w erupts suddenly 3 E Aprrllr PrublemSulvlng0hapleril Obstacles to Problem Solving Experience can help or hinder problem solving Duncker 1945 s candle problem Mount a candle to the wall a 7 so that it can burn without quotS dripping You may only use these objects Aprriir PrublemSulvlnu0hapleril Solution to the Candle Problem Necessary insight The match box must be seen as a support ratherthan a container Results of the Candle Problem Adamson s 1952 replication 100 39 Presentation mode matters empty boxes less likely to be viewed only as containers Functional fixedness familiarity with an object s function can Boxes Boxe as inhibit other possible empty containers USES Apr1105 Problem Solving Chapterll Percent solving problem in O Functional Fixedness cont d Maier s 1931 twostring problem Using only a chair and pliers tie together the 5 two ends of A these strings 1 n1 quot Apr1105 Problem Solving Chapter 11 Summary Gestalt Approach to RS Table 11 1 GESTAI T RESTRUCTURING SI MMARY Problem Initial Representation New Representation Circle Figure 112 Diagonal of rectangle Diagonal is radius Candle Figure 115 Box is a container for candles Box is a support for candles Two string Figure 1 17 Stationary strings Swinging strings Taterjug Figure 118 Pour in this sequence Pour in this sequence AC0rAeC Apr1105 Problem Solving Chapter 11 a mm mm Mental Set T fl I Mental set bias Z i f 2 1L tendency to respond I Z Z Z L based on past experience I Example Luchin s 1942 waterjug problems Aprr rn Prublem Sulvmgmhapler Mental Set Zquot T Z quot1quot I Mental set bias 3 i I I Z tendency to respond I l 2 3 2 based on past experience I Example we Luchin s 1942 waterjug problems a c a a Aprrllr ProblemSulvlnu0haplerll Mental Set cont d A simple solution to Luchin s 1942 problem 7 Problem Jug A Jug E AprrllVOS Problem SolvingCnapterll Dualer JugC quantity Mental Set cont d Comparing solutions of participants with vs without mental set Percent using shorter solution AprrllVOS Problem SolvingCnapterll 100 Mental No mental t set se a Summary Gestalt Approach to PS Strengths PS often is more than reproducing past experience a new whole involves restructuring representations explains how past experience can lead to failure Weaknesses Overreliance on perceptual metaphor What is insight Mechanism unexplained Focus on initial amp final states but no process d mo el Chaplevll Apvrtir Problem Solving Modern Approaches PS as Search Newell and Simon 1956 1972 A problem space consists of Initial state Goal state Intermediate states Operators permissible moves between states bodice gt Problem solving searching the problem space Chaptevll Apvrtir Problem Solving The Tower of Hanoi ToH initial state Goal state 1 F 39 D a a l I r 1 1 2 3 I 2 3 a 4 7 l Oparamr l Move Operator 2 Can Operator 3 Larger one disc at a limo move dlsc only disc cannot be put lmm one peg Io w en no discs on smaller disc lb AprerO5 Problem Solvmg Chapterm ToH Problem Space Problem space of the 3disk ToH ALL 1 m gueetig IN Solution km w e39 u L 1 shortest path HA 3 f N l N Lg 1e ue 14 f N t N AA 41 ALA JJA f N f N f AprerO5 Problem SolvmgChapterM Solving the ToH Recurswe Solution L H 7 1 Identify biggest discrepancy disk n 2 If moveable to goal peg move Else 3 Subgoal move n 1disk M xrl tower to nongoal peg 4 Go to 1 llrlsuvgualz Frwupvhw xlugl a Play online um wriiemeng wind pirmmzm hum l l Apvrllr ProblemSulvlng0haptevll amp my 5mm 5 ana mg m anmlhnd pay Heuristics in Problem Solving fan exhaustive search ofthe problem space is mpossible employ heuristics I Example Meansend analysis Iterative or recursive subgoals Stepwise reduction of differences between current and goal state Steps Set up a global goal or local subgoal Judge difference between current and goalsubgoal state Look for an operator that will reduce or elimina e difference Apply the operator Apply steps 2 to 4 repeatedly until goal has been achieved A NT 9 Aprrllr ProblemSulvlnu0haptevll Heuristics Hill Climbing Consider currently applicable operators Choose an operator that leads to a next state that is closer to the goal than the current state Beware of local minima varllr Prublem Sulvmg0haplerll Hobbits and Orcs Logistics 7x aka Missionaries amp Cannibals a Q a t 3 than 3 lnluul slam Constraints a Orcs may never outnumber Hobbits b Boat must be managed by at least 1 creature minus Prublem Sulvmgmaplevll HampO Solution Note Step 3 violates simple meansends analysis Apr1105 Problem Solving Chapler11 Knowing How Problem Representation Puzzle problems vs everyday problems Many problems are illdefined eg vague initial orfinal states flexible operators The details of a problem s presentation and representation matter Demonstration Problem lsomorphs Apr1105 Problem Solving Chapler11 Reflection 9 Monster Problem Three vehanded extraterrestial monsters were holding three crystal globes Because of the quan ummechanical peculiarities of their atmosphere both monsters and globes come in exactly three sizes a medium and large The small 8 monster was holding the medium m globe the medium M monster was holding the large I globe and the large L monster was holding the small s