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by: Hugh Wilkinson


Hugh Wilkinson
GPA 3.56

Peter Caracappa

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Peter Caracappa
Class Notes
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This 83 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hugh Wilkinson on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MANE 2400 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Peter Caracappa in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/224909/mane-2400-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
Fundamentals of Nuclear Engineering MANE 2400 Information partially adapted from Nucear Reactor Physcs By Weston Stacey Chapter 8 John Wiley amp Sons 2001 Some pictures taken from htt wuw nancialsensecomeditorials http wwwnuclear les org Historical Context Higmw iwaa liographics rsnajnlso I MRquot17 u W 21 L U W m Historical Context o 1898 Marie Curie discovers Ra Polonium o By 1900 British army using mobile Xray unit to locate bullets and shrapnel in Sudan Xray apparatus packaged in 15 crates was sent with other medical materials to Athens on May 13th 1897 on the ship Prince Crown and was operational about the middle of June The Xray apparatus was operated chie y by Robert Fox Symons a young surgeon from St Thomas s Hospital Because of the lack of electricity at Phaleron the machine was powered by the accumulators which had to be charged on board the HMS Rodney which was moored at Piraeus for the duration of the hostilities The machine was chosen and tested personally by Dr Arthur Barry Blacker the founder of the Xray department at St Thomas s Hospital in 1896 and first martyr of English radiology The Xray apparatus was manufactured by the London company Miller and Woods which supplied radiography apparatus to many Londonhospitals The company s founder Leslie Miller an engineer and one of the first members of the Roentgen Society contributed to radiology by lecturing and with his 1909 book Roentgen Ray Wrinkles The apparatus consisted of a large induction coil a double set of accumulators Crookes tubes a uorescent screen and Eastman s Xray paper The secondary winding of the coil was over 13 miles in length and gave a heavy discharge over 10 inches of air A large wooden cupboard served as the darkroom As soon as the apparatus was operational Abbott himself brought 10 wounded men from Khalkis by sea to Xray them f A significant problem in the examinations and one that Abbott and Fox Symons found impossible to deal with was that the wounded would not sit still The patients fidgeted and continuously crossed themselves believing the apparatus to be the work of the devil 5 H igmr iga l thevxt Pursuit of the Transuranics Element 93 9 Some Key Discoveries 1911 Rutherford Induced nuclear transmutations 1934 Joliot and Curie Arti cial Radioactivity 1934 Fermi Use of neutral particle 11 to create unstable isotopes Fermi bombards U with neutrons years of experiments speculation on products Historical Context o 1938 Otto Hahn amp Fritz Strassman discover fission History of U235 Fission In the 1930s German physicistschemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman attempted to create transuranic elements by bombarding uranium with neutrons Rather than the heavy elements they expected they got several unidenti ed products When they nally identi ed one of the products as Barium 141 they were reluctant to publish the nding because it was so unexpected When they nally published the results in 1939 they came to the attention of Lise Meitner an Austrianbom physicist who had worked with Hahn on his nuclear experiments Upon Hitler s invasion of Austria she had been forced to ee to Sweden where she and Otto Frisch her nephew continued to work on the neutron bombardment problem She was the rst to realize that Hahn39s barium and other lighter products from the neutron bombardment experiments were coming from the ssion of U235 Frisch and Meitner carried out further experiments which showed that the U235 ssion yielded an enormous amount of energy and that the ssion yielded at least two neutrons per neutron absorbed in the interaction They realized that this made possible a chain reaction with an unprecedented energy yield Historical Context o 1939Einstein Letter sent Manhattan project formed in Sept 1942 a 4 439 4 Historical Context Historical Context Einstein39s Letter to President Roosevelt 1939 Albert Einstein Old Grove Road Peconic Long Island August2nd 1939 FD Roosevelt President of the United States White House Washington DC Sir Some recent work by E Fermi and L Szilard which has been communicated to me in manuscript leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the