INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 101
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morris Rolfson on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Rice University taught by Anton Villado in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/224986/psyc-101-rice-university in Psychlogy at Rice University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
1012008 RICE Psychology 101002 CHAPTER 5 SENSATION CHAPTER 6 PERCEPTION Sensation amp Perception Sensation 0 simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ 0 the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment 9 Perception 0 the organization identification and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation 0 the process of organizing and interpreting senso information that enables us to recognize objects and events PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO Sensation amp Perception Transduction o the process of converting information from many sensors in the body from physical signals to neur l signals sent to the CNS 0 vision 0 audition o touch 0 taste o smell 0 others PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO Sensation amp Perception o Psychophysics 0 methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and an observer s sensitivity to that stimulus o the stud of the relationshi s between the h sica characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO 1012008 Sensation amp Perception 9 Basic principles of sensation o absolute threshold 0 the minimal stimulation needed to detect a particula stimulus 50 of the time 0 just noticeable difference JND o the minimum difference between two stimuli require for detection 50 of the time o Weber s law 0 the JND of a stimulus is a constant proportion despi variations in intensity PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO Sensation amp Perception 9 Signal detection 0 sensationdetection depends on our 0 sensitivity to stimulation 0 experience 0 expectations 0 motivations o fatigue 9 Sensory adaptation o sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to over time as an organism adapts to cu conditions PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO 1012008 No sound Decision Decision H is True H is False Type I Error Correct Decision probabiiity o probabiiity 175 Correct Decision Type 11 Error probab My 17 0 probabiiity 5 Vision 9 Visual system 0 converts light into neural images 0 major components 0 cornea lens iris pupil o retina light sensitive inner surface connects to optic nerve fovea contains receptor rods amp receptor cones PSVC mm mm ViLLADO PSVC 1m nnz VlLLADO 1012008 PSVC 1m nnz VlLLADO Audition o Auditory system 0 converts sound into neural signals 0 major components 0 ear drum hammer anvil stirrup o cochlea motion fluid basilar membrane 0 hair cells connects to auditory nerve PSVC 1m nnz VlLLADO Touch 9 Touch system 0 converts various inputs into neural signals 0 specialized sensory cells 0 pressure 0 warmth 0 cold 0 pain 0 nausea 0 joint position 0 balance PSVC 1m nnz VlLLADO 1012008 Taste 9 Taste system 0 converts chemicals into neural signals 0 specialized sensory cells 0 W t o SOUI o salty o bitter o umami PSVC 1m nnz VlLLADO Snual Olfactory system 0 converts chemicals into neural signals 0 specialized sensory cells 0 5 million olfactory receptor cells 0 humans can distinguish over 10000 odors PSVC 1m nnz VlLLADO 1062008 RICE Psychology 101002 CHAPTER 8 LEARNING Learning Learning o a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience 0 permanent 0 experience 0 types o associative classical amp operant conditioni o observational PSVC 1m nuz VlLLADO Learning 9 Classical conditioning o a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a naturally occurring stimulus to produce a naturall occurring ie preexisting response 0 steps 0 1 us gt UR o 2 US gt UR CS 0 3 C8 gt CR PSVC 1m nuz VlLLADO 1062008 Learning 9 Classical conditioning o acquisition 0 extinction o spontaneous recovery 0 generalization o discrimination PSVC lEIl nnz VlLLADO Strung acquisition CS US Extinction Spontaneous CS alarm mmvaw of ER Sire nglh I3 CR Extinction CS alone Weak Pause PSVC lEIl EIEIZ VlLLADO 5 Learning o Operant conditioning 0 learning that takes place when the learner recognizes the connection between a behavior a its consequences 0 based upon Thorndike s Law of Effect 0 Law of Effect behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely PSVC lEIl nnz VlLLADO Learning 9 Operant conditioning o positivenegative 0 indicates the presentation positive or removal negative of some consequence positive add 0 negative remove o reinforcementpunishment 0 resulting increase reinforcement or decrease punishment in behavior reinforcement increase in frequency of beh punishment decrease in frequenc ehavior PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO 1062008 Learning 9 Operant conditioning o schedules of reinforcement o fixed ratio consequence after a fixed number of behaviors of behaviors o fixed interval consequence after a fixed amount of time o variable interval consequence after a variabl amount of time PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO o variable ratio consequence after a variable number Number of responsus rum rallo IUUIJ 1 37391quot nquot WV