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by: Antone Mann


Antone Mann
GPA 3.82

Peter Caracappa

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Peter Caracappa
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Antone Mann on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MANE 4470 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Peter Caracappa in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/224910/mane-4470-rensselaer-polytechnic-institute in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
Radiological Engineering Chapters 2 amp 3 What is Health Physics a profession devoted to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation thus providing for its utilization for the I El El El I Res El El El El El I I Phy El UUUUU benefit of mankind Health Physics Society 1989 Scientific amp Engineering Aspects El Measurement and control of radiation and radiation exposures Assessing biological damage from radiation exposures Monitoring radioactivity in the environment Design radiologically safe equipment ponsIbIIItIes Minimization of radiation exposure to individual amp the public Compliance with federal exposure limits Keeping personnel amp the environment under constant surveillance Safety aspects of design where radioactivity is used Evaluation ofthe degree of hazard if controls fail Health Physics Certification American Academy of Health Physics American Board of Health SICS elevate and advance the profession of health physics by encouraging its study and improving its practice encourage the highest standards of professional ethics and integrity in the practice of health physics enhance communication among CHPs in matters of common interest provide a means for active CH Ps to participate in and contribute to the Certification Program support the activities ofthe ABHP in the conduct of the certification and certification renewal process and provide CHPs a voice in the selection of members of the ABHP Review of Physical Principles Chapter 2 SI units for three basic attributes in physical science Lengt Mass Time h m sec Other important SI units Electric current Temperature Amount of substance A ampheres C degree mol moles Standard unit of energy is the Joule More practical energy unit electronvolt WVq 1V16 x1049 C 216 x1049 J1eV Equivalence of mass and energy Emc2 Rest mass energy Emoc2 If mass of one electron is 911 x 103931 kg what is the equivalent energy in eV 0511 MeV Quantum Theory Ehv 9 Ehc7t Plank s constant h 6614 x 103934 Jsec Models of Atom Thomson The Plum Pudding Model Rutherford Atom I First model of the atom to fundamentally resemble our current understanding of the atom was developed by Rutherford in 1911 l Suggested atoms had most mass densely concentrated at a central point that was positively charged with negative electrons surrounding at some distance about 1 A I Rutherford theory verified in 1913 by Geiger and Marsden I Gold foil experiment Alpha Scattering source 01 l 1 1 T I Collimaibrs g ScaHEFIDg anng Scrmillatirag crystal Microscope I Many particles pass through without interactions I Some particles undergo large angle deflection gt must be due to electric field I Nuclear radius empirically measured r 12x 103915Awm I Rutherford had no theory for makeup of nucleus Bohr Atom I Rutherford s model should be unstable under classical mechanics El Orbiting electrons should be constantly losing energy eventually crashing into the nucleus I Bohr says if it doesn t happen it can t happen I Used Planck s quantum theory to forbid constant energy loss I Theory was supported by the distinct lines of light emitted when a gas is electrically excited 105292 1213573 I 102323 9492 82259 cm 1 Absorption spectrum of hydrogen in the ultraviolet region I Wavelengths of emitted light shown to follow a pattern A 2 2 n1 n2 1 1 1 R R 1097x10392 nm391 Energy Ground state nh Electrons exist only in stationary states defined by MW E And a photon is emitted only during a transition from a higher to a lower energy state wQ E The centrifugal force must balance the electrostatic attraction then substituting the stationary state requirement when the energy difference between two different values of n is calculated the value for the Rydberg constant is obtained 1 27152160sz264 1 1 1 ch3 n n Excitation and Ionization This is a reversible process El Supplying exactly 102 eV excites an electron to a higher energy level Supplying more energy than is required to remove the electron from the atom results in ionization El That amount of energy is known as the ionization potential All transfer of radiation energy to matter is through excitation and ionization The rst ionization potential is the energy required to just remove the most loosely bound electron from the atom El What is the ionization potential for Hydrogen El lfthe supplied energy is greater than that what happens to it The secondionization potential is much greater than the first When ionization is caused by a photon this is called the photoelectric effect Epe hf Where E p5 kinetic energy of the photoelectron the ejected e hf photon energy ionization potential or commonly called the work function this is What Einstein received his Nobel Prize for not relativity Problems with Bohr s model and classical mechanics Svmbol Name Value n Principal quantum number integer I Azimuthal quantum number 0 to n1 m or m Magnetic quantum number I to I s or ms Spin quantum number 2 to 12 No two electrons may share the same quantum numbers Pauli exclusion principle I Characteristic Xrays Ejected electron N I As number of electrons increases the energy difference between the lower levels increases El For Pb difference between K amp L shell 72 keV El Binding energy of Kshell electron 8795 keV These atomic models are sufficient to describe the major interactions of importance in Health Physics although wave mechanics models are accepted as better atomic theory The Nucleus I 1932 Chadwick discovers the neutron El About the same mass as a proton El No electrical charge I Nuclear force binds nucleons together El Overcomes electrical repulsion of protons El Operates at shorter range than the electromagnetic force Isotopes atoms with the same atomic number Z but different atomic mass A X 120130130 Isobar atoms with the same A but different Z not usually important in HP but comes into play in mass spectroscopy Isomer Same A amp Z but different energy state Atomic Mass Unit u Based on 120 atom 12 u u 16604X103924 9 Energy equivalent of 1 amu 9315 MeV me 549 x 10394 u 0511 MeV mp 1007276 u 9383 MeV mn 1008665 u 9396 MeV NUMBER DENSITY N Number of atom per cubic centimeter If we sum the weights of the constituent nucleons it is greater than the actual weight of the atom This energy difference is the binding energy Dividing the total binding energy by the number of nucleons gives the binding energy per nucleon Eb Nuclear Models El Liquid drop model good for fission and can be used to predict binding energy per nucleon El Shell model analogous to electronic shell model suggests that there are defined energy states within the atom Transitions between energy states release a photon gamma ray l 162 eveneven isotopes l 108 evenodd isotopes l oddodd isotopes


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