immediate future Certain aspects of the situation which has arisen seem to call for watchfulness and if necessary quick action on the part of the Administration I believe therefore that it is my duty to bring to your attention the following facts and recommendations MANE2400 Historical Context In the course of the last four months it has been made probable through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in Americathat it may be possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium by which vast amounts of power and large quantities of new radiumlike elements would be generated Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs and it is conceivablethough much less certainthat extremely powerful bombs of this type may thus be constructed A single bomb of this type carried by boat and exploded in a port might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory However such bombs might very well prove too heavy for transportation by air Historical Context The United States has only very poor ores of uranium in moderate quantities There is some good ore in Canada and former Czechoslovakia while the most important source of uranium is in the Belgian Congo In view of this situation you may think it desirable to have some permanent contact maintained between the Administration and the group of physicists working on chain reactions in America One possible way of achieving this might be for you to entrust the task with a person who has your confidence and who could perhaps serve in an unofficial capacity His task might comprise the following a to approach Government Departments keep them informed of the further development and put foniard recommendations for Government action giving particular attention to the problem of securing a supply of uranium ore for the United States Historical Context b to speed up the experimental work which is at present being carried on within the limits of the budgets of University laboratories by providing funds if such funds be required through his contacts with private persons who are willing to make contributions for this cause and perhaps also by obtaining cooperation of industrial laboratories which have necessary equipment I understand that Germany has actually stopped the sale of uranium from the Czechoslovakian mines which she has taken over That she should have taken such early action might perhaps be understood on the ground that the son of the German UnderSecretary of State von Weizsacker is attached to the KaiserVWhelm Institute in Berlin where some of the American work on uranium is now being repeated Yours very truly Albert Einstein 7H WNW HOUR 131 mu m mynmcxmn ruuml Ly mm of l lerunl Ind ncru r fm 39lll I39ll l c mphUM In I rcult or lrn uhuhhen In urlUm Ia ya u 1 union In to nipy mu mln um you Is ymr can muur unaur mml c um I I wri a Hm In 1 L riot cmn rUon of all concnmnd H 1 no lnln non of emflxrmu An 7 an aura urn um la mm thing only 10 you u m ionnr o l a say In ziclonl to run quotmenu unlu uarncy Var lirar91 your m4 1 l39 n mummy Po 0quot Box 111 mu r u Ilnx lco Letter om Pre Roosevelt t0 Oppenheimer quot ft li Historical Context o Oak Ridge Uranium Enrichment o Los Alamos Bomb Design o Hanford Create Plutonium HiiStQWiQQH Enrico Fermi led the ed a controlled nuclear 1942 shown below Historical Context o Trinity Shot u 77 1 a 4 v a J x 1 J August 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japa n SurrenderS A ilap39an Hit By Atom Bombs LMightiest Weapon in History Tokyo Admits Heavy Damage c l Cience War 3 quot39 Ton ousandl 39 32 322 anumrmmrfim 100 METERS 0025 sac ku N V Mr 7 ess AnaRaclio Stories Describe 39Fantas ally 39 RPtWarm39 39Weapon Expected Tn Save Many Lin ilTa Con nctq V K mm aquot WBMGF M or rm rm lq limping pf cgt tg tWm 39 HanaIndy j meluw fMmlhiw 39Im39aldILmimnl I an liiyw u wu at W W Oran A IN M a hi quot 39L hip thugpa and his paw99 4 mumtutu Ea mm M h m h up quot Historical Context o July 1946 Atomic Energy Act AEC formed which was a Civilian Agency quot ft li Historical Context o Spring 1948 Mass production of weapons begins US has 50 atomic weapons by late 1948 Historical Context o August 1949 Soviet Union detonates atomic device Historical Context 9 December 1951 National Reactor Station lit 4 light bulbs in turbine room of Experimental Breeder Reactor EBR I Generation of Electricity 4 o Later in 1953 EBR I demonstrated breeding amp operated until 1963 EBRII then took over quot ft li Historical Context o October 1952 Savannah River in Aiken SC started Heavy Water Plant SRS is the 2r I production site o December 1953 Atoms for Peace unveiled by Eisenhower 49939 7 On December 8 1953 in his