Lecture 10 and 11 Outlines
Lecture 10 and 11 Outlines Bio 1023
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Davit on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/23/16
PLANTS amp HUMANS LECTURE 10 AND 11 OUTLINES 1 Mitosis 0 Type of nuclear division resulting in 2 genetically identical daughter cells 0 Type of diVision used in growth 2 Meiosis 0 Specialized type of nuclear diVision which results in 4 genetically different daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as mother original cell 0 Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 total chromosomes 0 Autosomes 22 pairs in humans 0 Sex Chromosomes 1 pair in humans 0 XX or XY 0 Ploidy n or number of sets 0 Diploid or 2n humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes 0 Haploid or n gametes have 1 member of each pair of chromosomes 23 total 0 A sequence of growth DNA replication and diVision 0 This produces new cells 0 Phases of a Cell Cycle 0 Interphase 0 G1 first gap 0 S synthesis of DNA 0 G2 second gap 0 M phase mitosis and cytokinesis 0 Interphase the phase of the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are uncondensed and found in the nucleus G1 S and G2 0 Many proteins are made 0 DNA replicates 0 M Phase DiVision of one cell nucleus into two sister chromatids align and separate ensures each daughter cell gets a full set of chromosomes Prophase Metaphase Anaphase O Telophase 0 Prophase O Chromosomes condense into highly compacted structures 0 Nuclear membrane begins to break apart 0 Spindle begins to form 000 0 Metaphase PLANTS amp HUMANS LECTURE 10 AND 11 OUTLINES 0 Sister chromatids aligned along a plane halfway between the poles O Organized into a single row 0 When this alignment is complete the cell is in metaphase 0 Anaphase 0 Connections between the pairs of sister chromatids are broken 0 Each chromatid is linked to one pole O Spindle tubules shorten pull chromosomes toward the poles 0 Telophase O Chromosomes have reached their respective poles and decondense 0 Nuclear membranes now reform to produce two separate nucleoids 0 Cytokinesis cell division two nuclei are segregated into separate daughters 0 Process of cytokinesis is different in animals and plants 0 Animals cleavage furrow constricts like a drawstring 0 Plants cell plate form a between two daughter cells 0 Sexual reproduction requires a fertilization event two haploid gamates unite to create a diploid cell zygote 0 Meiosis is the process by which haploid cells are produced from a cell that was originally diploid 2 stages Meiosis I and II 0 Like mitosis meiosis begins after a cell has progressed through the G1 S and G2 phases of the cell cycle 0 2 key differences 0 Chromosomes pairs form a tetrad 0 Associate with each other lying side by side 0 Crossing over 0 Mitosis produces two diploid daughter cells that are genetically identical 0 Meiosis produces four haploid daughter cells 0 Each daughter has a random mix of chromosomes 0 Energy within light is captured and used to synthesize carbohydrates 0 It powers the biosphere 0 Heterotroph 0 Must take in organic molecules from the environment to sustain life 0 Autotroph 0 Make organic molecules from inorganic sources PLANTS amp HUMANS LECTURE 10 AND 11 OUTLINES O Photoautotroph uses light as a sources of energy 0 Green plants algae cyanobacteria 0 Type of electromagnetic radiation consists of energy in electric magnetic fields 0 Travels as waves short to long wavelengths 0 Also behaves as particles 0 Photons O Shorter wavelengths 0 Pigments absorb some light energy and re ect others 0 Leaves are green because they re ect green wavelengths O Absorptions boosts electrons to higher energy levels 0 Wavelength of light that a pigment absorbs depends on the amount of energy needed to boost an electron to a higher orbital 0 After an electron absorbs energy it is an excited state and usually unstoppable 0 Releases energy as heat and light 0 Excited electrons in pigments can be transformed to another molecule or captured 0 Organelles in plants and algae that carry out photosynthesis 0 Contain pigments green pigment primarily 0 Majority of photosynthesis occurs in leaves 0 Outer and inner membrane intermembrane space 0 3rd membrane forms thylakoids contains pigments molecules 0 Granum stack of thylakoids 0 Stroma uid filled region between thylakoid membrane and inner membrane 0 Green plants and algae have two types of chlorophyll A amp B 0 Plants also contain accessory pigments O Carotenoids oranges yellows reds 0 Anthocyanin reds purples 0 Light reactions 0 Significance of light reactions converts light energy 0 Oxygen is released into the atmosphere a water molecule is split to release electrons O Splitting water creates the energy used to make ATP molecules 0 Calvin Cycle ATP and NADPH used to make carbohydrates 0 Involves a series of steps occurring in a metabolic cycle PLANTS amp HUMANS LECTURE 10 AND 11 OUTLINES 0 Two stage process 0 Certain environmental conditions can in uence both the efficiency of photosynthesis and they way the Calvin cycle works 0 CAM plants light reactions and CalVin cycles by time
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