Reintartels 7 l V 77 MW iniomi its air VPSDDHUIHg A7 7 kw no1 Mm fnr quot rninimrm M i 7 v r i Valurn interval i l g s i 5mm lusyolldlng Li u 3 l w i a m m a Time lmlhlllE S PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO Learning 9 Observational learning 0 learning that occurs by observing others 0 aka social learning vicarious learning 0 based upon Bandura s Social Cognitive Theor 0 modeling 0 mirror neurons PSVC 1m nuz VlLLADO 1062008 Learning 9 Observational learning 0 conditions required for observational learning 0 attention 0 erce tion 0 retention 0 production 0 motivation PSVC 1m nuz VlLLADO Learning 9 Observational learning 0 does watching violent television programs and movies cause violent behavior 0 does playing violent video games cause people to act aggressively toward others PSVC 1m nuz VlLLADO RICE CHAPTER 2 NEUROSCIENCE amp BEHAVIOR 922008 Neuroscience amp Behavior 9 Humans are biopsychosocia systems 0 adopting a biopsychosocial view of humans help understand human behavior 0 levels ofa biopsychosocial system 0 cellular neurons 0 organ brain 0 system visual system 0 individual human 0 group family 0 ethnic culture 0 community society PSVC 1m nnz VlLLADO Neural Communication frrmllul hunches 039 mm ll39oln unwary mm mm mm Dlnd lli V Noon 7 w mum mmugr39 away firm the mu mm m 39 ell nadyl other munun mwmn39s n e nunln m quothr14 1 augpmicrmu v v Es 39 r lt r z Nunrallmp 4 Mlquot Imam usmnuwhnn dnwll IhK39JJD l own llu mum at mim vieuml impulM s PSVC 1m nnz VlLLADO 3 Neural Communication gt K v w In 3 k quot uranium PSVC 1m nnz ViLLADO 922008 Neural Communication PSVC 1m nnz ViLLADO PSVC 1m nnz ViLLADO Neural Communication 9 Psychoactive drugs 0 dif cult to overcome the blood brain barrier 0 once through act in one of several ways 0 agonists mimic neurotransmitter 0 antagonists blocks neurotransmitter o reuptake inhibitor blocks reuptake o releasers causes reuptake to reverse PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO 922008 Neural Communication SOME I EURDTRANSM ITTERS AN ll 1 Mil R FUNC fIO MS Neurotransmlller Funulml Examples of Malfunctions Metykholine ALI Enabln musdvacllml with Mzhulmer39sdlsease39 IKhpmducm teaming Md memmy MUIMH deletiovnlr Dopamine I n n u q H had In lng allen lion and emotion smlzoptnenla Starveaolfdopamlne the brain prod was the tremors and leased mohullw M Parkinson39s disease Sermonln AHecls quotwad hurtgrr l p Undrrsuwly linked to mnprmiun mm L and amusn and 5mm atbrr anxidcpmmnt drugs mist Serotonin Imb Nampinepmine Helpszonlml alarms and Undersumuy can depress mwdt arousal emu gamma 39 39 39 mm amlnnbulyii Mid imnsmiuu and inaumnin Glutamate 39 r39 nm memorv sum people avoid M55 mnnosodum glu tamate m food PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO Nervous System 9 Electrochemical communication network 0 consists of all nerve cells 0 two components 0 central nervous system CNS 0 brain 0 spinal cord 0 peripheral nervous system PNS 0 links sense receptors muscles and glands to the CNS 0 comprised of somatic voluntary skeletal muscle movement autonomic regulation of internal organs and glands sympathetic arousing parasympathetic calming PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO Central Nervous System 9 Spinal cord 0 PNS CNS link 0 facilitates reflexes olink nrnmtrnrnviintrnrn 0 response to stimulus generated in prior to reaching the brain 0 why reflexes PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO 922008 Central Nervous System 9 Endocrine system 0 chemically based communication system 0 set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream o hypothalamus o pituitary o thyroid o parathyroids o adrenal o pancreas o ovary testis PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO Central Nervous System 9 Brain 0 brainstem o medulla coordinates heart rate circulation and respiration o pons transmits sensory between the cerebellum an cerebral cortex 0 reticular formation controls sleep wakefulness an arousal o thalamus o processes and relays sensory inform parts of the cerebral cortex PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO Central Nervous System 0 cerebellum 0 controls fine motor skills 0 limbic system emotional memories thirst and sexual behaVIor o pituitary gland o directs other glands of the body PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO o amygdala linked to many emotional processes and o hypothalumus regulates body temperature hunger o hippocampus critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge 922008 Central Nervous System 0 corpus callosum o cerebral cortex 0 divided into lobes frontal parietal occipital temporal PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO o connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres Central Nervous System lob de ne broad dwlslons TOD he m has left and nuhn cerebral D ex quotsh hemisphere ain s PSVC rm nnz VlLLADO Eormval toilet 5 the bl 39 nuler mlk39 il39jel l Central Nervous System PSVC 1m nnz V LLADO mac Sumulhl um wrxmy vr Ap39 lK vlrwb 922008 we 5 Mmrzum wold Is pronouncedl haulWm rnnsrmm umlrcplwnmtinm mu 5 9 moan aummrymae mum prnch musmswin um nnznrmnw VISUI one new esminen wards as Visua shmvlatlon Wernicke39saru mm 39 ymdu PSVC m cm V LLADO 17
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