Atoms for Peace speech to the 39 39 gt United Nations President Eisenhower proposed joint international cooperation to develop peaceful applications of nuclear energy He pledged the United States determination quotto help solve the fearful atomic dilemmato devote its entire heart and mind to find the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death but consecrated to his life quot He suggested that all nuclear nations turn over weapons grade uranium and other materials to a proposed International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA It could then share the materials with other nations for use in agriculture medicine electrical energy and other peaceful uses When the IAEA finally was formed in 1957 the Atomic Energy Commission offered 5000 kilograms of uranium to the IAEA Two months after his speech President Eisenhower proposed an amendment to the Atomic Energy Act to permit the international cooperation he spoke of and to allow electric utilities to develop nuclear power plants httpwebem doegovtimelinedec 1953 html MANE2400 Atoms for Peace produced many of the most important elements of today s nuclear nonproliferation regime the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA the concept of nuclear safeguards and most importantly the norm of nuclear nonproliferation http WWW armscontrol orgact200371 2Lavoy asp httpWWWeisenhowerarchivesgOVatom1htm Aamiral Hyman R The Father of the Nucl USE Nautilus rst nuclearpowered submarine 1954 mm Admiral Hyman G Ricknver January f1 1954 HISTORICAL CONTEXT The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 was passed to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy through private enterprise and to implement President Eisenhower39s Atoms for Peace Program The Act allowed the Atomic Energy Commission to license private companies to use nuclear materials and build and operate nuclear power plants This act amended the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 which had placed complete power of atomic energy development in the hands of the Atomic Energy Commission httpwebem doegovtimelinedec 1953 html MANE2400 19144 Historical Context oJuIy 1957 Sodium Reactor Experiment in Santa Susana CA generates first power from civilian reactor Sodium Graphite Reactor a Historical Context o December 1957 First Large Scale Plant built in Shippingport PA Thu smpyzlnworl mantle Il39l f plam undur minimal 1 Dwight D mnhnwlr Library Hiigtmmam HQme Em m f I 39 The WALT DISNEY v story of H V 5 7 0 7 A li U ipUR FRIEND THE ATOM THE WALT DISNE f 39ur Frremi Thexltom 23 1957 the Atoms for Peacequot cartoon to 3993 Washbu n refund by Heinz Haber 9on Airuqigchuia39rE uvy van MANE2400 Historical Context o 19661967 Large numbers of plant orders 1271141 Historical Context o October 1974 AEC disbanded NRC created for oversight Energy Research amp Development Administration created for sponsoring RampD and to promote atomic energy becomes the DOE iii gaggi rif Historical Context X o April 1977 Carter bans reprocessing iii gagiilf Historical Context K o October 1977 DOE formed fl Historical Context o March 1979 TMI2 2451 Historical Context o December 1980 Low Level Waste Policy Act States are responsible quot ft li Historical Context o January 1983 Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 authorizes the creation of a National High Level Waste Repository fif911 5f Historical Context o April 1986 Chernobyl 2451 Historical Context o November 1989 DOE switches from Production to environmental cleanup Recommended Books WINNER OFTHE PUllTZER PR MW 9 First Half is a 039 THE good overview of the developments wmnmormemnomuoouwm of modern physics 1 MNNHOPMWIOWWOKCMHCSWGEAWARD leading up to the Manhattan project Recommended Books NEW W0 RL D Stories 8 Images from the Dawn of the Atomic Age 113M 30H BHD39JCTERI I CHHDM MEN THEODORE ROCKWELL Fowmw by Glenn 59am dticawrer oil Pluionium References DUIcquot E HMS Perspectives in Nuclear Technology Uses that were proposed but never developed Higmwim l mtxt fif ii ff Historical Context o Melt Ice and Snow Historical Context uclear Airplanes long range bombers 1956 THE ATOMIC AIRPLANE 39Here39s an excerpt from Our Friend The Atom copyright 1956 by Walt Disney Productions One of the most enchanting prospects of the atomic revolution in the transportation eld is the atomic airplane In aviation the weight of fuel has always been a discouraging limitation Only in recent years have nonstop crosscountry ights become routine The engines of an airplane drain the tanks fast even our latest planes must make a refueling stop a er 8 to 12 hours In military aviation the range of airplanes is extended by means of in ight planeto