globe Since this offends their keen sense of symmetry they proceed to shrink and expand globes so that each monster will have a globe of proportionate size However monster etiquette requires that Only one globe may be changed at any time If two globes have the same size only the globe held by the larger A globe may not be changed to the size ofa globe held by a larger m Kotoveky Hayes amp Simon 1937 Aprriir PrublemSulvmgChapterli Reflection 9 Monster Problem Submit a solution to the problem counting your number of steps needed 2 pts Draw the complete problem space 2 pts Notation Sm Ml Ls initial state Ss Mm Ll goal state Note This is one of many isomorphs to the ToH problem Apmtns Prublem Striving Chapter 11 w The MutilatedCheckerboard Problem Can the remaining 62piece board be covered entirely A Aprrilrn Problem Suivmu Chapter 11 MutilatedCheckerboards cont d Kaplan amp Simon 1990 Four conditions varied in the l l l l degree to which the crucial l l l V parity 39 ie L domino piece always covers i H l two different types of squares was suggested Analogy Matchmaker story with 32 bacheloret39tes and 32 2 bachelors Monkandthe Mountain Problem Is there a point which is reached on both days at the same time Again Problem presentation and representation is crucial n Iote Asking for the precise time or location would have required an Mnmmv 4 mm algebraic solution m PS by Analogy I DefAnalogy structural similarity between situations or events Examples floats like a butterfly stings like a bee Muhammed Ali Miniature solar system atom I Restructuring see Gestalt approach could be aided by retrieving analogous instances gt Do people use analogies in ps How Duncker s 1945 Radiation Problem Source problem The General Target problem Radiation Dilemma 4 3 39 Sidenote I Solution to radiation problem is actually used in modern radiosurgery Beam channel Shielding 1 7 Ragionclwe co altED Gamma mys Helmet T A umor cl The Process of Analogical PS Gick amp Holyoak 1980 1quot L 71 1 Noticing parallels 39 39 7 Most difficult step 2 Mapping corresponding elements 3 Applying the mapping to generate a solution Aprrllr ProblemSulvinu0haplerll Schemas and Analogy Gick amp Holyoak 1983 I 4 analogous problems I Induction of problem schemata can facilitate solution of analogous problems 39 Correlation between I schema quality depth of D p understanding and Schemawdness solution likelihood Expert vs Novice Problem Solvers I Experts 10 years of domain experience Examples Chess Physics Music CogPsy Computer GaminJ I Fact Experts exhibit better faster amp more accurate problem solving I Question Same or different mental processes u Mole Remember Chase amp Simon 1973 Ch 5 Expert vs Novice Problem Solvers Experts have I more knowledge dohl I differently organized knowledge Chi et al 1982 Categorizing problems structural similarities I use different solution strategies eg backwards reasoning with math problems Expert vs Novice Problem Solvers Experts cont d Spend more time analyzing rather than solving a problem Paige ampSimon 1966 But Expertise is domainspeci c Voss et al 1983 Experts are no er than novices outside their eld of expertise 4 4m mgquot m mm um um um umor mom Caveat Expertise can result in Inmasxlblm functional xedness blindness to creative alternatives Awrna ProblemSulvlng0hapterll Creative Cognition So far PS by 0 restructuring searching WW and by analogy l What about creativity 39 Demonstration A N after Finke 1990 pick 3 objects 2 a new unfamiliar amp interesting obje Wquot quotm quotN 00 Aprrllr ProblemSulvlnu0hapterll Creative Cognition I Finke 1990 s object categories quotmm rumplm witmmm alumna mm m inwmmm Jim m mumm min mum w W uh mil mm Wm H ullulvn mm w rmwumwu m m uhlnle my in W ititwnmnimx m Aprrllr ProblemSulvlng0hapteril Creative Cognition I Finke 1990 Experimenter picks 3 39 rms prelnventive f0 Interpret your object accordingly Result 13 practical inventions 16 pracitcal amp original inventions i m gt Creative thinking ubiquitous Aprriir PrublemSulvlnu0hapteril Creative amp Divergent Thinking Convergent vs divergent thinking Tests of Creativity Guilford 1956 Task Think of multiple uses for familiar objects Problems Modest correlations with other measures of creativity Creativity is not independent of other problem solving strategies Apmrna PrublemSulvlng0hapl2ril PS amp the Brain Occlnllal lamparal as 3 Idsulilymu chess cs pxacs39smoves mg Amwna Problem Suivmg chant m 39 PS amp the Brain Prefrontal Cortex PFC Important for planning multistep tasks Evidence Clinical cases of perseveration cardsorti ng tasks but Tower of London task ToL Applies Problem SolvingCnapterll Questions Announce amp Assignments Final last day of class Tuesday May 3rd PresentationsProjects 4weeks left please submit proposals Due on Wednesday May 11th Elaborations 1 5 Submit1 more ifincomplete 6 10 Due on Wednesday May 11th Applies Problem SolvingCnapterll 28 Re ection 11 HampO Problem Space I Draw the complete problem space forthe Hobbits amp Orcs problem Jill I What can be concluded for the use of heuristics in searching the problem space 3 pts


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