plane refuelinga daring and ingenious operation but still basically a clumsy method of keeping a plane in the air beyond its normal capacity An atomic airplane will needno refuelingat least not during the time the crew can possibly stay on the job Several aircra companies in the United States have government contracts for atomic airplanes They will be different in design to t different purposes Probably the rst atomic airplanes will be rather largesomething like 75 feet long and weighing close to half a million pounds In existing plans the atomic power reactor supplies heat Part of the heat drives a set of turbocompressors Great quantities of air scooped up by broad intakes in front of the power plant are squeezed by the compressors into a special heatexchanger that heats the air by atomic energy The hot air escapes as a stabbing jet at the rear end of the airplane The recoil of the escaping air pushes the plane forward as in an ordinary jet plane The atomic power reactor is encased in a heavy lead shield to protect the crew against dangerous radiations Crew and passengers are positioned at a safe distance forward of the power plant The cabin is at the forward end of the ship39s big nose The crew is further protected by plastic shielding and by doublewalled windows The free space between the window walls is lled with water which absorbs any stray radiation from the reactor This heavy plane will need a runway miles long But once airborne it will cruise at nearly twice the speed of sound It will circle the earth many times without ever landing for fuel It will y as long as its crew wants it to y PROlDGUE 1 mphquot 4 4 mar h 1 w wr mu 1 gtIr wlyl In mm m lw nxlu Inn39m 39 4 J n 39w 4 nm us n s y u Mm Iquot m h Nuclear Aircraft continued B36 bomber converted to carry test reactor http W radiationworks com yingreactor htm MANE2400 Nun at Alilrcta ll continued One ideafor an operational nuclear powered aircraft involveddetachablerreactor modules that could be replaced as needed In this artist39s conception the pilots were in the section forming part of the tail which could be detached in cases of emergency Source Brookings Institute http W radiationworks com yingreactor ht1n MANE2400 39CE39 7 v r n 4 k V 701516 of two aircraft engin isi inxrco Idaho http www radiationworks com yingreactor htm 9 quotBetween 1946 and 1961 the Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission spent more than 7 billion trying to develop a nuclear powered aircraft Although no airplane ever ew under nuclear power the Air Force converted a B36 bomber known as the Nuclear Test Aircraft to carry an operating threemegawatt aircooled reactor to assess operational problems it made 47 ights over Texas and New Mexico between July 1955 and March 1957 The NB36H carried the reactor in its aft bomb bay and incorporated a new nose section which housed a 12 ton lead and rubber shielded crew compartment with 10 12 inch 2530 centimeters thick leadedglass windows Water pockets in the fuselage and behind the crew compartment also absorbed radiation due to weight constraints nothing was done to shield the considerable emissions from the top bottom or sides of the reactor Source Brookings Institute In theory nuclearpowered aircraft could stay in ight for weeks at a time General Electric built two prototype engines for such a plane These engines exist today and can be Viewed outside the f complex in 7 http www radiationworks com yingreactor htm o Nuclear Cruise Missiles 2451 Historical Context o Alter Weather Patterns HEStQ iEQJJW thext lieentry worker Gnume May 62 um cum 1m Imvonu ml humquot rumon mourn cums1 The first underground physics experiment near Carlsbad was Project Gnome December 10 1961 Historical Context Project Plowshare Digging canals Cutting mountain passes for roads and railways Cracking rock in order to aid the production of natural gas Building dams by collapsing canyon walls into valleys Generating electric power by pumping water through an underground cavity storing the heat of an explosion Re lling underground water layers aquifers by routing surface water through impermeable layers of soil Breaking ore deposits to make mining easier Creating huge underground cavities for the storage of natural gas or drinking water Or in the words of Dr Edward Teller the 39father39 of the hydrogen bomb The nuclear explosions can be used to blast harbors in otherwise inaccessible coasts to engage in the great art of what want to call geographical engineering to reshape the land to your pleasure and indeed to break up the rocks and make them yield up their riches 351000 shots were devoted to peaceful applications Not really dedicated httpwwwbbccoukdnah2g2pdaA685109siidl MANE2400 Historical Context o Commercial Naval Reactors Savannah only one in US Although Russia has sizable ice cutter eet amp Japan has freighters 2451 Historical Context o Power Producing Space Platforms j Historical Context o Space Propulsion yet v 39lh mm Sumatra quot Hams httpwwwangelfirecomstarsZprojectorion An artist39s concept ofa manned spacecraft equipped with a centrifuge and nuclearielectric propulsion traveling to Mars NASAJohn Frassanito and Associates httpwwwangelfirecomstarsZprojectorion fj t fi Historical Context o Shrinking People fif911 5f Historical Context o Nuclear Locomotives Perspectives in Nuclear Technology Uses Today Applications in Use Today 0 Weapons 9 Commercial Electric Power Production 0 Radioisotopic generators o Propulsion submarines carriers o Systems for nuclear auxiliary power SNAP 9 Space Propulsion 0 Medical treatment of cancer 9 Medial diagnostic 9 Carbon Dating 0 Cf 252 radiography o Food Irradiation V Medical Applications In Use today 9 Myocardial profusion imaging 9 Bone scans 0 Lung scans o Radioactive tracers hooked to antibodies 0 Gamma knife 0 Iodine treatment of thyroid o 95 of all new drugs are tested with radioactive test procedures prior to approval 9 Sterilization of surgical tools gloves etc o Stimulating bodies defenses ghting infection 39Creating the new world Rockwell Industrial Applications In Use Today 9 Pressure gauge vacuum gauge 0 Measure density of road surfaces 0 Packing of granular material 9 Thickness of coatings 9 Inspect metal parts 9 Toughen rubber in radial tires 0 Irradiate computer disks to improve ability to hold information o Enhance ability of textiles to repel water V Consumer Applications In Use Today 9 Static eliminator in copy machines and printing presses radiation ionizes and eliminates static o Lint brushes 9 Smoke detectors 9 Re ective traf c signs have tritium 0 Tag fertilizers with radioactive tracers o Sterilize male insects as an alternative to pesticides 5255 5202 m mm o Calls back to a day when Nuclear Engineers were given the respect they deserve And their own ghter jets r Wilmu nanx A Nuclear Engineer saves the world of course r lhprlnrl C laygum httpwwwconelradcom mediaatomicmusic MANE2400 Jobs Professions 9 Nuclear Engineer Commercial Power industry National Laboratories Research or Design Firms 0 Medical Physicist Treatment of cancer development of diagnostic technology 9 Health Physicist Radiation Protection 9 Physicist Nuclear Engineering Specialties 0 Fission Reactor Physics 0 Fusion 0 Thermal Hydraulics o Shielding Waste Management 9 Regulation 0 Reactor Safety 9 Nuclear Materials 0 Risk 0 Economics and Policy O O O O O O O O O O O O 6 Places to Work Commercial Power AmerenUE AmerGen Energy Co American Electric Power Arizona Public Service Co Constellation Nuclear Detroit Edison Dominion Energy Duke Power Energy Northwest Entergy Nuclear Exelon TVA Nuclear TXU Electric 9009999999 FirstEnergy Nuclear Florida Power amp Light FPL Energy Nebraska Public Power District Nuclear Management Co Omaha Public Power District Pacific Gas amp Electric PPL Susquehanna Progress Energy PSEG Nuclear Rochester Gas amp Electric South Carolina Electric amp Gas Wolf Creek Nuclear MANE2400 t WWK Nati mam Labg NEE Hum 1 am Eil lli iuit lj Etivll 39wntiix Fquot 1 NATIONAL LABORATORY s mam Sit DHMIMHI 39 avannal Fer E lvwwwa 1 l r c r quot4 2 quot V quotcf 39 2 v 39 Natiorigm quotLa b ratary m kg Gagvemmrem My flu Jquot 3405 39 mam Lurrjtmmli EuLaifgjyr Lam 54 NATIUMNL AEHDNAMTMES AMI SPACE ADMIJMISTHATIUM ExPLnnE DISEMEH unnmsmun Egg 8 Egj 639 a a cit Nuclear lEiugumeerimg Salaries 1997 SALARY FOR ENGINEERS 00000 5000 70000 65000 60000 55000 50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 MEDIAN 399 BS BS l39 r m fquot quotHFFr 1quot n 15 f girltfr zzm Nuclear Engineers do not require licensing but may obtain professional engineer license RE A good idea if you wish to consult Advanced degrees typically required for advanced design work or teaching MANE2400 NUCLEAR ENGINEERS 35 Degree Level Persmnel YBEII39E DI Experience D Years number reaponses Amarage mean 41500 Me jan 5 percenule lmquot 25 percenhlej 434m 7395 percenhle 49 560 1 Year 51290 555100 53100 50400 554500 61610 547851 5524500 55600 553630 5561DO 654OID 3 Years 4 quotfps 81 Yrs 240 71 mm 55100 76600 MS Degree Laval F Bmanne l 1 Years 1 Year 3 Yeam 4 Yrs 51a Yrs 5120 5539438 61400 ESE00 499DEII 51M WEN 9110 46313 53961 513M 559500 63100 5390EII 71 EDI 5135400 PhD Degree Level Parsunnel D Years 1 Bar E 9E 56500 1353 551200 30300 WEIle 3 Years 47 Yrs 31 Yrs 5789 385300 5306 89001 5721MB 75000 3551 3955130


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